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2013 Immigration Report

2013 Immigration Report

Ann Morse 1/20/2014

Overview

State immigration legislation in 2013 seemed to shift in response to two federal actions in 2012, changing from a focus on immigration law enforcement measures to some expanded state benefits for immigrants. In 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Arizona v. United States struck down several provisions related to law enforcement, and new policy from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security offered young, unauthorized immigrants a temporary respite from deportation along with permission to work.

Immigration formThe number of state immigration-related laws rebounded in 2013 after a dropoff in 2012, with 184 laws enacted and 253 resolutions adopted, for a total of 437. This is a 64 percent increase from the 267 laws and resolutions enacted in 2012. Looking only at laws and not resolutions, enacted legislation increased 18 percent in 2013 compared to the same timeframe in 2012, with 184 laws compared to 156.

Trends in 2013:

  • Omnibus legislation related to immigration enforcement has largely disappeared. In 2011, 30 states introduced more than 50 bills, with Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina and Utah enacting laws similar to Arizona’s SB 1070. Each was challenged in court. In 2012, five states considered similar bills: Kansas, Mississippi, Missouri, Rhode Island and West Virginia. None of these bills were enacted. Alabama amended its 2011 law, HB 56, enacting HB 658 in 2012. In 2013, only Georgia acted, by amending E-Verify requirements, public benefit definitions, and driver’s license requirements, and required agencies or political subdivisions to comply with federal law on public benefits for postsecondary education (S 160).
  • Eight states—California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon and Vermont—joined New Mexico, Utah and Washington in extending driver’s license eligibility to unauthorized residents. Georgia and Maine enacted more limited laws in 2013.  Georgia allows for a temporary driving permit for those with pending visa extensions.  Maine exempts certain older or long-term driver’s license holders from the legal presence requirement. (A law passed in the District of Columbia is pending review by Congress.)
  • Four states—Colorado, Minnesota, New Jersey and Oregon—expanded in-state tuition for unauthorized immigrant students bringing to 15 the number of states that currently offer instate tuition through legislation.
  • California enacted a series of laws addressing protections for unauthorized immigrants in the fall of 2013. One law bars local law enforcement from detaining people for federal deportation if arrested for minor crimes and otherwise eligible for release, finding that the federal Secure Communities program shifts federal civil immigration to local law enforcement. In the first law of its kind, California authorized the state Supreme Court to admit applicants who are not lawfully present to the practice of law. Other 2013 California laws include driver’s licenses for unauthorized immigrants, workforce protections for immigrants, and prohibiting notaries public from acting as immigration consultants.
  • Resolutions spiked in 2013, with 31 states adopting 253 resolutions, up from 111 in 2012. The largest contributor was Texas, adopting 96 resolutions commending the contributions of immigrants and seeking federal action. Resolutions encouraged action by the president, Congress or federal agencies, including at least 11 resolutions related to passing comprehensive immigration reform (California, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, and Pennsylvania). Others asked Congress to create an immigrant entrepreneur visa, to expedite visa applications for Afghan allies, reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, fund border improvements, reunify Haitian families, address refugee and asylee protections, and support education services to migrants from the compact of free association nations.

Report Highlights

In 2013, lawmakers in 45 states and the District of Columbia enacted 184 laws and 253 resolutions related to immigration, for a total of 437. This is a 64 percent increase from the 267 laws and resolutions enacted in 2012. Seven additional bills were vetoed in California and Missouri, and one law enacted in the District of Columbia in November is pending review by Congress. Five states did not enact immigration-related legislation in 2013: Delaware, Kansas, Montana, New Hampshire and Wyoming.

The total increase for 2013 was driven in large part by a spike in resolutions, with 31 states adopting 253 resolutions, up from 111 in 2012. The largest contributor was Texas, adopting 96 resolutions commending the contributions of immigrants and seeking federal action. This year, 31 resolutions were adopted seeking action from Congress or the administration, up from 12 in 2012.

Looking only at laws and not resolutions, enacted legislation increased 18 percent in 2013 compared to the same timeframe in 2012, with 184 laws compared to 156. Since 2007, on average, 1,300 bills are introduced each year and 200 laws are enacted.

Driver’s licenses and IDs continued to be a top issue for states, with 35 laws enacted in 21 states, comprising 19 percent of all enacted laws on immigration. California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon and Vermont extended driver’s licenses to certain unauthorized immigrants (a law in the District of Columbia is pending review by Congress). This category also includes firearm and hunting permits.

States continued to pass budget and appropriations laws, comprising 14 percent of this year’s laws, authorizing funds for such purposes as providing for immigration enforcement, employment services, English language and citizenship classes, and migrant and refugee programs.

Legislation related to law enforcement and regulation of notary publics and immigration lawyers accounted for 14 percent.

Eleven percent of laws were focused on employment, such as verification of work authorization (E-Verify) or eligibility for workers compensation and unemployment insurance.

Eleven percent of laws dealt with education, addressing immigration and residency requirements for higher education. Colorado, Minnesota, New Jersey and Oregon extended in-state tuition benefits to unauthorized immigrant students.

Eight percent of laws related to health, such as eligibility criteria for Medicaid or SCHIP, language access, or licensing relating to health professionals.

Another 6 percent of laws addressed human trafficking, including penalties for withholding or destroying immigration documents, establishing a task force and collecting statistical data including geographical routes across international borders.

Six percent of laws related to public benefits such as foster care, child welfare and adoption.

Eight percent of laws were categorized as miscellaneous.

Methodology: This report summarizes laws and resolutions enacted between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2013. Laws included in this overview address legal immigrants, migrant and seasonal workers, refugees or unauthorized immigrants. Terms used in this report by and large reflect those used in the state legislation. In some state legislative language, unauthorized immigrants are also described as “illegal immigrants” or “undocumented immigrants” or “aliens.”

.Pie chart of immigration laws enacted 2013

Immigration-Related Laws in the States, 2013

 

immigration map

Table 2. Laws and Resolutions on Immigration Passed by Legislatures from 2011-2013

 

 

2011

2011

2012

2012

2013

2013

Main Sub-Topics

Number of Laws Enacted (Vetoed)

Number of States

Number of Laws Enacted (Vetoed) (Pending*)

Number of States

Number of Laws Enacted (Vetoed) (Pending*)

Number of States

Budgets

19 (2)

15

38

21

25 (1)

18

Education

20 (1)

11

13 (2)

11

21

16

Employment

27 (3)

18

14 (4)

13

21

12

Health

23 (2)

15

12

8

15 (2)

7

Human Trafficking

5

5

9

7

12 (1)

9

ID/Driver's Licenses and Other Licenses

27

18

14

12

35(1*)

21 (&DC)

Law Enforcement

39 (5)

20

26 (1)

16

25 (1)

17

Miscellaneous

12 (1)

9

10 (1)

9

14 (2)

13

Omnibus/Multi-Issue Measures

6

5

1

1

1

1

Public Benefits

15 (1)

11

16 (1)

9

12

11(&DC)

Voting

4

4

3 (2) (1)

4

3

2

Total Enacted Laws

197 (15)

42 (& PR)

156 (12)

44 (&PR)

184 (7)(1*)

44(&DC)

Resolutions

109

26

111

31

253

31

Total laws and resolutions passed/adopted by state legislatures

321

42 (& PR)

279

44 (& PR)

445

45(&DC)

Vetoed by governors (pending*)

15

8

12*

6

7(1*)

 

Total enacted laws and adopted resolutions

306

 

267

 

437

 

 

*One pending law in 2013 on driver’s license was enacted in the District of Columbia on November 18.  It has been sent to Congress for review and automatically becomes law if Congress does not act within 30 congressional business days. Projected law date 1/31/2014.

Sources: NCSL Immigrant Policy Project, Dec. 2013.

Budgets | 25 laws, 1 vetoed

Lawmakers in 18 states enacted 25 laws: Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Utah, Washington and Wisconsin.  One law was vetoed in California.

These laws typically appropriate funds for refugee services, migrant health, employment services, education and English as a Second Language programs, law enforcement or naturalization services.

Example: GA H 105. This supplemental appropriations law allocates funds for immigration enforcement and for the refugee assistance program.

Example: MN H 1233.  This law, relating to the state's health and human services budget, provides eligibility for medical assistance to pregnant noncitizens and lawfully present families and individuals who are ineligible for federal assistance due to their immigration status.

Example: MS S 2862. This appropriations law withholds certain funds until the commissioner of corrections submits an application to participate in the Criminal Alien Program of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, which identifies criminal aliens who are incarcerated in state correctional facilities.

Example: SC H 3710.  This law provides appropriations to the Department of Labor, Licensing and Regulation to fund the department's responsibilities under the South Carolina Illegal Immigration Reform Act, including the establishment and maintenance of a 24-hour hotline to receive, record, collect and report allegations of violations of federal immigration laws by any non-U.S. citizen or immigrant.

Education | 21 enacted

Lawmakers in 16 states enacted 21 laws: Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Utah and Washington.

These laws pertain to citizenship, immigration and residency requirements for educational institutions, students, employees or contractors. Some laws address enhanced learning for refugees, children of refugees, or limited English proficient students. Colorado, Minnesota, New Jersey and Oregon now allow in-state tuition for unauthorized immigrant students.

Example: CO S 33. This law allows students without lawful immigration status to be considered in-state residents and exempts people receiving higher education benefits from having to provide documentation of lawful presence in the United States.

Example: MN S 1236. This law establishes criteria by which students without lawful immigration status may qualify for the resident tuition rate in state universities and colleges.

Example: NJ A 718. This law requires the New Jersey Department of Education to biannually issue a letter to each school district reminding the district of the obligation to enroll resident students regardless of immigration status and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the State Board of Education.

Example: NJ S 2479. This law provides instate tuition if the individual attended high school for three years, graduated or received the equivalent of a high school diploma and enrolls in a public institution of higher education in 2014. If the person does not have lawful status, he or she must file an affidavit to legalize when eligible to do so.

Example: OR H2787. This law provides instate tuition if the student has: three years attendance at an Oregon school; five years attendance at any U.S., D.C., or Puerto Rico elementary or secondary school; graduation from high school; demonstrated intent to become a citizen or lawful permanent resident; and application for a taxpayer identification number or other federal ID.

Example: UT S 100. This law establishes new educational scholarships and requires applicants to certify they are U.S. citizens or noncitizens eligible for federal aid.

Fifteen states currently have statutes that condition eligibility for in-state tuition on attendance and graduation from a state high school and acceptable college admission applications. For more information, please see NCSL’s publication on in-state tuition and unauthorized immigrant students.

Employment | 21 laws enacted

Twelve states enacted 21 laws: California, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Tennessee, Utah and West Virginia.

These laws address eligibility for unemployment insurance, workers compensation and the enforcement of work authorization for public and private employees and contractors (E-Verify). Some limit employment to citizens or legal permanent residents or address the state role in EB-5 investor visas.

Example: NC H 786. This law clarifies which employers must use E-Verify. No city, county or state agency may enter into a contract unless the contractor and the contractor's subcontractors comply with the requirements of Article 2 of Chapter 64 of the General Statutes.

Example: TN S 170. This law, which relates to purchasing and procurement, prohibits the acquisition of goods or services from any person who knowingly employs the services of undocumented immigrants.

Example: UT S 225. This law extends the trigger date for implementation of the Utah guest worker program from July 2013 to July 2015. The law also extends the Utah pilot resident immigrant program, delaying the start date from July 2013 to July 2015, and ending in June 2020 instead of 2018.

For additional information on E-Verify legislation, please see NCSL’s publication.

Health | 15 laws enacted, 2 vetoed

Seven states enacted 15 laws: Arkansas, California, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland, Nevada and Oregon.  Two laws were vetoed in California.

These laws pertain to medical assistance for pregnant women, address citizenship requirements for Medicaid and State Children’s Health Insurance Program, improve language access, and define eligibility criteria for licenses within the health profession.

Example: AR S 1019. This law creates the Medicaid Eligibility Verification System, which includes verification of Social Security number, citizenship and immigration status.

Example: CA A 82. This law allows for targeting mixed immigration status families, among other populations, for Medi-Cal Outreach and Enrollment programs.

Example: FL S 1842. This law, relating to health insurance, mandates that in order to be licensed as a navigator within a health exchange, an applicant must provide citizenship or legal immigrant documentation.

Example: HI H 266. This law establishes a statewide language access resource center to assist individuals with limited English language proficiency in identifying qualified language interpreters and translators and to obtain information about the state resources that are available to them.

Example: OR H 2134. This law requires the Oregon Health Authority and the Department of Human Services to adopt by rule, uniform standards for the collection of data on race, ethnicity and preferred languages of medical assistance recipients in order to more adequately assess the status and needs of Oregon's communities of color, and immigrant and refugee communities.

Human Trafficking | 12 laws enacted, 1 vetoed

Nine states enacted 12 laws: Arkansas, Connecticut, Louisiana, Maine, New Mexico, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Utah.  One law was vetoed in California.

These laws stipulate penalties for destroying immigration documents and provide benefits and protections to victims of human trafficking.

Example: AR H 1203. This law creates new penalties for trafficking, and includes destruction or concealment of immigration and other identification documents as a means of compelling involuntary servitude. The law authorizes a state task force to include state officials and federal agencies, including Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

Example:  LA S 88. This law requires law enforcement agencies, district attorney's offices and the office of the attorney general to assist victims who appear to meet the criteria for a severe form of trafficking as defined in the federal Trafficking Victims Protection Act, by providing them with a completed and executed I-914 or I-918 form, to be completed by a certifying officer.

Example: ME H 824. This law defines human trafficking to include the destruction, concealment, removal, confiscation or possession of any actual or purported passport or other immigration document in order to force the individual to perform certain services.

Example:  NM H 304. This law provides benefits for victims of human trafficking regardless of immigration status.

Example: TX H 1272. This law mandates that state and local governments participate in the collection of statistical data, including geographic routes, by which individuals are trafficked across international borders.

IDs/Driver’s Licenses and other Licenses | 35 laws enacted, 1 to Congress

Lawmakers in 21 states enacted 35 laws; 1 in the District of Columbia was sent to Congress for review: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Vermont, Virginia and the District of Columbia.

In addition to providing for the eligibility of state-issued identification cards and driver’s licenses, these laws address a range of topics including firearm permits, hunting and recreational permits, and documentation requirements for driver’s license applications.

Example: CO S 251. This law allows individuals to qualify for a driver's license, instruction permit or identification card, despite the individual not being lawfully present or being only temporarily lawfully present in the United States.

Example: DC B 275. This law creates a limited purpose driver's license, permit, or identification card for a District resident who has not been assigned a Social Security number or cannot establish legal presence in the United States. This legislation was enacted on Nov. 18 and sent to Congress for review. It automatically becomes law if Congress does not act within 30 congressional business days.

Example:  ID H 258. This law disqualifies illegal aliens and those who have renounced their U.S. citizenship from obtaining a license to carry concealed weapons.

Example: IN S 538. This law authorizes the bureau of motor vehicles to require that individuals include their Social Security number on applications for a license, a permit or an identification card.

Example:  ND S 2039. This law authorizes the director of transportation to require that applicants for driver's licenses and non-driver photo identification cards provide their Social Security card and proof of residence address in order to prove legal presence.

Example:  NV S 303. This law creates a driver’s authorization card and allows applicants, regardless of legal status, to provide birth certificates or passports issued by a foreign country as proof of identity. This law also prohibits the release of information relating to legal status for purposes relating to the enforcement of immigration laws.

Example: NY S 2230. This law amends gun licensing restrictions to include the consideration of citizenship or immigrant status.

For more information, please see the NCSL Legisbrief on Driver’s Licenses for Immigrants.

Law Enforcement | 25 enacted, 1 vetoed

Lawmakers in 17 states enacted 25 laws: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah and Virginia.  One law was vetoed in California.

These laws typically pertain to the enforcement of immigration laws, but also include regulations related to those working as notary publics, immigration consultants and immigration lawyers.

Example:  AL S 108. This law creates the State Law Enforcement Agency to coordinate public safety in Alabama. The agency's secretary shall, among other responsibilities, serve as the homeland security advisor for the state with duties to include coordinating, designing and implementing Alabama's homeland security program, including immigration reform.

Example:  CA A 4. This law bars local law enforcement from detaining people for federal deportation if arrested for minor crimes and otherwise eligible for release.

Example:  CA A 1024. This law authorizes the California Supreme Court to admit to the practice of law an applicant who is not lawfully present in the United States, upon certification by the committee that the applicant has fulfilled those requirements for admission.

Example: CO H 1258. This law repeals a portion of statute that formerly compelled local officials to participate in federal immigration issues.

Example: CT H 6659. This law protects individuals with a civil immigration detainer from being detained unless the individual has been convicted of a felony, has a pending state criminal charge for which bond has not been posted, is identified as a possible terrorist or a known gang member, has an outstanding arrest warrant or final order of deportation, or presents an unacceptable risk to public safety.

Example:  HI H 1059. This law requires a court to issue an advisement to all defendants that if they are not a U.S. citizen, lawful or unlawful, the results of their case could lead to immediate detention, deportation, or exclusion from admission or denial of naturalization. Defendants are not required to disclose their immigration or citizenship status to the court.

Example: PA H 25. This law prohibits notaries public from acting as immigration consultants.

Example UT H 245.  This law modifies the definition of immigration consultant, requires an annual registration fee, modifies bond requirements, and modifies the minimum amount of fines.

Miscellaneous | 14 laws enacted, 2 vetoed

Fourteen states enacted 14 laws: Arizona, California, Illinois, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Utah and Virginia.  Two laws were vetoed: one in California and one in Missouri.

This category typically includes immigration-related issues that do not fit in other categories and are addressed infrequently, memberships on task forces and commissions, abandoned property, and studies.

Example: IL H 3047. This law establishes the Office of New Americans to more effectively assist immigrants in overcoming barriers to success and to facilitate host communities' ability to capitalize on the assets of their immigrant populations. The Office of New Americans will identify strategic partnerships with state agencies to implement best practices, policies and procedures and make recommendations for statewide policy and administrative changes.

Example: MD H 34. This law requires that the governor annually proclaim October as German-American Heritage Month in recognition of the contributions that German Americans have made to the state.

Example: TX H 1777. This law provides for a study regarding the effects on international trade of wait times at points of entry within Texas between the United States and the United Mexican States.

ExampleTX H 3761. This law requires the agricultural department to consider and report upon the feasibility of administering a training program to allow department employees to assist U.S. Customs and Border Protection and the U.S. Department of Agriculture with non-animal agricultural inspections along the Mexican border.

Omnibus | 1 law enacted

Example: GA S 160. This law expands the definition of contractor to include subcontractors for the federal work authorization program known as E-Verify. It amends the definition of public benefits to include grants, public and assisted housing, retirement and driver’s licenses. The law provides that every agency or political subdivision verify lawful presence in the United States for any public benefits. All policies of agencies or political subdivisions regarding public benefits for postsecondary education will comply with federal law as provided in 8 U.S.C. Section 1623. The Department of Driver Services requires every applicant for a state-issued driver's license or state identification card to submit an original secure and verifiable document and execute a signed and sworn affidavit verifying the applicant's lawful presence in the United States under federal immigration law. It creates a new immigration compliance system that provides for an annual report by public employers.

For information on previous laws, please see State Omnibus Immigration Legislation and Legal Challenges and NCSL’s summary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision.

Public Benefits | 12 laws enacted

Eleven states and the District of Columbia enacted 12 laws: California, Florida, Illinois, Georgia, Louisiana, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, South Carolina, Vermont and Washington and the District of Columbia.

These laws address social service programs that affect all people covered by the programs— immigrants and non-immigrants alike— and ensure benefits are granted only to eligible immigrants.

Example: DC B 803. This law, also known as the "Foster Youth Statements of Rights and Responsibilities Amendment Act of 2012," states that youth in foster care have the right to receive copies of, among other items, their immigration documents at least 30 days prior to leaving care.

Example: MO S 127. This law requires that an individual be a citizen or qualified alien in order to be eligible for Missouri HealthNet coverage.

Example: SC H 3099. This child support enforcement law requires that all entities and utility companies in the state provide certain information upon request of the Department of Social Services, including Social Security and alien identification numbers.

Voting | 3 laws enacted

Two states enacted 3 laws: California and Virginia.

These laws clarify voter registration requirements and valid documents to prove U.S. citizenship.

Example: CA A 817. This law authorizes county elections officials to appoint a person who is a lawful permanent resident in the United States, and who is otherwise eligible to register to vote, except for their lack of U.S. citizenship, to serve as a precinct board member.

Example: VA S 1077. This law requires the State Board apply for participation in the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) system to verify that voters listed in the Virginia voter registration system are U.S. citizens.

Example: VA S 1256. This law amends voter identification requirements by adding valid United States passports to the list of valid forms of identification and eliminating those forms of identification that do not contain a photograph of the voter.

Resolutions

31 states adopted 253 resolutions: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin.

Resolutions typically run the gamut of commending citizens, immigrants and immigrant-serving organizations for their contributions, recognizing the cultural heritage of immigrants in a state, and urging Congress or the president of the United States to take certain actions. This year, 31 resolutions encouraged action by the president, Congress or federal agencies, including resolutions in at least 11 states— California, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania—related to passing comprehensive immigration reform. Others asked Congress to create an immigrant entrepreneur visa, to expedite visa applications for Afghan allies, to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, to fund border improvements, to reunify Haitian families, to address refugee and asylee protections, and to support education services to migrants from the compact of free association nations.

Example: CA AJR 3. This resolution urges Congress and the president to take a humane and just approach to solving the nation's broken immigration system. To reform the nation's immigration system, a proposal must comprised tenets that achieve all of the following: 1) establish an earned citizenship process that requires immigrants to pay back taxes and learn English; 2) enhance security in our ports of entry to secure our nation; 3) reform immigration enforcement programs that separate families to ensure that family unification systems are strengthened; 4) upgrade the current visa programs, including the creation of a guest worker program for agricultural workers, in order to have a legal workforce and a system that better enforces labor protections; and 5) uphold due process as well as the inherent rights of all immigrants.

Example: FL S 816. This resolution encourages Congress to consider the five principles embraced by the Partnership for a New American Economy as it works to develop comprehensive immigration reforms.

Example: GA SR 629.  This resolution urges the United States Congress to develop and implement a practical plan to secure the country's international borders and to appropriate adequate funds for that purpose.

Example: HI HR 22. This resolution acknowledges the important role that China and its people have played in Hawaii's economy and culture and the urges the U.S. Department of State, the Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. Attorney General to include the People's Republic of China in the Visa Waiver Program, which would ease restrictions on business and tourist travelers from China.

Example: IL HJR 40. This resolution, which acknowledges the hardships and barriers to those with limited English proficiency, establishes a task force to identify the effectiveness of current language programs, to come up with new program ideas, and to recognize best practices.

Example: LA HCR 178. This resolution requests the Louisiana Workforce Commission to enforce employment work authorization to prevent human trafficking.

Example:  NV SJR 15. This resolution urges Congress to enact comprehensive immigration reform.

Example:  NJ AR 138. This resolution condemns the failure of Congress to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act, which in 2012, expanded its scope to undocumented immigrant women.

Example: TX HCR 80. This resolution requests the lieutenant governor and the speaker of the House of Representatives to create a joint interim committee to study the effects on international trade of wait times at points of entry between the United States and the United Mexican States.


Prepared by:
Ann Morse, program director, Immigrant Policy Project, NCSL
Gilberto Soria Mendoza, policy associate, Immigrant Policy Project, NCSL
Chau Wing Lam, Immigrant policy fellow
Emily German, summer intern
 
Reviewers:
Sheri Steisel, federal affairs counsel, NCSL
Molly Ramsdell, director, Washington Office, NCSL
Neal Osten, director, Washington Office, NCSL
This report was made possible by a grant from the Four Freedoms Fund. The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of NCSL.
Source: National Conference of State Legislatures, December 2013

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