Carbon Monoxide Detector Requirements, Laws and Regulations

3/27/2018

Note: The information on this page is for reference by state legislators and legislative staff. If you are a homeowner, landlord or tenant with questions about carbon monoxide detector requirements in your area, please contact your state or local housing department.

Introduction

carbon monoxide detectorCarbon monoxide poisoning is the second most common cause of non-medicinal poisonings death. According to the CDC, over 10,000 are poisoned by carbon monoxide needing medical treatment each year and more than 438 people in the U.S. die annually from carbon monoxide poisoning.

>With the number of illnesses and death caused by high levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in homes and buildings, state legislatures have begun adopting laws mandating the use of carbon monoxide detectors.  The mandate varies from every enclosed room being required to have detectors, to every room that has a smoke alarm to have a detector, with only day-care centers and group homes needing detectors.

As of March 2018, a majority of states have enacted statutes regarding carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, and another 11 have promulgated regulations on CO detectors. Alaska requires detectors approved by the state fire marshal be installed in all dwellings. Connecticut requires them in all new construction, as does New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia. Florida also requires them in new construction, and in every room with a boiler. Minnesota passed a law requiring detectors in motor boats.

CO Detectors in Homes

  • 27 states and the District of Columbia require carbon monoxide detectors in private dwellings via state statute: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia (via adoption of the International Residential Code), Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wisconsin. Certain states limit the installation to buildings with fossil-fuel burning devices, others only require the device be installed upon the sale of the property or unit.
  • Another 11 states require carbon monoxide detectors in private dwellings regulatorily through the adoption of the International Residential Code or via an amendment to their state’s building code: Alabama, Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Virginia, and Wyoming.

CO Detectors in Schools

  • California, Connecticut, Illinois, Maine and Maryland require carbon monoxide (CO) detectors in school buildings.

CO Detectors in Hotels and Motels

  • Fourteen states require the installation of carbon monoxide detectors in hotels and motels under the statute.
  • Three of those states (New Jersey, Vermont and Wisconsin) have complementary administrative regulations.
  • Two states (Kansas and Washington) have requirements through administrative regulations alone.

The box allows you to conduct a full-text search or type the state name.

Carbon Monoxide Detector Statutes
State Statute Summary
Alaska Alaska Stat. § 18.70.095 - Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detection Devices Relates to the devices, including carbon monoxide detection devices, required in dwellings; provides that such devices must be installed and maintained in all qualifying dwelling units in the state; provides that smoke detection devices must be of a type and installed in a manner approved by the state fire occupancy. Requires marshall; provides that carbon monoxide detection devices must have an alarm and be installed and maintained according to manufacturers' recommendations; includes rentals.
California Cal. Health & Safety Code § 13260 to 13263 – Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Prevention Act of 2010 Requires State Fire Marshal to developed approved carbon monoxide device list. Prohibits marketing, distribution or sale of devices not on the approved list.
California Cal. Health & Safety Code § 1569.311 Requires every residential care facility for the elderly shall have one or more carbon monoxide detector in the facility.
California Cal. Health & Safety Code § 17926 to 17926.2 – Regulation of Buildings Used for Human Habitation Requires the owner of every single family dwelling, hotel and motel dwelling units and all other existing dwelling units intended for human occupancy to maintain a carbon monoxide device in the unit. A tenant shall be responsible for notifying the owner or owner's agent if the tenant becomes aware of an inoperable or deficient carbon monoxide device within his or her unit.
 Colorado Colo. Rev. Stat. § 38-45-101 to -106 – Carbon Monoxide Alarms Requires any existing single-family dwelling or dwelling unit of an existing multi-family dwelling offered for sale or transfer on or after a specified date, that has a fuel-burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, or an attached garage to have an operational carbon monoxide alarm installed within a specified distance of each room lawfully used for sleeping purposes; applies a similar requirement on new residential construction.
Connecticut Conn. Gen. Stat. § 29-292 - Fire Safety Code. Carbon monoxide and smoke detection and warning equipment. Certificate of occupancy. Requires the installation of carbon monoxide detectors in new residential buildings and all public and nonpublic schools; protects individuals and families from carbon monoxide poisoning in their homes; includes new residential buildings meant to be occupied by one or two families.
Florida Fla. Stat. § 553.885 – Carbon monoxide alarm required Requires that every building for which a building permit is issued for new construction on or after July 1, 2008, and having a fossil-fuel-burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, or an attached garage shall have an approved operational carbon monoxide alarm installed within 10 feet of each room used for sleeping purposes.
Florida  Fla. Stat. § 509.211 – Safety Regulations Requires that every enclosed space or room that contains a boiler regulated under chapter 554 which is fired by the direct application of energy from the combustion of fuels and that is located in any portion of a public lodging establishment that also contains sleeping rooms shall be equipped with one or more carbon monoxide sensor devices that bear the label of a nationally recognized testing laboratory and have been tested and listed as complying with the most recent Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Standard 2034, or its equivalent, unless it is determined that carbon monoxide hazards have otherwise been adequately mitigated as determined by the division. Such devices shall be integrated with the public lodging establishment's fire detection system.
Georgia Sec. R313.4.1 of Ga. State Minimum Standard One and Two Family Dwelling Code (International Residential Code for One- and Two-Family Dwellings with Georgia State Amendments) adopted pursuant to Ga. Code Ann. § 8-2-20-9 Requires carbon monoxide detectors be installed in general sleeping areas in all new one- and two-family homes and townhomes of three stories or less.
Illinois 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. § 135/ -- Carbon Monoxide Alarm Detector Act Requires that every dwelling unit shall be equipped with at least one approved carbon monoxide alarm in an operating condition within 15 feet of every room used for sleeping purposes. Every structure that contains more than one dwelling unit shall contain at least one approved carbon monoxide alarm in operating condition within 15 feet of every room used for sleeping purposes.
Illinois 105 ILCS 5/10-20.56--Carbon monoxide alarm required School boards must require that each school is equipped with an approved carbon monoxide alarm or detector.
Indiana In. Code §36-8-24-6 -- Concerning vehicular carbon monoxide testing Establishes regulation relating to vehicular carbon monoxide testing, provides that a fire department established by a county, city, town, or township, or a volunteer fire department, may provide vehicular carbon monoxide testing, requires testing to be offered to the owner of a motor vehicle without charge, specifies the manner in which testing is to be conducted, specifies certain paperwork and recordkeeping requirements, provides certain immunity from civil liability.
Iowa IA Code §100.18 Requires carbon monoxide alarms in dwellings and multi-unit buildings.
Louisiana La. Stat.Ann.  § 40:1563 State Fire Marshal The fire marshal has the authority to require the owner or lessee of a hotel to install a carbon monoxide alarm system when he determines, as a result of a plan review, investigation, or inspection, that a carbon monoxide source within or attached to the building or structure poses a threat of carbon monoxide poisoning. The source of carbon monoxide may include but not be limited to an attached enclosed garage or fossil-fuel burning appliance or appliances.
Maine Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 25, § 2465 – Carbon monoxide detectors Authorizes the Commissioner of Public Safety to adopt rules regarding the installation of a carbon monoxide detector near bedrooms in dwellings with a solid fuel burning device. Single and multi-family dwellings being sold or constructed, hotels, inns, and fraternity, sorority or dormitories affiliated with private or public schools are required to install detectors.
Maryland Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety § 12-1101 to 1106 – Carbon Monoxide Alarms Requires the installation of carbon monoxide alarms outside of each sleeping area or within a certain distance of carbon monoxide-producing equipment within certain dwellings; prohibits a person from disabling a carbon monoxide alarm; clarifies that this does not prevent a local entity from enacting more stringent requirements; provides that a vendor of a single family dwelling shall disclose if the property relies on fossil fuel combustion for heat and whether carbon monoxide alarms are installed.
Maryland  Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety § 10-702 -- Single-family residential real property disclosure req. The disclosure form shall include a list of defects, including latent defects, or information of which the vendor has actual knowledge in relation to the following...If the property relies on the combustion of a fossil fuel for heat, ventilation, hot water, or clothes dryer operation, whether a carbon monoxide alarm is installed on the property. 
Maryland Md. Code Ann., Educ. § 4-117 - Public School Buildings-Carbon Monoxide Detection and Warning Equipment  Requires carbon monoxide detection equipment for newly constructed or remodeled public school buildings where fuel-fired equipment is present.  Requires carbon monoxide detectors in any fraternity house, sorority house or dormitory that is affiliated with a private or public school or private or public post-secondary institution.
Massachusetts Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 148, § 26f1/2 Requires that every dwelling, building or structure occupied in whole or in part for residential purposes that contains fossil-fuel burning equipment or incorporates enclosed parking within its structure shall be equipped by the owner with working, approved carbon monoxide alarms. 
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 148 § 27A No person shall shut off, disconnect, obstruct, remove or destroy, or cause or permit to be shut off, disconnected, obstructed, removed or destroyed, any part of any sprinkler system, water main, hydrant or other device used for fire protection or carbon monoxide detection and alarm in any building owned, leased or occupied by such person or under his control or supervision, without first procuring a written permit so to do from the head of the fire department of the city or town wherein such building is situated, which permit such head is hereby authorized to issue subject to such terms and conditions as, in his judgment, protection against fire and the preservation of the public safety may require.
Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 125.1504d Requires newly constructed boarding houses, hotels, motels and other residential buildings where occupants are primarily transient in nature to install an operational carbon monoxide device in each area where a mechanism is present that provides a common source of heat from a fossil-fuel-burning furnace, boiler or water heater. 
Michigan Mich. Comp. Laws Ann. § 125.1504f Authorizes the director of the Department of Consumer and Industry Services to provide for the installation of at least one carbon monoxide device in the vicinity of bedrooms within newly constructed or renovated single-family or multi-family dwellings. 
Minnesota Minn. Stat. § 299F.50 to .51 – Carbon Monoxide Alarms Requires that every single family dwelling and every dwelling unit in a multifamily dwelling must have an approved and operational carbon monoxide alarm installed within ten feet of each room lawfully used for sleeping purposes.
Minnesota Minn. Stat. § 86B.005 – Carbon Monoxide Detectors in Motorboats Sophia’s Law requires that all motorboats, regardless of fuel type, with an enclosed accommodation compartment must be equipped with a functioning marine CO detector system installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. All gasoline-powered motorboats with any enclosed occupancy compartment must display the three CO warning stickers as directed by law.
Montana Mont. Code Ann. § 70-24-303 Requires carbon monoxide detectors in each dwelling unit rented by a landlord and limits landlord liability for failure of a detector.
Nebraska Neb. Code 76-2, 120 Carbon Monoxide Safety Act. Requires any dwelling with a fuel-fired heater, fireplace or attached garage have a carbon monoxide alarm installed on each floor or in a location required by the building code. Local governments may adopt more stringent provisions for the installation and maintenance of carbon monoxide alarms.
New Hampshire N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 150:10-a Each multi-unit dwelling and rental unit an attached garage or contains an appliance or device that uses a combustion method of burning solid, liquid, or gas fuel, shall be equipped with a carbon monoxide detection device in accordance with the NFPA 720 Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment.
New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 52:27D-133.3 to 133.5 – Carbon monoxide sensor device required for issuance of a certificate of occupancy Requires installation of carbon monoxide detectors in single and two-family homes upon initial occupancy or change of occupancy.
New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 55:13A-7.17 – Carbon monoxide sensor device required in a hotel, multiple dwelling. Requires every unit of dwelling space in a hotel or multiple dwelling be equipped with one or more carbon monoxide sensor devices unless it is determined that no potential carbon monoxide hazard exists for that unit.
New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 39: – Rosa-Bonilla Family Act Concerns a carbon monoxide poisoning educational program for drivers.
New Jersey N.J. Stat. Ann. § 55:13B-6.1 – Rooming and Boarding Houses Requires every unit of a rooming or boarding house be equipped with one or more carbon monoxide sensor devices unless it is determined that no potential carbon monoxide hazard exists for that unit.
New York N.Y. Exec. Law § 378 – Standards for New York state uniform fire prevention and building code. Requires New York Fire Prevention and Building Code to adopt standards for installation of carbon monoxide detectors requiring that every one or two-family dwelling constructed or offered for sale, any dwelling accommodation located in a building owned as a condominium or cooperative in the state constructed or offered for sale, or any multiple dwellings constructed or offered for sale shall have installed an operable carbon monoxide detector of such manufacture, design and installation standards as are established by the council. Carbon monoxide detectors required by this section are required only where the dwelling unit has appliances, devices or systems that may emit carbon monoxide or has an attached garage.
New York N.C. Gen. Stat. § 130A-248 Carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in every enclosed space, including a sleeping room, that shares a common wall, floor, or ceiling with an enclosed space having a fossil fuel burning heater, appliance, or fireplace."
North Carolina N.C. Gen Stat. § 143-138 - North Carolina State Building Code Authorizes adoption of provisions requiring the installation of either battery-operated or electrical carbon monoxide detectors in every dwelling unit having a fossil-fuel burning heater or appliance, fireplace, or an attached garage.
North Carolina N.C. Gen Stat. § 42-42 to 42-44 - Landlord and Tenant Articles - Residential Rental Agreements Requires landlords to provide one operable carbon monoxide detector per rental unit per level.  A landlord that installs one carbon monoxide detector per rental unit per level shall be deemed to be in compliance with standards under this subdivision covering the location and number of detectors. The landlord shall ensure that a carbon monoxide detector is operable and in good repair at the beginning of each tenancy. Failure of the tenant to replace the batteries as needed shall not be considered as negligence on the part of the tenant or the landlord.  This subdivision applies only to dwelling units having a fossil-fuel burning heater or appliance, fireplace, or an attached garage. 
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 90.316 – Residential Landlord and Tenant Obligations Requires landlords to install a functioning carbon monoxide alarm in accordance to the state fire marshal’s rules, if the unit contains a carbon monoxide source.
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 90.320 Deems a rental dwelling unit uninhabitable if it lacks a carbon monoxide alarm when that dwelling unit or the structure that the dwelling unit is a part contains a carbon monoxide source.
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 90.325 Prohibits tenants from removing or tampering with carbon monoxide alarms. Requires tenants to test carbon monoxide alarms at least once every six months and replace batteries as needed.
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 105.836 to .844 –Carbon Monoxide Alarms in Dwellings Prohibits the sale or transfer of one-, two- or multi-family housing that contains a carbon monoxide source unless the dwelling contains functioning carbon monoxide alarms that provide detection for all sleeping areas. Prohibits tampering with these alarms.
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 455.360 – Mandated Carbon Monoxide Alarms Requires a carbon monoxide alarm in newly constructed or repaired hotels, motels, dormitories and other structures where humans sleep.
Oregon Or. Rev. Stat. § 476.725 – Standards for Carbon Monoxide Alarms Requires the State Fire Marshal to adopt rules establishing minimum standards for carbon monoxide alarms in one and two-family dwellings and multifamily housing. The rules adopted by the State Fire Marshal may include rules establishing minimum standards for the design, inspection, testing and maintenance of carbon monoxide alarms.
Pennsylvania 35 P.S. § 7225 -- Carbon Monoxide Alarm Standards Act Requires the owner of a multi-family dwelling having a fossil fuel-burning heater or appliance, fireplace or an attached garage used for rental purposes and required to be equipped with one or more approved carbon monoxide alarms. Occupants must keep the device in good repair.
Pennsylvania 35 P.S. § 7241 -- Care Facility Carbon Monoxide Alarm Standards Act Requires an approved carbon monoxide alarm be installed at every care facility not less than 15 feet from any fossil fuel-burning device or appliance. Carbon monoxide detectors and alarm systems installed at a care facility shall be tested and cleaned as indicated in the manufacturer's guidelines.
Rhode Island R.I. Gen. Laws § 23-28.1-2 – Purposes.

Requires Rhode Island Fire Safety Code provide reasonable standards for the installation of smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in private dwellings occupied by one (1), two (2), and three (3) families; three (3) family dwellings shall be equipped with hard-wired or supervised interconnected UL approved wireless smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, in accordance with standards established by the Fire Safety Code Board of Appeal and Review. The code adopted pursuant to this legislation, the Rhode Island Uniform Fire Code (RIUFC), requires carbon monoxide detectors in all apartment buildings, dormitories, lodging and rooming houses, one-, two- and three-family dwellings and child day-care facilities.

Tennessee T.C.A. § 68-120-101 -- Construction Safety Standards The state fire marshal is required to establish minimum statewide building construction safety standards. Beginning in January 2016, carbon monoxide alarms are required for within 10 feet of each sleeping room in every hotel or building with a fossil fuel burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, and attached garage, or other feature, fixture or element that emits carbon monoxide as a byproduct of combustion.
Tennessee T.C.A. § 68-120-112 Smoke detectors and carbon monoxide alarms; hotels and motels; apartment buildings Requires hotels that have fossil fuel burning heater or appliance, a fireplace, and attached garage, or other feature, fixture or element that emits carbon monoxide as a byproduct of combustion to install carbon monoxide detectors within 10 feet of each sleeping room. Only applies to a hotel built before January 2016.
Texas Tex. Hum. Res. Code Ann. § 42.060 – Carbon Monoxide Detectors. Requires that qualifying day-care centers, group day-care homes, and family homes must be equipped with carbon monoxide detectors. 
Tex. Health & Safety Code Ann. § 766.003 - Information Relating to Fire Safety and Carbon Monoxide Dangers Requires the state prepare information relating to the availability of carbon monoxide detectors, their use in preventing carbon monoxide poisoning; and the need to properly use and maintain fossil fuel-burning appliances. 
Utah Utah Code Ann. 1953 § 15A-5-205.5 Requires carbon monoxide alarms on each habitable level in new residential structures regulated by state residential code that are equipped with fuel burning appliances.
Utah Utah Code Ann. § 10-8-53.5 and § 17-50-327 Prohibits a municipality from enforcing any ordinance, rule or regulation requiring the installation or maintenance of carbon monoxide detectors in a residential dwelling against anyone other than the occupant of the dwelling. Does not affect building permit applicants where building code requires the installation of carbon monoxide detectors as part of new construction.
Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 9 § 2881 to 2883 – Smoke Detectors and Carbon Monoxide Detectors Requires that a person who constructs a single-family dwelling shall install one or more smoke detectors, and one or more carbon monoxide detectors in the vicinity of any bedrooms in the dwelling in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. In a dwelling provided with electrical power, detectors shall be powered by the electrical service in the building and by battery. Statute says that nothing in this section shall require an owner or occupant of a single-family dwelling to maintain or use a smoke detector or a carbon monoxide detector after installation. 
Vermont Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 20, § 2729 – Fire Safety Division General Provisions Requires any condominium or multiple unit dwelling using a common roof, or row houses, or other residential buildings in which people sleep, including hotels, motels, and tourist homes, excluding single-family owner-occupied houses and premises, whether the units are owned or leased or rented, to contain one or more carbon monoxide detectors.
Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 27-94 et seq. - Statewide Fire Prevention Code; and Va. Code Ann. § 36-97 et seq. - the Uniform Statewide Building Code Establishes a statewide standard for the installation and maintenance of smoke and carbon monoxide alarms in rental properties, requires a landlord to install a smoke alarm without retrofitting the installation site and to certify annually that smoke alarms have been installed and maintained in good working order in a residential dwelling unit pursuant to the Statewide Fire Prevention Code.
Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 55-248.16 - Tennant to maintain dwelling unit. Prohibits the tenant from removing or tampering with a carbon monoxide detector installed by a landlord.   
Virginia Va. Code Ann. § 55-248.18 – Tenant Obligations Authorizes tenant to install carbon monoxide detection devices that the tenant may believe necessary to ensure his safety.
Washington Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 19.27.530 – Carbon monoxide alarms Requires carbon monoxide alarms to be installed in dwelling units built or manufactured in the state; requires the seller of any owner-occupied single-family residence to equip the resident with carbon monoxide alarms before the buyer or any other person may legally occupy the residence; allows the building code council to exempt categories of residential buildings if it determines that requiring carbon monoxide alarms are unnecessary to protect the welfare of the occupants.
West Virginia W. Va. Code § 29-3-16a - Smoke detectors in one- and two-family dwellings; carbon monoxide detectors in residential units; penalty Requires carbon monoxide detectors be installed in newly constructed residential units with a fuel-burning heating or cooking device; all rooms in which a person will be sleeping that are adjoining to and being directly below and above all areas or rooms that contain permanently installed fuel-burning appliances and equipment that emit carbon monoxide as a byproduct of combustion located within all apartment buildings, boarding houses, dormitories, long-term care facilities, adult or child care facilities, assisted living facilities, one- and two- family dwellings intended to be rented or leased, hotels and motels.
Wisconsin Wis. Stat. Ann. § 101.647 – One- and 2-Family Dwelling Code Requires the owner of a 1 or 2 family dwelling (not including hotels) install a carbon monoxide detector on each floor and in the basement of the dwelling if the dwelling has an attached garage, fireplace, or a fuel-burning appliance
Wisconsin Wis. Stat. Ann. § 101.149 - Carbon monoxide detectors Requires carbon monoxide detectors in hotel rooms or any public building used for sleeping or lodging purposes, not including hospitals or nursing homes, that have carbon monoxide-emitting devices and certain adjoining rooms and hallways.

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