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Election Pin

NCSL State Elections 2022

Voters in 46 states will choose 6,279 state legislators and 36 governors on Nov. 8, as well as decide 117 statewide ballot measures. Without a presidential contest, the elections of 2022 put states front and center. The three sections below include information on partisan control and ballot measures, along with nonpartisan resources on election administration policies.

 NCSL’s Elections Team

There are two types of partisan control: legislative control and state control.

  • Legislative control: When the same party holds both chambers, that party has legislative control. When the chambers are held by different parties, state control is divided.
  • State control: When the same party holds both legislative chambers and the governorship, that party has state control. When any of those three points of power is held by another party, control is divided.

A detailed table of current legislative and state party composition is available here. Or use the map below to toggle between legislative and state control.

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  • Republican
  • Democrat
  • Split
  • Nonpartisan

 Click on a state for partisan-control details.

Alabama

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 73
D: 8 D: 28
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 4

Alaska

SENATE HOUSE
R: 13 R: 21
D: 7 D: 15
I: 0 I: 4
V: 0 V: 0

American Samoa

SENATE
Nonpartisan: 18
HOUSE
Nonpartisan: 21

Arizona

SENATE HOUSE
R: 16 R: 31
D: 14 D: 29
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Arkansas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 78
D: 7 D: 22
I: 1 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

California

SENATE HOUSE
R: 9 R: 19
D: 31 D: 58
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 2

Colorado

SENATE HOUSE
R: 15 R: 24
D: 20 D: 41
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Connecticut

SENATE HOUSE
R: 13 R: 54
D: 23 D: 97
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Delaware

SENATE HOUSE
R: 7 R: 15
D: 14 D: 26
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Florida

SENATE HOUSE
R: 24 R: 76
D: 16 D: 42
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 2

Georgia

SENATE HOUSE
R: 34 R: 103
D: 22 D: 77
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Guam

Unicameral
D:  8
R: 7
 

Hawaii

SENATE HOUSE
R: 1 R: 4
D: 24 D: 47
I: 0 I: 0
V:  0 V:0

Idaho

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 58
D: 7 D: 12
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Illinois

SENATE HOUSE
R: 18 R: 45
D: 41 D: 73
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Indiana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 39 R: 71
D: 11 D: 29
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Iowa

SENATE HOUSE
R: 32 R: 60
D: 18 D: 40
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Kansas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 29 R: 86
D: 11 D: 39
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Kentucky

SENATE HOUSE
R: 30 R: 75
D: 8 D: 25
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Louisiana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 68
D: 11 D: 34
I: 0 I: 3
V: 1 V: 0

Maine

SENATE HOUSE
R: 13 R: 64
D: 22 D: 79
I: 0 I: 3
V: 0 V: 5

Maryland

SENATE HOUSE
R: 15 R: 42
D: 32 D: 99
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Massachusetts

SENATE HOUSE
R: 3 R: 28
D: 37 D: 126
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 5

Michigan

SENATE HOUSE
R: 22 R: 56
D: 16 D: 53
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 1

Minnesota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 34 R: 64
D: 31 D: 69
I: 2 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0

Mississippi

SENATE HOUSE
R: 36 R: 77
D: 16 D: 43
I: 0 I: 2
V: 0 V: 0

Missouri

SENATE HOUSE
R: 24 R: 108
D: 10 D: 48
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 7

Montana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 31 R: 67
D: 19 D: 33
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Northern Mariana Islands

SENATE
D: 1 R: 5
Other: 3
HOUSE
D: 9 R: 8
Other: 3

Nebraska

Unicameral
49
 
 

Nevada

SENATE HOUSE
R: 9 R: 16
D: 11 D: 25
I: 0 I: 0
V: 1 V: 1

New Hampshire

SENATE HOUSE
R: 10 R: 206
D: 13 D: 182
I: 0 I: 1
V: 1 V: 11

New York

SENATE HOUSE
R: 20 R: 43
D: 43 D: 106
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0

New Jersey

SENATE HOUSE
R: 16 R: 34
D: 24 D: 46
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

New Mexico

SENATE HOUSE
R: 15 R: 24
D: 26 D: 45
I: 1 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0

North Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 69
D: 22 D: 51
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

North Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 39 R: 80
D: 7 D: 14
I: 0 I: 0
V: 1 V: 0

Ohio

SENATE HOUSE
R: 25 R: 64
D: 8 D: 35
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Oklahoma

SENATE HOUSE
R: 39 R: 82
D: 9 D: 18
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 1

Oregon

SENATE HOUSE
R: 11 R: 23
D: 18 D: 37
I: 1 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Puerto Rico

SENATE HOUSE
NPP: 10 NPP: 21
PDP: 12 PDP: 26
Other: 5 Other: 4

Rhode Island

SENATE HOUSE
R: 5 R: 10
D: 33 D: 65
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

South Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 30 R: 81
D: 16 D: 43
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Pennsylvania

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 113
D: 21 D: 89
I: 1 I: 0
V: 0 V: 1

South Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 32 R: 62
D: 3 D: 8
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Tennessee

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 73
D: 6 D: 24
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 1

Texas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 18 R: 84
D: 13 D: 65
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0

Utah

SENATE HOUSE
R: 23 R: 58
D: 6 D: 17
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Vermont

SENATE HOUSE
R: 7 R: 46
D: 21 D: 92
I: 2 I: 12
V: 0 V: 0

Virginia

SENATE HOUSE
R: 19 R: 52
D: 21 D: 48
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Virgin Island

Unicameral
R: 0
D: 9
Other: 6

District of Columbia

Unicameral
D: 11
R: 0
Other: 2

Washington

SENATE HOUSE
R: 20 R: 41
D: 29 D: 57
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

West Virgina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 23 R: 78
D: 11 D: 22
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0

Wisconsin

SENATE HOUSE
R: 21 R: 58
D: 12 D: 38
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 3

Wyoming

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 51
D: 2 D: 7
I: 0 I: 2
V: 0 V: 0

Preelection Legislative Control

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Overview

If you thought the last two legislative elections were big, you haven’t seen anything yet. This year, it’s all about more:

More seats. With 6,279 regularly scheduled legislative races in 46 states, hundreds more seats are up for a vote compared with 2020, when 5,876 races were on the ballot.

More competition. November’s legislative races will be the first held following the latest redistricting. Any time districts are redrawn it (literally) upends the map. Watch for more races between incumbents and contested races where the political geography has changed significantly—particularly in suburban areas.

More turnover. Naturally, if there’s more competition, more turnover is a possibility. Every election features several hundred new freshman legislators, but this year we expect the number to be closer to 1,000, or just under 15% of the nationwide total.

More uncertainty. Issue overload is nothing new, but it’s gone into overdrive in 2022. With high inflation, a land war in Europe, new variants of the coronavirus, the overturning of Roe v. Wade and all the state-specific concerns, it’s hard to know which issues will be most salient when voters cast their ballots this fall.

Over the last 100 years, on average, 12 chambers change party control in each general election cycle, but that number has declined in recent years. This cycle, NCSL considers 21 of the 99 legislative chambers to be competitive between the parties.

Partisan Control: Legislative Chambers

Competitive Senate Chambers in 2022 by Party

Republican:
AZ, MN, MI, PA, NH

Democratic:
WA, OR, CO, CT, DE, NV, ME

Competitive House Chambers in 2022 by Party

Republican:
AZ, MI, PA, NH

Democratic:
AK, NV, NM, MN, ME

Going into the election, 3,978 (52%) of the nation’s 7,383 legislative seats were held by Republicans; 3,266 (47%) were held by Democrats; and 139 (including all 49 Nebraska Senate seats) were held by independents or someone from another party or were vacant. Democrats have not held a majority of seats nationwide since the 2010 election, when Republicans took the lead.

The number of individual legislators representing each party nationwide doesn’t matter nearly as much as the number of chambers held. That’s because the majority party sets the agenda, chamber by chamber and state by state. On that metric, of the 98 chambers that have partisan control, 61 are held by Republicans, and 37 by Democrats. 

Senators in Nebraska’s unicameral Legislature are elected on a nonpartisan basis. Hence, there are 98 partisan chambers—not 100 as one might expect. It’s also important to note that the U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands will have races as well. Unofficially, Nebraska's legislature is controlled by Republicans. If added to the majority-Democratic coalition that governs the Alaska House, the "unofficial" tally of legislative chambers is 61 Republican, 38 Democratic. The chart to the right reflects this unofficial data, with Alaska's House listed as a competitive chamber currently held by Democrats.

The GOP has been ahead in the all-important chamber count since 2010, a blowout year when 24 chambers shifted from Democratic to Republican control. The 2016 election was the high-water mark for Republican chamber control, with the party holding the majority in 66 chambers.

What might change after Nov. 8? It’s hard to tell until all the ballots are counted. This year, voters have a lot on their minds: the economy, the war in Ukraine, abortion, climate change, guns, voting itself and so much more. While individual races may yield some upsets, chamber control is unlikely to change.

Chambers held by Democrats appear to be more competitive than those held by Republicans. That means Republicans have more opportunities to make gains. But the pendulum has swung pretty far to the right already; how far can it go?

Partisan Control: Legislatures (Both Chambers Combined)

In 49 states, it takes two chambers to tango—or at least to pass a law. (Again, Nebraska is the exception.) Unified party control of both chambers is the holy grail from a partisan perspective.

Going into the election, only three legislatures—in Alaska, Minnesota and Virginia—are split. In Alaska and Minnesota, the senates are held by Republicans and the houses by Democrats; the inverse is true in Virginia. Republicans hold a 30-to-17-state advantage in legislative control over Democrats.

Partisan Control: Adding in the Governors

NCSL Post-Election-Briefing 2022The 2022 elections will feature gubernatorial races in 36 states, though few seats are expected to be competitive. As of Aug. 23, the Cook Political Report with Amy Walter rated just four governor’s races—in Arizona, Kansas, Nevada and Wisconsin—as competitive; Democrats currently hold three of those seats. Additionally, Cook expects that governorships will flip in Massachusetts and Maryland, two blue states where popular Republican governors are not running for reelection.

Factoring governors in, state governments are more divided than legislatures. Since 2020, the GOP has gained control of all three power positions—aka a trifecta—in two states: New Hampshire and Montana. That gives the GOP trifectas in 23 states, compared to the Democrats’ 15. At least one of the three power positions is held by a different party than the other two in 12 states, the second-lowest number of states with split-government control since 1952 and well below the norm in the 2000s, when there were always 20 or more splits.

In total, pre-election, three-fourths of states have governors and legislatures of the same party, a sign that ticket-splitting may be waning nationwide.

Additional Resources

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Ballot Measures

On Nov. 8, voters will decide 130 ballot measures. Earlier this year, voters weighed in on five measures, and Louisianans will see three more in December, bringing the 2022 total to 138.

Most measures get on the ballot in one of two ways: Through a citizen initiative—where citizens have an idea for a statutory or constitutional change and gather signatures to place it on the ballot—or through a referral to the ballot from the legislature. Occasionally, voters try to repeal a law passed by the legislature, and that is known as a popular referendum or people’s veto. This year voters across the nation will see:

  • 101 legislative referrals in 34 states.
  • 29 citizen initiatives in 12 states and Washington, D.C.
  • Two popular referenda—one each in California and Massachusetts.
  • Three automatic questions in Alaska, Missouri and New Hampshire asking voters if they’d like to have a constitutional convention.
  • Three non-binding advisory questions: One in Idaho and two in Washington, which are automatically referred to the ballot whenever the Evergreen State’s legislature passes a bill creating or increasing taxes or fees.

Information about all individual ballot measures can be found on NCSL’s statewide ballot measure database.

Legislatures and Legislators

Voters across the country will see at least 12 measures related to legislatures and legislators—far higher than in most years—and most were unsurprisingly referred to voters by the legislators themselves. Arkansas, Idaho and Kentucky are all seeking permission from voters to call themselves into special session, rather than requiring the call to come from the governor. Three other states—Kansas, Louisiana (two measures) and West Virginia—aim to increase legislative oversight of various government entities or proceedings. In Michigan, voters will consider whether term limits for state legislators should change from three two-year terms in the house and two four-year terms in the Senate (14 years total) to a combined 12 years. North Dakotans will also weigh in on an initiative to establish term limits for state legislators and governors.

Eligibility requirements may change in two states. Maryland voters will decide if state legislators must reside and maintain a residence in the district that they wish to represent for six months before an election. Tennessee voters will consider whether to remove the constitutional provision disqualifying religious ministers from being elected to the state legislature. Voters will also decide new penalties for legislators in two states. In Georgia, a measure asks voters if assemblymembers and other public officials should have their pay suspended if they are indicted for a felony. And in Oregon, a citizen initiative asks voters if state legislators should be excluded from re-election for unexcused legislative absences.

Abortion

Abortion often features on voter’s ballots, and this year—in the wake of the Supreme Court overruling Roe v. Wade—voters will see six: the most abortion-related ballot measures ever in a single year. Kansas voters rejected an anti-abortion measure during the state’s Aug. 2 primary. In Montana, voters will see a legislative referral that would require medical care be provided to infants born alive, including after an attempted abortion. Kentuckians will vote on a measure that aims to establish no constitutional right to abortion. Voters in CaliforniaMichigan and Vermont will weigh in on the opposite, a constitutional right to abortion.

Health

In Oregon, voters will decide whether to establish a constitutional right to affordable healthcare. South Dakotans will weigh in on a citizen initiative that aims to expand Medicaid. If it passes, the Mount Rushmore State would be the 39th to expand Medicaid in the Affordable Care Act era. Arizonans will consider a citizen initiative that would limit interest rates on healthcare debt. And in California, voters will decide a citizen initiative related to dialysis clinic requirements—while not a common topic for ballot measures in other states, dialysis has been on the Golden State’s ballots for the last three general elections.

Drugs and Alcohol

This year is a big one for marijuana on the ballot. Voters in five states—Arkansas, Maryland, Missouri, North Dakota and South Dakota—will decide whether to legalize recreational marijuana. In all but Maryland, these measures are citizen initiatives. And South Dakotans might have déjà vu— voters there passed a similar adult-use marijuana measure in 2020, but it was overturned by the state supreme court. Coloradans will weigh in on an initiative to decriminalize certain psychedelic plants such as psilocybin; the first statewide measure on psilocybin passed in Oregon in 2020. Voters in the Centennial State will also see three initiatives relating to alcohol, with one each on liquor store licenses, grocery store wine sales and alcohol delivery services. And Californians will decide a popular referendum on the legislature's 2020 ban on the sale of flavored tobacco products. A “yes” vote will uphold the contested legislation, while a “no” vote would repeal it.

Civil and Criminal Justice

Over the past few years, there has been a small trend to remove from state constitutions provisions that permit slavery or involuntary servitude as punishments for a crime. Voters in four states—Louisiana, Oregon, Tennessee and Vermont—will have the option to remove such language from their states’ constitutions. Two states seek to make changes to bail. In Alabama, voters will decide if the state legislature can be allowed to create criminal offenses for which bail may be denied. And in Ohio, the legislature is asking voters to require judges to set bail amounts based on public safety considerations. Another Alabama measure would require the governor to provide notice to a victim’s family before commuting a death sentence. And a legislatively referred measure in Montana would require a search warrant to access a person’s electronic data— Michigan voters approved a similar measure in 2020.

Labor

This year we’ll also see two union-related measures—both referred to voters by legislatures. Illinois voters will decide whether to create a constitutional right to collective bargaining. And Tennessee voters will decide whether to enshrine the state’s “right to work” law in the constitution. Minimum wage is on the ballot, too. A citizen initiative in Nebraska seeks to increase the minimum wage to $15/hour by 2026, and a legislative referral in Nevada would create an increase to $12/hour by July 2024. In D.C., an initiative aims to increase the tipped minimum wage of $5.05 to match the non-tipped minimum wage by 2027.

Education

Several measures relate to education this year. With bipartisan support, the Arizona legislature has referred a question to voters asking if non-citizens should receive in-state college tuition. If passed, this would repeal a measure that voters approved in 2006 preventing non-citizens from receiving in-state tuition. Several measures seek to increase education funding, primarily through income tax increases or bond measures in California, ColoradoMassachusetts and New Mexico. And in West Virginia, the legislature has placed a question on the ballot that would require legislative approval of any proposed rules from the state board of education.

Taxes

Taxes are always on the ballot. Several of the education measures in the previous section would increase taxes on certain income brackets. Property taxes, though, are by far the most common type of tax measure on voters’ ballots this year—and most are exemptions or reductions, such as those in Arizona, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas and West Virginia. Two measures would make notable changes to property taxes in the face of natural disasters: a Florida measure would allow flood resistance improvements to be disregarded when assessing property value, and one in Georgia would allow temporary property tax changes for areas damaged by disasters. Other significant tax-related measures include a citizen initiative in California that would tax incomes above $2 million to fund zero-emission vehicle projects and wildfire prevention programs and a Colorado initiative that aims to decrease the state income tax from 4.55% to 4.4%. In 2020, voters approved a similar income tax deduction that was placed on the ballot by the same sponsors.

Infrastructure

Alabama voters will decide if local governments should be able to use American Rescue Plan Act funds for broadband internet infrastructure. New Mexicans will consider not just broadband infrastructure, but natural gas, electric, water and more when they weigh in on a measure that would authorize the legislature to provide funds for household services infrastructure. And in New York, voters will consider a bond measure to fund water infrastructure, climate change mitigation and land conservation projects.

Elections

Elections are a huge topic this year, featuring in at least 12 different measures. An Arizona measure would make several changes to the state’s voter identification laws, including requiring voters using mail ballots to provide a birth date and voter ID number. A Nebraska initiative also seeks voter ID changes that would require a photo ID. A legislatively referred measure in Connecticut would amend the state constitution to allow the legislature to enact early in-person voting. An initiative in Nevada seeks to establish open top-five primaries and ranked-choice voting for general elections. No state currently uses top-five primaries, though California and Washington use a “top two” system, and Alaska uses “top four.” An initiative in Michigan also aims to make sweeping changes to the state’s voting policies—including authorizing drop boxes, establishing nine days of early voting, allowing military and overseas ballots to be counted if postmarked by Election Day and requiring public disclosure of donations used to pay for elections or audits. In Alabama, voters will consider whether the constitution should be changed to require that any election law changes must be implemented at least six months before the next general election. Arizona voters will weigh in on a campaign finance initiative that would establish new disclosure requirements for independent expenditures. And voters in Louisiana and Ohio will weigh in on the controversial issue of non-citizens voting in local elections—both measures would prohibit it.

Direct Democracy

Sometimes ballot measures, particularly citizen initiatives, are the subject of ballot measures— and this year there are more than usual. Three measures would raise the vote threshold for some ballot measures from a simple majority to 60%. One in South Dakota was already rejected by voters on the primary ballot; the others in Arizona and Arkansas will be decided this November. Arizonans will see two additional measures related to direct democracy on their ballots: an effort to establish a single-subject rule for citizen initiatives and one that would allow the legislature to amend or repeal voter-approved ballot measures that have been ruled unconstitutional by the state or federal supreme court. In Colorado, a legislatively referred measure would require any initiative affecting income tax to have ballot titles and fiscal impact summaries that explain how the change would affect those taxes for people in different income categories. And in Florida, voters will decide if they want to abolish the Florida Constitution Revision Commission, which meets every 20 years to propose changes to the state's constitution.

Other Notable Highlights

  • Two measures aim to legalize sports betting, both in California.
  • An initiative in Colorado would fund affordable housing projects with 0.01% of the state’s federal income tax revenue.
  • Gun rights are on the ballot in Iowa; while gun control is in Oregon.
  • Nevadans will consider an Equal Rights Amendment, which would prohibit discrimination on account of race, color, creed, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, ancestry or national origin.
  • Arkansas voters will decide if they want to pass the Arkansas Religious Freedom Amendment, which would provide that the government shall not burden a person’s freedom of religion.
  • In Massachusetts, voters will consider a referendum on HB 4805, which would allow all residents to apply for driver's licenses, regardless of citizenship or immigration status.
  • And Alabama voters will have the opportunity to ratify the new Constitution of Alabama of 2022. In 2020, voters passed a measure authorizing the legislature to update the language in the constitution, and the new version removes racist language, deletes duplicative content, rearranges the sections and amendments and more. Unsurprisingly, this measure has bipartisan support and very little—if any—opposition.

Additional Resources

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Election Administration

NCSL’s elections team assists policymakers in supporting accurate and secure elections. Links to our most popular resources are below.

For legislators and legislative staff, the most important resource NCSL can offer is its staff. NCSL’s elections team is available to provide additional background material, customized research, testimony or state-specific resources. All you have to do is ask. Our job is to make your job easier.

For voters, please contact your local election official on how and where to vote. Contact information for these public servants can be found through the nonpartisan, nonprofit U.S. Vote Foundation, which compiles contact information for election jurisdictions throughout the nation.

NCSL Major Resources on Elections Administration