In 2008, two Maryland legislators, one from each chamber, attended the NCSL Opportunities for Working Families meeting in Denver, Colo. They learned about policies that could help families build a strong financial foundation on which to grow and keep their assets. The Maryland team was intrigued most by the strategies that encouraged people to save. Studies showed that many of the families lack a cushion that could sustain unexpected financial setbacks such as job loss or medical bills.
Over the next seven years, the team worked to enact bills to make saving easier and more appealing. One bill was enacted allowing credit unions and banks to encourage clients to put money away on a regular basis with prize-linked savings accounts. Another enacted bill offered state income tax refund recipients the option to deposit some of their refund in a savings account. The team also worked with the Department of Human Resources to remove asset limits on social services for low-income families, permitting them to build up their savings and assets without losing their benefits.
With the addition of a key staff member to the team in 2012, they shifted their focus to the persistent issue of unemployment in Maryland. Together they spearheaded a $4.5 million workforce development bill adopted during the 2013 session that would bolster efforts to offer skill training to the unemployed and underemployed. The team returned to the 2013 Opportunities for Working Families meeting, this time with six team members, including its original duo, focusing on an array of policies from Pre-K, to small business and practices to get the most out of state investments. A reconstituted 2015 team pledged to continue their work on job training and to investigate how policy can support entrepreneurs as a pathway to economic prosperity. Read on to learn about how they have accomplished their goals to date.
Training Up to Close the Skills Gap
Across the nation, there are more jobs than there are qualified workers to fill them. This phenomenon is known as the skills gap. Today, a little over half of available jobs in the U.S. require some education beyond a high school diploma. These middle-skill jobs are held by people who earn a certificate, a 2 or 4 year college degree or have special training like registered nurses, plumbers and engineers. Currently, only 43 percent of the nations workers are qualified to take these jobs.
When state legislators in Maryland learned that over two-thirds of available jobs will be middle and high skill jobs by 2018, they convened members of industry, state agencies, higher ed representatives, and the governor’s office to talk solutions. Together they crafted and enacted the Employment Advancement Right Now (EARN) Act of 2013.
With a $4.5 million appropriation annural since 2013, the EARN program gives grants to sector industry partnerships where workforce development stakeholders including education institutions, businesses and nonprofits work together to provide high quality training in industries that need skilled workers. The goal of the program is to create a robust and skilled workforce that will foster growth in local companies and attract businesses to settle in Maryland.
As of July 2015, the EARN program was going full steam ahead with 40 strategic partnerships. EARN has served 1,750 Marylanders who are unemployed, underemployed or employed and in need of relevant training to stay on the job. And, the program's job placement rate is a whopping 81 percent!
Updated October 2015
- Save to Win – Jackpot!
One of the biggest reasons people don’t save is that it’s boring. There’s no immediate gratification, no reward. Despite the magic of compound interest, spending is much more fun. Combine this simple but powerful psychological force with easy credit and you get poor money management. But, what if saving, even small amounts, was more exciting – more like the lottery?
Americans like a jackpot. In 2014, for instance, annual sales of the nation’s 42 state lotteries exceeded $70 billion, an average of more than $233 per person or $603 per household. That’s more, studies suggest, than families spend on milk! Instead of fighting this behavior, the idea of tying savings to prize-winning has gained popularity over the last few years.
The first large-scale prize-linked savings (PLS) program in the U.S. was launched by eight Michigan credit unions in 2009. For every $25 deposited into savings, Michigan ‘Save to Win’ participants get a chance to win monthly raffles and a yearly $100,000 grand prize. Savers also earn interest, just like they would with an ordinary account. In just 11 months, more than 11,600 participants saved more than $8.5 million. The program has since expanded to more than 47 credit unions across the state, and evidence suggests that the opportunity to win big has induced even lower- and middle-income households to save. Data shows that 34 percent of savers earn less than $40,000 per year.
Based on this success in Michigan, Maryland enacted legislation, permitting credit unions to offer prize-linked savings (PLS) accounts. In response to banking industry concerns, however, a provision in the law keeps it from taking effect until banks are also allowed to offer PLS products under federal law.
Following 2010’s partial victory, Maryland legislators began working with a growing network of supporters to find a way for both banks and credit unions to offer PLS accounts under existing laws. Their persistence paid off in May of 2012, when Governor O’Malley signed HB 786, clearing the way for Maryland financial institutions to develop and market PLS products.
The new Maryland law found a way to comply with federal regulations by reclassifying PLS as a ‘sweepstakes’ instead of a ‘raffle,’ which basically means that people can enter for free. Consumers will be able to open a PLS account and have a chance to win simply by making a deposit or filling out a form.
In 2014, Congress passed the federal American Saving Promotion Act, which removed the final barrier to implementing a PLS program in Maryland. Coincidentally, the federal law was sponsored by Representative Derek Kilmer who learned about PLS during his stint in the Washington Legislature where he shepherded the state PLS legislation into law. As a result, the Maryland Legislature passed the necessary legislation to finally get the program rolling in that state.
Maryland’s progress on this issue resulted from years of collaboration among legislators, business and community leaders, and NGO stakeholders. The sponsors of Maryland's legislation generated support by forming strong relationships with financial institutions, encouraging their input, highlighting the success of PLS programs in other states, and engaging issue experts to help educate other legislators and earn their backing.
Although it took multiple legislative sessions and more than one attempt for PLS to succeed in Maryland, the network that legislators built in the process remains active in critical ways. Representatives from the FDIC, banks, credit unions, and community organizations are meeting with issue experts and other stakeholders to define the features of Maryland PLS products. The group's diverse expertise is helping to hone key program provisions, such as account management and data collection, prize amounts and selection, eligibility requirements, marketing and branding--and more.
Maryland’s development process continues to benefit from new research from PLS experts who have been following the progress of ‘Save to Win’ (STW) programs in Michigan and Nebraska. Both programs have grown dramatically, attracting thousands of account holders that have saved millions. The chance at a jackpot is creating a powerful incentive to save among a diverse customer base, including the financially vulnerable. Research has also shown that even fairly small prize pools can still draw big savings. In Michigan’s pilot year, for example, savers put away $61.58 for every $1 awarded in prize money. That’s only 2 pennies spent for every dollar saved.
Updated October 2015
- Removing Asset Limits
A Maryland family of three needs about $2,200 per month to maintain a minimal standard of living, according to the state Department of Human Resources. Prior to a recent rule change, however, Maryland’s cash welfare program stopped providing assistance to recipients who saved more than $2,000 – or less than one month’s expenses.
Such limits were designed to prevent the abuse of public benefit programs, but many argue these caps discourage exactly the type of long-term savings that low-income families need to become self-sufficient. Allowing families to build a small reserve while still receiving vital short-term assistance encourages smart financial behavior and hastens their return to financial independence. Asset limits can be particularly counterproductive at tax time. Instead of saving their refund for emergencies or any number of productive investments, low-income families will often spend it to avoid losing the aid they need for basic living costs.
In 2010, Maryland lawmakers introduced legislation that would have lifted asset limits from the state’s Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) program. Critics of the bill questioned if it was appropriate to provide services to families with savings. The bill failed to pass, forcing its supporters to find an alternative course of action. Proponents of the bill worked with Secretary Dallas of the Department of Human Resources to remove the asset limits administratively.
Roughly one-half of states nationwide no longer consider assets when determining a family’s eligibility for either Medicaid or SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – formerly Food Stamps). Maryland’s rule change made it one of five states that have also eliminated the asset tests from their TANF program’s eligibility requirements.
Opponents argue that removing asset limits will lead to more cases and higher costs. Early evidence, however, suggests that states actually save money, especially since welfare reform’s time limits and work requirements provide stringent safeguards against abuse. After eliminating its Medicaid asset limits, for example, Oklahoma reduced administrative costs by nearly $1 million as eligibility determinations became significantly less complicated. And in Virginia, one of the first states to drop its TANF asset test, caseloads in December 2008—during a major recession—were 37 percent fewer than in 1997.
Read Maryland's State Profile for more notable legislation, state action plans and participants by year.
Hear It From Them
Q and A with Senator Katherine Klausmeier and Delegate Johnny Olszewski, Jr.
Hear from lawmakers and others who have been intimately involved with their state’s efforts to create opportunities for low-income working families. Legislators explain why they feel these issues are important. They also discuss the factors that helped them be successful – both in the statehouse and at home in their district.
Senator Kathy Klausmeier
Delegate Johnny Olszewski, Jr.
Q: Over the last several years, Maryland has seen hundreds of millions of dollars in budget cuts and is looking at reduced revenue projections in coming fiscal years. Has this changed your attitude toward governing?
Del. Olszewski: Maybe not changed my perspective so much as informed my career from the outset. It hasn’t been the most enjoyable thing to be forced to find new revenues or trim services and worthy causes. That said, you have to walk in and ask, how do we best meet the needs of the people we represent despite limited resources, how do we get the best bang for our buck? So we look at changes in the law that don’t cost anything but encourage positive behavior. That’s why we like prize-linked savings, for instance, and lifting asset limits. I’m sort of thankful I’ve grown up in this environment because at the end of the day, I think it promotes good governance.
Sen. Klausmeier: Knowing that people are not making that much money and wages are going down, we want to help these people. There are more people asking for help now than ever before. And because we’ve been cutting back, we have a problem. We’re acutely aware of this, and it’s become a real focus.
Read Full Q and A
State Program Links
About the Opportunities for Working Families Meeting
Since 2003, the NCSL/AECF Partnership on Family Economic Success has held a yearly meeting to give lawmakers a chance to convene with their colleagues and discuss solutions to the challenges faced by low-income working families. Legislative leadership from 10 states send small teams of legislators to the forum. Participants hear from leading experts and practitioners and develop an action plan that is relevant to their state.