Health Insurance: Premiums and Increases


The increased cost of health insurance is a central fact in any discussion of health policy and health delivery.

In 2018 the average annual premium for employer-based family coverage rose 5% to $19,616 for single coverage, premiums rose 3% to $6,896. Covered workers contributed 18% of the cost for single coverage and 29% of the cost for family coverage, on average, with considerable variation across firms.

By comparison, annual premiums for 2017 reached $18,764, up 3 percent from 2015 for an average family coverage with workers on average paying $5,714 towards the cost of their coverage, according to the Kaiser Employer Survey, October 2018 and 2017, applying to employer-based insurance.

For those Americans who are fully covered, these cost realities affect employers, both large and small, plus the "pocket-book impact" on ordinary families. For those buying insurance on an exchange or private market plan for 2018, the average increase with subsidies was $201. The 2019 policy premiums are now final and have more moderate averages increases, with some rate decreases. View 2019 rate filings below.

2019 Heath Insurance Premiums - Reports and resources

  • How ACA Marketplace Premiums Are Changing by County in 2019: Many low-income consumers who are eligible for federal financial help under the ACA can get a bronze-level plan and pay nothing out-of-pocket in premiums in more than 2,000 counties next year, depending on their annual income, according to a new analysis. But such plans can come with higher deductibles and out-of-pocket maximums. (View Issue Brief with interactive state maps. | Kaiser Family Foundation, 11/20/2018.
  • Health Exchanges: 2019 Average Monthly Premiums for Second-Lowest Cost Silver Plan and Lowest Cost Plan for States Using the Platform, 2016-2019.  The tables linked below indicate the average monthly premiums for the second-lowest cost silver plan (SLCSP) and lowest cost plan (LCP) across all 39 states using the using the platform, as well as state-level average SLCSP and LCP premiums. The premiums displayed are for a 27-year old single nonsmoker.
    State by state premiums- updated Oct 11, 2018 - posted by CMS. 
  • Updated Navigator Resource Guide  (Updated: November 2018): The Navigator Guide provides information on recent policy changes, a list of enrollment tools for consumers and assisters, and answers to hundreds of FAQs, ranging from questions about eligibility for marketplace subsidies to post-enrollment issues. The guide is a useful resource throughout the open enrollment season. You can access it online via the Georgetown University site.
  • Health Insurance Marketplace Calculator Updated for 2019: Health Insurance Marketplace Calculator, posted by Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), now includes local data on the 2019 health plans being sold through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) marketplaces during the 2019 open enrollment period. With the tool, consumers around the nation can generate estimates of their health insurance premiums and what financial help may be available -- based on household income, family size, ages of family members, and zip code -- for ACA marketplace plans sold in their local area. The calculator also helps consumers determine whether they could be eligible for Medicaid.
         • A Spanish-language version of the calculator is also available. 
         • KFF also offers a searchable collection of more than 300 Frequently Asked Questions  about open enrollment, the marketplaces and the ACA. 
  • Experiences Under the ACA Suggest Association Health Plans Could Harm the Small-Group Insurance Market: The federal rule making it easier for groups to form association health plans may result in higher costs for those who need the ACA’s more comprehensive coverage or don’t qualify for less-regulated plans. Full report by The Commonwealth Fund, 12/4/2018
  • Find 2019 Rate Review Information About Your Insurer

Select a category of health coverage from the CMS federal website to start:

  • Search ACA-Compliant Products
  • Search Transitional Student Plans
    Annual ave. premiums graph 1999-2018


    New December Report: Americans with Employer Health Coverage Face Growing Cost Burdens 
    U.S. workers and their families, especially those living in the South, are spending a bigger share of their income on health care, a new Commonwealth Fund study finds. Average employee premium contributions for single and family plans consumed nearly 7 percent of U.S. median income in 2017, up from 5 percent in 2008. In Louisiana, premium contributions represented 10.2 percent of median income. For Americans whose incomes fall in the midrange of the income distribution, total spending on employer plan premiums and potential out-of-pocket costs to meet deductibles amounted to 11.7 percent of income last year, up from 7.8 percent a decade earlier. Full report by The Commonwealth Fund, 21 pp, PDF.


    Recent from HHS/CMS:

    Final 2017 Benefit Year Risk Adjustment Summary Report and accompanying issuer transfer reports. "CMS is announcing risk adjustment payments and charges for the 2017 benefit year as calculated under the HHS-operated risk adjustment methodology." Full Report released by CMS | News Release Summary,  July 7, 2018.
    Summary Report on Permanent Risk Adjustment Transfers For the 2017 Benefit Year. Full report, for actuaries and state fiscal analysts, (36 pp, PDF) July 9, 2018 
    Analysis: "The Trump administration said July 7 that it was suspending a program that pays billions of dollars to insurers to stabilize health insurance markets under the Affordable Care Act, a freeze that could increase uncertainty in the markets and drive up premiums this fall. Many insurers that enroll large numbers of unhealthy people depend on the “risk adjustment” payments, which are intended to reduce the incentives for insurers to seek out healthy consumers and shun those with chronic illnesses and other pre-existing conditions.

    2018 Health Insurance Premiums - updated resources

    The information below generally applies to health insurance policies available for sale as of Nov. 1, 2017, that took effect for coverage Jan. 1, 2018 through Dec. 31, 2018.  Note that "average" prices listed may not reveal lowest costs or highest costs, so the effect on an individual or family often requires a closer look at individual plans.  The federal HHS-sponsored web site is intended to make this precise list-price information available to policymakers and the general public. Subsidies for those with annual income up to 400 percent of federal poverty can be calculated by those who are prepared to enter their confidential financial information.  

    Table : Monthly Silver Premiums and Financial Assistance for a 40 Year Old Non-Smoker Making $30,000 / Year

    State  Major City 2nd Lowest Cost Silver
    Before Tax Credit
    2nd Lowest Cost Silver
    After Tax Credit
    Amount of Premium Tax Credit
    2017 2018 % Change
    from 2017
    2017 2018 % Change
    from 2017
    2017 2018 % Change
    from 2017
    California* Los Angeles $258 $289 12% $207 $201 -3% $51 $88 71%
    Colorado Denver $313 $352 12% $207 $201 -3% $106 $150 42%
    Connecticut Hartford $369 $417 13% $207 $201 -3% $162 $216 33%
    DC Washington $298 $324 9% $207 $201 -3% $91 $122 35%
    Delaware Wilmington $423 $631 49% $207 $201 -3% $216 $430 99%
    Georgia Atlanta $286 $308 7% $207 $201 -3% $79 $106 34%
    Idaho Boise $348 $442 27% $207 $201 -3% $141 $241 70%
    Indiana Indianapolis $286 $337 18% $207 $201 -3% $79 $135 72%
    Maine Portland $341 $397 17% $207 $201 -3% $134 $196 46%
    Maryland Baltimore $313 $392 25% $207 $201 -3% $106 $191 81%
    Michigan* Detroit $237 $244 3% $207 $201 -3% $29 $42 44%
    Minnesota** Minneapolis $366 $383 5% $207 $201 -3% $159 $181 14%
    New Mexico Albuquerque $258 $346 34% $207 $201 -3% $51 $144 183%
    New York*** New York City $456 $504 10% $207 $201 -3% $249 $303 21%
    Oregon Portland $312 $350 12% $207 $201 -3% $105 $149 42%
    Pennsylvania Philadelphia $418 $515 23% $207 $201 -3% $211 $313 49%
    Rhode Island Providence $261 $248 -5% $207 $201 -3% $54 $47 -13%
    Tennessee Nashville $419 $507 21% $207 $201 -3% $212 $306 44%
    Vermont Burlington $492 $491 0% $207 $201 -3% $285 $289 2%
    Virginia Richmond $296 $394 33% $207 $201 -3% $89 $193 117%
    Washington Seattle $238 $306 29% $207 $201 -3% $31 $105 239%
    NOTES: *The 2018 premiums for MI and CA reflect the assumption that CSR payments will continue. **The 2018 premium for MN assumes no reinsurance. ***Empire has filed to offer on the individual market in New York in 2018 but has not made its rates public.
    SOURCE:  Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of premium data from and insurer rate filings to state regulators

    2017 Plan Year Premiums

    2016 Plan Year Premiums

    This report presents an analysis of changes in the premiums for the lowest- and second-lowest cost silver marketplace plans in major cities in 10 states plus the District of Columbia, where we were able to find complete data on rates for all insurers. It follows a similar approach to our September 2013 and 2014 analyses of Marketplace premiums.  In most of these 11 major cities, the authors find that the costs for the lowest and second-lowest cost silver plans – where the bulk of enrollees tend to migrate – are changing relatively modestly in 2016, although increases are generally bigger than in 2015. The cost of a benchmark silver plan in these cities is on average 4.4% higher in 2016 than in 2015.

    Benchmark premium changes in 2016 vary significantly across the cities, ranging from a decrease of 10.1% in Seattle, Washington to an increase of 16.2% in Portland, Oregon.

    2015 to 2016: Monthly Benchmark Silver Premiums for a 40 Year Old Non-Smoker Making $30,000 / Year
    State Rating Area
    (Major City)
    2nd Lowest Cost Silver Before Tax Credit 2nd Lowest Cost Silver After Tax Credit
    2015 2016 % Change from 2015 2015 2016 % Change from 2015
    Connecticut 2 (Hartford) $322 $328 2.0% $208 $208 0.2%
    DC 1 (Washington) $242 $248 2.8% $208 $208 0.2%
    Maine 1 (Portland) $282 $290 2.9% $208 $208 0.2%
    Maryland 1 (Baltimore) $235 $246 4.6% $208 $208 0.2%
    Michigan 1 (Detroit) $230 $226 -1.8% $208 $208 0.2%
    New Mexico 1 (Albuquerque) $171 $190 11.0% $171* $190* 11.0%*
    New York 4 (New York City) $372 $374 0.5% $208 $208 0.2%
    Oregon 1 (Portland) $213 $248 16.2% $208 $208 0.2%
    Vermont 1 (Burlington) $436 $476 9.2% $208 $208 0.2%
    Virginia 7 (Richmond) $260 $288 10.8% $208 $208 0.2%
    Washington 1 (Seattle) $254 $228 -10.1% $208 $208 0.2%
    Average % change from 2015     4.4%     1.2%
    SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 insurer rate filings to state regulators.- Table 1
    NOTES: Rates are not yet final and subject to review by the state. Oregon rates reflect preliminary changes from the state. *Unsubsidized Albuquerque premiums are so low that a 40 year old making $30,000 per year would not qualify for a premium tax credit in 2016


    Archives for 2008-2015 have been removed and archived offline as of 12/1/2017.

      • Summary: Tracking 2019 Premium Changes by State on ACA Exchanges - Updated Oct 11, 2018 with latest states
        A new Health Premium tracker monitors preliminary 2019 premiums in the ACA's marketplaces as insurers file rate information with state regulators. Beginning with data from eight states and the District of Columbia, the tracker shows preliminary premium information in nine major cities for the lowest-cost bronze plan and “benchmark” silver plan, which is used to determine the size of the premium tax credits available to low- and moderate-income enrollees. (News ReleaseIssue Brief; posted by Kaiser Family Foundation)
      • 2019 Individual Market Premium Changes, by State Table below shows the range of proposed rate changes across all ACA-compliant plans offered by insurers that have proposed participating on the exchange in each state. This table by Kaiser Family Foundation includes tracked states that have released average premium increases for all insurers intending to offer exchange plans next year. 41 states reporting as of 10/11/2018
      • This table includes additional states that have released average premium increases for all insurers intending to offer exchange plans next year.

        Table: Final and Proposed 2019 Individual Market Premium Changes, by State

        (F = Final)

        Number of Exchange Insurers
        Submitting 2019 Rates*
        Statewide Average Individual Market Rate Change** Minimum Individual Market
        Average Rate Change
        Among Exchange-Participating Insurers
        Maximum Individual Market
        Average Rate Change
        Among Exchange-Participating Insurers
        Alabama >2   15.55% (Bright Health) -0.5% (BCBS of AL)
        Arkansas (F) 3   1.06% (Qualchoice)   4.6% (Ambetter)
        California 11 8.7% Not Available Not Available
        Colorado (F) 7 5.94% -0.21% (HMO Colorado) 21.6% (Denver Health)
        Connecticut (F) 2 12.3% -2.7% (Anthem) 4% (ConnectiCare)
        Delaware 1 3.%** NA (One insurer) 3% (One insurer)
        DC 2 14.9% 9.5% (CareFirst BlueChoice) 20% (Kaiser)
        Florida 5*** 5.2% -1.5% (Molina) 9.8% (Health First)
        Georgia 4   2.2% (BCBS of GA) 14.7% (Kaiser)
        Hawaii 2   2.72% (Hawaii Medical Services) 28.6% (Kaiser)
        Idaho (F) 4 8% -1% (SelectHealth) 24% (PacificSource)
        Iowa 2*** -7.9%** NA (One returning insurer) NA (One returning insurer)
        Indiana 2 5.1% -0.5% (Celtic) 10.2% (CareSource)
        Kansas 3   2.68% (Sunflower State) 10.7% (Medica)
        Kentucky 2   3.5% (Anthem) 19.4% (CareSource)
        Maine 3***   -4.3% (Anthem) 2.1% (Harvard Pilgrim)
        Maryland 2 30.2% 18.5% (CareFirst Blue Choice) 91.4% (CareFirst CFMI, GHMSI)
        Michigan 8***   -2.5% (Priority Health) 11.1% (McLaren)
        Minnesota 4   -12.4% (Medica) -7% (UCare)
        Missouri 4***   -8.6% (Celtic) 7.3% (Cigna)
        Montana 3   0% (HCSC) 10.6% (Montana Health Co-op)
        Nebraska 1 2.2%** NA (One insurer) NA (One insurer)
        New Hampshire 3   -15.23% (Celtic) -7.4% (Harvard Pilgrim)
        Nevada 2   -1.1% (SilverSummit) 0% (Health Plan of Nevada)
        New Jersey 3 5.8% 0.8% (AmeriHealth EPO) 9.2% (Horizon EPO)
        New Mexico 5***   -0.4% (Molina) 18.5% (Presbyterian)
        New York (F) 12 8.6% -3.2% (HealthNow New York) 17% (Emblem)
        North Carolina 3***   -4.1% (BCBS of NC) 3.6% (Cigna)
        Ohio Not Available 8.2%** Not Available Not Available
        Oklahoma 2*** -2.0%** NA (One returning insurer) NA (One returning insurer)
        Oregon 5   -9.6% (PacificSource) 10.6% (Providence)
        Pennsylvania 6*** 0.7% -20.4% (Capital Advantage) 13.2% (Geisinger Quality Options)
        Rhode Island 2   8.7% (Neighborhood HP) 10.7% (BCBS of RI)
        South Dakata (F) 2   23.3% (Molina) 9.7% (Sanford)
        5***   -14.8% (BCBS of TN) 7.2% (Oscar)
        Utah (F) 3   -2.7% (SelectHealth) 23.3% (Molina).
        Vermont 2   7.48% (BCBS of VT) 10.88% (MVP Health Plan)
        Virginia (F) 7***   -7.2% (Optima) 45.1% (GHMSI
        Washington (F) 5 13.8% 0.3% (BridgeSpan) 18.6% (Kaiser)
        West Virginia 2   13.1% (CareSource) 15.9% (Highmark)
        Wyoming 1 -0.26%** NA (One insurer) NA (One insurer)
        *Subsidiaries are grouped by parent insurer. **Statewide individual market average rate change is only shown if an average was provided by the state through a press release. Delaware, Iowa, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wyoming figures are the average on-exchange rate increases for exchange-participating insurers. ***Anthem is planning to reenter the Maine marketplace. Oscar is planning to enter the Arizona, Florida, and Michigan marketplaces. Presbyterian is planning to reenter the New Mexico marketplace. Wellmark is planning to reenter the Iowa marketplace. Medica is planning to enter the Missouri and Oklahoma marketplaces. Centene is planning to enter the North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tenessee marketplaces. Geisinger Quality Options is reentering the Pennsylvania marketplace. Bright Health is planning to enter the Arizona and Tennessee marketplaces. Virginia Premier is planning to enter the Virginia marketplace. Some entering insurers do not have rate changes, because they did not participate in the nongroup market the previous year.
        Note: 2019 premiums and insurer participation are still preliminary and subject to change unless otherwise noted as Final (F).
        SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation Table 4 analysis of premium data from insurer rate filings to state regulators, data released by state insurance departments, and   
      • Health Benefits In 2018: Modest Growth In Premiums, Higher Worker Contributions At Firms With More Low-Wage Workers 
        Annual family premiums for employer-sponsored health insurance rose 5 percent to average $19,616 this year, extending a seven-year run of moderate increases, finds the 2018 benchmark KFF Employer Health Benefits Survey released today. On average, workers this year are contributing $5,547 toward the cost of family coverage, with employers paying the rest. Read the full report.
      • Annual Ave premiums 1999-2018 
      • The ACA Marketplaces Open for Enrollment: 2-Minute Video on What to Know. Video For Consumers 2018: "November 1 marked the first day of open enrollment for the Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) health insurance marketplaces.  Watch and share this video to understand basic facts about ACA enrollment at The Commonwealth Fund’s Sara Collins shares updated information with consumers who are shopping for health plans. Collins reminds viewers that the ACA has not been repealed, and that affordable health insurance — and enrollment assistance – is available. Health plan premiums are rising, Collins says, however most people with marketplace insurance will be protected from the increases thanks to the ACA’s premium subsides." 
      • States Step Up to Protect Consumers in Wake of Cuts to ACA Cost-Sharing Reduction Payments.
        Authors include Kevin Lucia, who spoke at two NCSL events in the past year, and Sabrina Corlette of Georgetown University’s Center for Health Insurance Reform.
        On Oct. 27, 2017 a new report "States Step Up to Protect Consumers" by The Commonwealth Fund explains that many marketplace enrollees will be insulated from the loss of CSR funds and “the resulting premium hikes in 2018, thanks to subsidies that rise with premium costs and the actions of many state insurance departments. How consumers paying full price fare will depend largely on state officials’ decisions. The authors break down how each state has managed the uncertainty over — and eventual termination of — the cost-sharing reduction payments. For example, a majority of states assumed payments would not be made and applied the premium increase to silver plans only, leaving bronze and gold plans affordable for people with or without premium subsidies.”
      • Insurer Participation Down, Premiums Up In Uncertainty-Plagued Marketplaces
        On October 30, HHS reported on health plan choice and premiums in the 2018 federal exchange. Insurer participation is down for 2018 from 2017 and premiums, particularly for the benchmark silver plans, are up dramatically, reflecting recent administration steps that have buffeted the marketplaces. Full summary by Prof. Tim Jost published by Health Affairs, 10/30/2017.

      • HHS Report: Health Plan Choices and Premiums in the 2018 Federal Health Insurance Exchange. The report documents what was already widely known—insurer participation in the exchanges is down for 2018 from 2017 and premiums, particularly the benchmark silver plan premiums, are up dramatically. Advance premium tax credits (APTC), however, are also up sharply, and most consumers who purchase coverage through the exchange may find that coverage costs less than last year after APTC are applied.

      • HHS Map of Health Insurer Coverage
        50-state map by county of number of healg insureres in Exchages -Oct 30, 2017

      • States Where Health Exchange Premiums Are Increasing.   In the week before the 2018 open enrollment period began, an independent health policy report explained the state of premiums on the health exchanges created by the ACA/Obamacare. The new analysis from Avalere of filings from the 40 states," shows exchange premiums for the most widespread type of exchange plan (silver level) will be 34 percent higher, on average, compared to last year's 25 percent." These averages omit the 10 states that run their own exchanges and sometimes outpace the federally run versions.
        • Largest Increases: in Iowa (69 percent), Wyoming (65 percent) and Utah (64 percent). Iowa requested to waive certain aspects insurance to avoid large increases, but was forced to withdrew their request on Oct. 23 when it became clear that it would be rejected by the Trump administration.
        • Premium decreases: In Alaska, by 22 percent; in Arizona, by 6 percent; and in North Dakota, by 4 percent.
        • New Analysis Finds Senate Tax Bill Results in Premium Increases for Many Who Buy Their Own Coverage [Read the post and graphs, by The Commonwealth Fund, 11/21/2017]
        • Premium Increases if Mandate is Repealed - 50-state graph for 27-year, 40-year and 60-year olds.
        • CAPITOL TO CAPITOL ON HEALTH CARE: Individual Mandate Repeal: The Senate tax bill repealed the requirement in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for individuals to have health coverage, which the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects would save the government $338 billion over the next 10 years. Repeal of the individual mandate, however, could potentially have an immediate impact on penalties, insurance premiums and health insurance decisions for millions of Americans. (NCSL, Updated 12/4/2017)

        • 2018 Premium Rates by state for health exchange silver plans-individuals
      • 2018 Premium Table for Average Bronze, Gold and Platinum Health Exchange Plans ( states only) - Open: 50-state Table #2 in new window
      • Penalties for not having health insurance - 2015  Article and map, originally posted by The New York Times, 11/29/2017  
      • HHS announces a 90 percent cut to funds for health enrollment programs in all 50 states, from $100 million for fall 2016, down to $10 million for fall 2017. Additionally, grants to about 100 nonprofit groups, known as navigators, that help people enroll in health plans offered by the insurance marketplaces will be cut to a total of $36 million, from about $63 million. [Read CMS Bulletin, Aug. 31, 2017]; additional news and analysis online: Kaiser Health News | The New York Times |
      • 2018 Premium Changes: The Choice: Return to a Broken Health Insurance Market or Move Toward Market Stability  |  Chart pack online. States face a June 21, 2017 deadline to file initial premium rates for plans to be sold in 2018 through exchanges. Rates are locked in by Aug. 16, 2017, although deadlines could be adjusted by emergency regulation. published by The Commonwealth Fund, 6/12/2017 
      • An Early Look at 2018 Premium Changes and Insurer Participation on ACA Exchanges | Report Online. published by Kaiser Family Foundation. August 2017 
      • Projected Changes in Health Coverage, 2017-2016  Pop-out Graph as calculated by the Congressional Budget Office, 7/20/2017.  Posted with explanation by The New York Times. 
      • US map of penalties for not having health insurance (c) NY Times 11/29/2017
      • 2018 Preliminary Premium Rates by States: Proposed, not final
        Download PDF 50-state table. Calculated by a private third party researcher Charles Gaba, and not binding for states, as of 8/14/2017.
      • ONE LAST ATTEMPT TO REPEAL THE ACA- Sept. 20, 2017
        After legislation to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act failed in a dramatic Senate vote in July, it appeared that Republicans on Capitol Hill had dropped the effort. However, Senators Lindsay Graham (R-S.C.) and Bill Cassidy (R-La.) are reviving the health care debate and unveiled legislation to repeal and replace the ACA in a last-ditch effort to replace the law before Sept. 30, the last day of the fiscal year.  Read Capitol to Capitol, 9/18/2017]

      • Marketplace Premiums after Shopping, Switching, and Premium Tax Credits, 2015-2016.  Health insurance rate information becomes available each spring as issuers file proposed rates with federal and state regulators. Rates then undergo review before being finalized in the fall, prior to the annual Health Insurance Marketplace Open Enrollment Period.  Neither the proposed nor final rates offered by any individual issuer provide a reliable basis for predicting what typical Marketplace consumers will pay in the following year. Consumers’ actual health insurance premiums.
      • 2016 Employer Health Benefits Survey.  Annual premiums for employer-sponsored family health coverage reached $18,142 this year, up 3 percent from last year, with workers on average paying $5,277 towards the cost of their coverage. Summary | Full Report.  Kaiser/HRET survey, published 9/2016. 
        • 2015 Employer Health Benefits Survey.  Annual premiums for employer-sponsored family health coverage include a modest increase (4 percent) in the average premiums for both single and family coverage in the past year. The average annual single coverage premium is $6,251 and the average family coverage premium is $17,545.this year. Full Report
        • 2014 Employer Health Benefits Survey.  Annual premiums for employer-sponsored family health coverage reached $16,834 that year, up 3 percent from the previous year, with workers on average paying $4,823 towards the cost of their coverage. Summary of Findings | Full report.
      • Drivers of Health Insurance Premium Changes for 2017 - An issue brief produced by the American Academy of Actuaries’ Individual and Small Group Markets Committee, “Drivers of 2017 Health Insurance Premium Changes.” There are both upward and downward pressures on premiums for 2017, but "for the individual and small group markets as a whole, the factors driving premium increases dominate,” said Academy Senior Health Fellow Cori Uccello. “Increased health care costs and the end of the ACA’s transitional reinsurance program are two of the biggest factors pressuring rates higher. The one-year moratorium of the health insurance provider fee will partially offset these increases.” 
      • Drivers of 2016 Health Insurance Premium Changes. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) established three premium stabilization programs: the permanent risk adjustment program and the transitional risk corridor and reinsurance programs. They have provided some stability for the first three years of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act’s individual and small group market reforms; the reinsurance program is credited with reducing marketplace premiums for 2014 by 10 to 14 percent and for 2015 by 6 to 11 percent. 
      • 2016 Segal Health Plan Cost Trend Survey - A commercial sector major survey, well respected for policy research. Download report - trend-survey-2016.pdf 
      • 2015 Segal Health Plan Cost Trend Survey - (compare to 2016, above)  Download report - 2015trendsurvey.pdf
      • Analysis of 2016 Premium Changes and Insurer Participation in the ACA’s Health Insurance Marketplaces - report by Kaiser Family Foundation, June 24, 2015 [Excerpt]