Improving Health and Controlling Costs in Medicaid: The 6|18 Initiative

5/19/2021

healthy happy adults

Introduction

The U.S. health care system is undergoing unprecedented change as policymakers work toward a system that is more effective and efficient. Major trends in health care, including moving toward paying for value and health outcomes rather than just volume of services provided, offer opportunities to purchase and deliver preventive services. The 6|18 Initiative was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to better link the health care sector, particularly payers like Medicaid, and public health sectors. It provides a shared focus on evidence-based interventions and preventive services that can improve health and control costs.1

Medicaid is a publicly financed program that provides health insurance for millions of low-income Americans, including low-income adults, children, pregnant women, older adults and people with disabilities.2 With Medicaid accounting for nearly 30% of total state spending,3 state policymakers continually look for ways to reduce its costs. Medicaid clients are more likely than privately insured individuals to suffer from chronic conditions.4 With chronic conditions being among the costliest to treat and manage, Medicaid beneficiaries and state budgets may benefit from better coordinated care and evidence-based approaches to services.

This policy brief outlines the CDC’s 6|18 Initiative, including the common conditions targeted and evidence-based interventions, and describes opportunities and barriers for states in implementing these proven strategies in their Medicaid programs.

What is CDC's 6/18 Initiative?

CDC 618 Initiative Participants 50-state map

The 6|18 Initiative was developed to provide health care purchasers, payers and providers with rigorous evidence about high-burden health conditions and the associated evidence-based, practical strategies that have the greatest health and cost impact in a short period of time.5 The name “6|18” comes from the focus on six common, preventable health conditions and 18 evidence-based interventions to prevent and manage these conditions.

The 6|18 Initiative targets six chronic conditions: tobacco use, high blood pressure, inappropriate antibiotic use, asthma, unintended pregnancies and type 2 diabetes. The CDC selected these conditions because they affect large numbers of people, significantly affect individual health and drive high health care spending.6 In addition, there are proven evidence-based strategies to prevent or control these conditions.

The prevalence of these conditions in the Medicaid population underscores the potential value of using proven and practical strategies to improve health outcomes and reduce costs.7 The 6|18 Initiative is now in its fifth year, and over the past four years, the CDC has partnered with 40 state, local and territorial Medicaid and public health department teams to provide assistance in their implementation of the identified interventions. Participating Medicaid and public health teams took part in technical assistance and collaboration opportunities, including peer-to-peer support, webinars and quarterly calls, all of which help with understanding and sharing effective ways to apply 6|18 strategies across different sectors.8

The following sections contain details regarding common and costly conditions and strategies for preventing and managing these conditions using Medicaid programs and the 6|18 Initiative.

Reducing Tobacco Use

According to the CDC, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease, disability and death in the United States. Nearly 35 million U.S. adults smoke cigarettes. Tobacco use is particularly high among Medicaid beneficiaries, with nearly 24% using tobacco compared to only 10.5% of those with private insurance coverage.9

Comprehensive coverage of cessation benefits with minimal out-of-pocket cost is identified by CDC as a proven strategy for helping people quit using tobacco.10 However, Medicaid coverage of tobacco cessation services varies by state. All 50 states cover some form of tobacco cessation services, but states may choose what is covered and may not cover the full spectrum of services. For example, all states cover nicotine replacement therapy gum, and most states cover group and individual counseling.11

As of 2018, many Medicaid programs also have limitations on length of treatment (26 states), prior authorization requirements (17 states), cost sharing requirements (10 states) and limits on number of attempts to quit per year (25 states).12 The 6|18 Initiative provides evidence and technical assistance to support states’ efforts to provide full access to tobacco cessation services in state Medicaid programs.

Controlling High Blood Pressure

Nearly 1 in 2 adults—108 million—have high blood pressure.13 Most adults are aware of and treat their high blood pressure, but only about half have their blood pressure under control.14

One key strategy identified by CDC for controlling high blood pressure is self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) monitoring. Typically, a person’s blood pressure is monitored at regular appointments in a clinical setting. But SMBP monitoring allows people to track their blood pressure outside of the clinical setting, commonly at home.15

Simplifying the treatment regimen and minimizing out-of-pocket costs can also help.16 For example, many individuals are currently treated with two different medications to manage their blood pressure. Fixed-dose combinations, when two or more drugs are combined in a single tablet, may help with adherence by reducing the amount of pills a person takes each day.17

In 2014, all Medicaid programs filled almost all blood pressure prescriptions with a copay of $5 or less, but only about 10% of blood pressure medication was a fixed-dose combination.18

Improving Antibiotic Use

About 30% of antibiotics used in hospitals may be unnecessary or prescribed incorrectly,19 which can contribute to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. The CDC estimates at least 2 million illnesses and 23,000 deaths can be attributed each year to antibiotic-resistant infections. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that hospital-based programs dedicated to improving antibiotic use, commonly referred to as “Antibiotic Stewardship Programs” (ASPs), can optimize the treatment of infections and reduce adverse events associated with antibiotic use.20

ASPs are designed to ensure that people in a hospital or other inpatient health care setting receive the correct antibiotic at the right time and for an appropriate duration. These programs involve interdisciplinary teams that work to improve prescribing of antibiotics and continuously review prescribing practices and outcomes. One strategy to improve prescribing practices includes frequent auditing and feedback regarding clinician antibiotic prescribing practices and giving providers data on their own antibiotic prescribing practices.21

Most hospitals are already required to have ASPs by the Joint Commission, an independent nonprofit entity that accredits hospitals.22 However, many hospitals that participate in Medicare and Medicaid are not accredited by the Joint Commission because they are only certified by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Through the 6|18 Initiative, the CDC worked with CMS as it modified the conditions of participation for hospitals in both Medicaid and Medicare to require the adoption of ASPs. The initial rule, proposed in June 2016, became effective in November 2019, requiring all hospitals participating in the Medicare and Medicaid programs to adopt ASPs.23

Controlling Asthma

More than 24 million Americans have asthma, affecting over 7% of both adults and children.24 People with low incomes are disproportionately affected by asthma and most low-income children with asthma are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program.25

One way to manage asthma is using the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP Guidelines).26 The goals of the NAEPP are to raise public awareness regarding the seriousness of asthma, teach people to identify its signs and symptoms, and enhance the quality of life of people with asthma. The NAEPP develops guidelines and tools for patients and clinicians, including recommendations for reducing the impacts of asthma through well-developed treatment and action plans and guidelines for initial diagnosis and ongoing follow up.

Analysis of claims data shows that patients who have been treated according to NAEPP Guidelines have a reduction of asthma-related ED visits and are hospitalized less often.27 Providing ongoing NAEPP Guidelines-based medical education to primary care physicians has been shown to increase dispensing of asthma controller medication by 25%.28

State Medicaid coverage of asthma management services may include prior authorization requirements and copayments, which can create difficulties for some beneficiaries when accessing needed services.29 In addition, reimbursement policies regarding beneficiary education and in-home services may be inconsistent, with requirements for these services offered through Medicaid managed care organizations varying.30 But there is the potential for cost savings and improved health outcomes within the Medicaid program by providing comprehensive coverage.31 For example, Rhode Island’s Home Asthma Response Program (HARP) saw a 75% reduction in asthma-related hospital and emergency department costs.

Preventing Unintended Pregnancies

On average, Medicaid pays for about 46% of births in the U.S.32 Approximately 50% of all pregnancies are unintended and these pregnancies increase the risk for poor maternal and infant outcomes.33

Medicaid provides family planning coverage with no out-of-pocket costs to beneficiaries, but Medicaid programs are not required to cover all FDA-approved family planning options.34 Providing access to the full range of contraceptive options is a key 6|18 strategy, with a particular focus on increased use of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) as a proven strategy to reduce costs and unintended pregnancies.

Contraceptives that are incorrectly or inconsistently used may still lead to unintended pregnancies and avoidable expenses. Because LARC requires no user effort after placement of the contraceptive, the potential for inconsistent or incorrect use is eliminated. Improved use of LARC among women ages 15 to 44 may generate health care cost savings by reducing unintended pregnancies despite higher up-front costs.35

For example, one study found that offering LARC methods to clients at no cost in Colorado Title X-funded clinics, compared with offering all other methods on a sliding-fee scale, resulted in an increase from 5% use to 19%  use of LARC among 15- to 24-year-olds.36 Between 2009 and 2014, the Colorado initiative helped reduce unintended pregnancy rates by 40%  for teens and 20% among women ages 20 to 24.37

The Colorado Medicaid program also worked to unbundle payment for LARC from other services to further increase LARC use in the state.38 Previously, payment for labor and delivery costs were provided as an upfront prospective payment and did not consider the actual costs associated with the LARC insertion process. Unbundling payments provides an incentive for providers to provide LARC insertion while the beneficiary is already in their care, avoiding the need for a subsequent appointment.39

Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

Approximately 30 million people in the U.S. have diabetes and about 84 million Americans have prediabetes, according to the CDC. Adults with prediabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems, including heart disease and stroke. CMS estimated that Medicare would spend an additional $42 billion in 2016 on beneficiaries with diabetes. More than 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes; fortunately, type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with appropriate lifestyle changes.40

The 6|18 initiative promotes expanding access to the National DPP lifestyle change program as the most effective evidence-based approach to diabetes prevention.41 The National DPP is designed to help individuals make the lifestyle changes needed to avoid type 2 diabetes. The yearlong program focuses on behavior changes, managing stress and peer supports, and provides regular opportunities for direct interaction with a lifestyle coach and peers. According to the CDC, studies have shown adopting lifestyle changes like those supported by the National DPP lifestyle change program may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 58% in adults with prediabetes.

Information from the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors (NACDD) indicates that as of 2020, 20 states offer access to the National DPP lifestyle change program in some form through their Medicaid program, although not all states offer coverage statewide.42 But through the 6|18 Initiative, some states, like Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina and Utah, have been working to expand coverage of the National DPP lifestyle change program in their Medicaid programs.

State Examples

In 2016, the first year of the 6|18 Initiative, nine states that already had significant efforts underway in addressing these common conditions were selected to participate in the initiative. The experiences of two of those states are highlighted below. Information for the state examples below was compiled from state profiles from the Center for Health Care Strategies.

SOUTH CAROLINA

Through the 6|18 Initiative, South Carolina’s Medicaid agency, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and its public health agency, the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC), worked together to improve access to and use of tobacco cessation benefits for its Medicaid population. South Carolina already had a comprehensive tobacco cessation benefit for pregnant women and the 6|18 Initiative helped support South Carolina’s efforts to provide comprehensive coverage to all Medicaid beneficiaries.

South Carolina public health staff worked with Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs), particularly medical directors, to make the case for covering all tobacco cessation medications and counseling services without barriers. Public health staff also worked with the MCOs to standardize the services offered across all MCOs in the state. Because of these efforts, South Carolina was able to successfully implement a comprehensive, standardized tobacco cessation benefit within the Medicaid program that eliminated copays and prior authorization requirements.

Public health staff and Medicaid program staff also worked closely together to raise awareness of the comprehensive services and educate providers and Medicaid beneficiaries. In addition, using the evidence and technical assistance provided as part of the 6I18 Initiative, South Carolina was able to obtain federal Medicaid funds to provide part of the money needed to support its Quitline telephone counseling option. South Carolina was recognized by the American Lung Association for these efforts to provide comprehensive coverage and increase access to services.

NEW YORK

New York focused on unintended pregnancies in its effort with the 6|18 Initiative. The New York State Department of Health’s Office of Health Insurance Programs (Medicaid agency) and the Division of Family Health (public health agency) worked to reduce the state’s unintended pregnancy rate by increasing access to and use of effective contraception, particularly LARC.

Like South Carolina, New York already had success in reducing unintended pregnancy prior to joining the 6|18 Initiative. The 6|18 Initiative provided technical assistance to New York as it revised its reimbursement methodology to encourage use of LARC. Specifically, New York modified its reimbursement to Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) to unbundle the payment for LARCs to reimburse for the actual cost associated with LARC insertion. New York worked with MCOs to similarly separate payment of LARC from an inpatient delivery stay to further encourage the use of LARC immediately after delivery but before discharge from the hospital.

Through this work, New York also identified a significant need for education and awareness in the provider community regarding the use of LARC devices. The 6|18 Initiative provided evidence and technical assistance to New York as it developed a team to train providers in the appropriate use of LARC and educating providers regarding myths about the devices. These provider outreach efforts encouraged appropriate and timely contraception counseling and stocking of LARC devices on the labor and delivery floor. Through these efforts, the New York Department of Health developed a key partnership with the local chapter of American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to further improve access to and use of LARC devices.

Conclusion

The CDC conducted interviews with Medicaid and public health officials participating in the 6|18 initiative.43 The interviews indicated the initiative led to increased collaboration and information sharing as well as provided supports needed to make meaningful progress toward goals.

Lessons learned include the discovery by public health officials that Medicaid coverage and reimbursement is an important concern for successfully implementing public health strategies. And Medicaid officials and providers were able to learn the science and rationale behind these interventions, to more fully support their work in revising Medicaid coverage and reimbursement options.

State policymakers can use examples of state experiences to leverage 6|18 Initiative strategies to improve health outcomes in their states while also reducing Medicaid costs. One policy lever state policymakers have used to impact Medicaid program performance and efficiency is through benefit coverage decisions and service delivery options. The 6|18 Initiative’s practical strategies and technical assistance provide a framework for Medicaid benefit coverage and service delivery options to accelerate the adoption of these proven cost-saving strategies within Medicaid programs.

States involved in the 6|18 Initiative continue to work to fully integrate these interventions and strategies in their Medicaid programs. State policymakers can provide leadership to encourage and foster the cross-section collaborations necessary for success of these interventions and policies. Through these collaborations, state policymakers can further tailor Medicaid policies and strategies, as well as overall public health strategies, to the needs of their states.

Additional Resources and Notes

Additional Resources

For information regarding the 6|18 Initiative please visit:

For information specific to reducing tobacco use please visit:

Notes

  1. Hester, J., Auerbach, J., Seeff, L., Wheaton, J., Brusuelas, K., & Singleton, C. (2016). CDC’s 6 | 18 Initiative: Accelerating Evidence into Action. NAM Perspectives, 6(2). doi: 10.31478/201602b https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/CDCs-618-Initiative-Accelerating-Evidence-into-Action.pdf.
  2. National Conference of State Legislatures, Understanding Medicaid: A Primer for State Legislators, August 2019, https://www.ncsl.org/research/health/understanding-medicaid-a-primer-for-statelegislators.aspx.
  3. National Association of State Budget Officers (NASBO), 2018 State Expenditure Report (Washington, D.C.: NASBO, 2018), https://www.nasbo.org/mainsite/reports-data/state-expenditure-report.
  4. Ku, L., Julia Paradise, J., & and Thompson, V. “Data Note: Medicaid’s Role in Providing Access to Preventive Care for Adults” (San Francisco, Calif.: Kaiser Family Foundation, May 17, 2017), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/data-note-medicaids-role-in-providing-access-to-preventive-care-for-adults/.
  5. Hester, J., Auerbach, J., Seeff, L., Wheaton, J., Brusuelas, K., & Singleton, C. (2016). CDC’s 6 | 18 Initiative: Accelerating Evidence into Action. NAM Perspectives, 6(2). doi: 10.31478/201602b https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/CDCs-618-Initiative-Accelerating-Evidence-into-Action.pdf.
  6. Hester, J., Auerbach, J., Seeff, L., Wheaton, J., Brusuelas, K., & Singleton, C. (2016). CDC’s 6 | 18 Initiative: Accelerating Evidence into Action. NAM Perspectives, 6(2). doi: 10.31478/201602b https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/CDCs-618-Initiative-Accelerating-Evidence-into-Action.pdf.
  7. Ku, L., Julia Paradise, J., & and Thompson, V. “Data Note: Medicaid’s Role in Providing Access to Preventive Care for Adults” (San Francisco, Calif.: Kaiser Family Foundation, May 17, 2017), https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/data-note-medicaids-role-in-providing-access-to-preventive-care-for-adults/.
  8. Laura C. Seeff, MD; Tricia McGinnis, MPP, MPH; Hilary Heishman, MPH Five Things to Know About CDC’s 6|18 Initiative, 2018, https://jphmpdirect.com/2018/10/10/five-things-to-know-about-cdcs-618-initiative/.
  9. DiGiulio A., Jump Z., Babb S., et al. State Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco Cessation Treatments and Barriers to Accessing Treatments — United States, 2008–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:155–160. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6906a2.
  10. Department of Health and Human Services. Smoking Cessation. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2020-smoking-cessation/index.html.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. STATE System Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco Cessation Treatments Fact Sheet. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/statesystem/factsheets/medicaid/Cessation.html#medicaid-required-coverage. Accessed February 2021.
  12. DiGiulio A., Jump Z., Babb S., et al. State Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco Cessation Treatments and Barriers to Accessing Treatments — United States, 2008–2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:155–160. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6906a2.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hypertension Cascade: Hypertension Prevalence, Treatment and Control Estimates Among US Adults Aged 18 Years and Older Applying the Criteria From the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association’s 2017 Hypertension Guideline—NHANES 2013–2016. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2019.
  14. Yoon S.S., Fryar C.D., Carroll M.D. Hypertension prevalence and control among adults: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS Data Brief, No. 220. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2015, https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db220.pdf.
  15. Uhlig K, Balk EM, Patel K, et al. Self-measured blood pressure monitoring: comparative effectiveness. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 45. (Prepared by the Tufts Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10055-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 12-EHC002-EF. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2012.
  16. Gupta, A.K., Arshad, S., & Poulter N. Compliance, safety, and effectiveness of fixed-dose combinations of antihypertensive agents. Hypertension 2010;55:399–407. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/55/2/399.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ritchey M, Tsipas S, Loustalot F, Wozniak G. Use of pharmacy sales data to assess changes in prescription- and payment-related factors that promote adherence to medications commonly used to treat hypertension, 2009 and 2014. PLoS One 2016;11(7):e0159366.
  19. Fridkin SK, Baggs J., Fagan R., Magill S., Pollack L.A., Malpiedi P., Slayton R. Vital Signs: Improving Antibiotic Use Among Hospitalized Patients. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(9):194-200.
  20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs (Atlanta, Ga.: CDC, May 7, 2015), https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/healthcare/implementation/core-elements.html.
  21. Ibid.
  22. The Joint Commission. 2017 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals (E-edition). Joint Commission Resources, Oak Brook, IL.
  23. Regulatory Provisions to Promote Program Efficiency, Transparency, and Burden Reduction; Fire Safety Requirements for Certain Dialysis Facilities; Hospital and Critical Access Hospital (CAH) Changes To Promote Innovation, Flexibility, and Improvement in Patient Care, 84 FR 51732, 2019. Available at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2019/09/30/2019-20736/medicare-and-medicaidprograms-regulatory-provisions-to-promote-program-efficiency-transparency-and
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma Data. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/asthma.htm. Accessed February 2021.
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Health Care Coverage among Children”. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/asthma_stats/Health_Care_Coverage_among_Children.htm#. Accessed February 2021.
  26. Hester, J., Auerbach, J., Seeff, L., Wheaton, J., Brusuelas, K., & Singleton, C. (2016). CDC’s 6 | 18 Initiative: Accelerating Evidence into Action. NAM Perspectives, 6(2). doi: 10.31478/201602b https://nam.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/CDCs-618-Initiative-Accelerating-Evidence-into-Action.pdf.
  27. Cloutier, M.M., Grosse S.D., & Wakefield D.B., Nurmagambetov T., Brown C.M. The economic impact of an urban asthma management program. American Journal of Managed Care. 2009; 15(6): 345–51. https://www.ajmc.com/view/ajmc_09jun_cloutier_345to351.
  28. Cloutier M.M. et al., Use of asthma guidelines by primary care providers to reduce hospitalizations and emergency department visits in poor, minority, urban children. Journal of Pediatrics. 2005; 146(5): 591–7.
  29. Pruitt K, Yu A, Kaplan BM, Hsu J, Collins P. Medicaid Coverage of Guidelines-Based Asthma Care Across 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2016-2017. Prev Chronic Dis 2018;15:180116. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.180116.
  30. Horton et al., “Medicaid Coverage of Asthma Self-Management Education: A Ten-State Analysis of Services, Providers and Settings” (June 2017). Available at: http://www.618resources.chcs.org/wp-content/uploads/medicaid-coverage-of-asthma-self-management-education.pdf.pdf, Accessed February 2021.
  31. Cloutier M.M., Grosse S.D., Wakefield D.B., Nurmagambetov T., & Brown C.M. The economic impact of an urban asthma management program. American Journal of Managed Care. 2009; 15(6): 345–51. https://www.ajmc.com/journals/issue/2009/2009-06-vol15-n6/ajmc_09jun_cloutier_345to351.
  32. Kaiser Family Foundation, Births Financed by Medicaid, https://www.kff.org/medicaid/stateindicator/births-financed-by-medicaid/, Accessed February 2021.
  33. Finer LB and Zolna MR, Declines in unintended pregnancy in the United States, 2008–2011, New England Journal of Medicine, 2016, 374(9):843–852, doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1506575.
  34. Ranji, U., Bair, Y., & Salganicoff, A. “Medicaid and Family Planning: Background and Implications of the ACA” (Kaiser Family Foundation, February 3, 2016), https://www.kff.org/womens-health-policy/issue-brief/medicaid-and-family-planning-background-and-implications-of-the-aca/.
  35. Trussell J, Henry N, Hassan F, Prezioso A, Law A, Filonenko A. Burden of unintended pregnancy in the United States: potential savings with increased use of long-acting reversible contraception. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659779/.
  36. Ricketts S, Klingler G, Schwalberg R. Game change in Colorado: widespread use of long-acting reversible contraceptives and rapid decline in births among young, low-income women. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2014; 46(3):125–32. doi: 10.1363/46e1714. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24961366/, Accessed February 2021.
  37. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Taking the Unintended Out of Pregnancy: Colorado’s Success with Long-Acting Reversible Contraception, January 2017.
  38. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Colorado Significantly Decreases Unintended Pregnancies by Expanding Contraceptive Access, 2017, http://www.astho.org/Programs/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Documents/Colorado-Significantly-Decreases-Unintended-Pregnancies-by-Expanding-Contraceptive-Access/.
  39. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC), Fact Sheet, 2014. Available at: http://www.astho.org/LARC-Fact-Sheet/, Accessed February 2021.
  40. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Type 2 Diabetes, https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/type2.html, Accessed February 2021.
  41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 6|18 Initiative, Prevent Type 2 Diabetes, https://www.cdc.gov/sixeighteen/diabetes/index.htm, Accessed February 2021.
  42. National DPP Coverage Toolkit, Participating Payers, 2021. Available at https://coveragetoolkit.org/participating-payers/, Accessed February 2021.
  43. Seeff, L.C. McGinnis, T., Hilary Heishman, H. CDC’s 6|18 Initiative: A Cross-Sector Approach to Translating Evidence into Practice, Public Health Management & Practice, September/October 2018; 24(5): 424-431 .

This report was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) as part of a financial assistance award totaling $280,000 with 100 percent funded by CDC/HHS. The contents are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the official views of, nor an endorsement, by CDC/HHS, or the U.S. Government.

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