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Alabama

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Wes Allen, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Probate Judge, Clerk of Circuit Court, Board of Registrars, Sheriff  

Number of jurisdictions: 67 

State website: www.sos.alabama.gov/alabama-votes  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

15 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Not provided  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

12 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Absentee voter only  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not used 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

7 a.m. on Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

No post-election audits used 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Alaska

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Lieutenant Governor Nancy Dahlstrom; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Election Supervisor 

Number of jurisdictions:

State website: www.elections.alaska.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database  

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Permitted 90 days before turning 18   

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted for Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections only  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 15 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received within 10 days if postmarked on or before Election Day    

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Seven days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities   

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Top-four open primary  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Arizona

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Adrian Fontes; elected in 2022 for a four-year term   

Who runs elections locally: County Recorder, Elections Director 

Number of jurisdictions: 15 

State website: www.azsos.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

29 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 27 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Family member, household member or caregiver  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Arkansas

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State John Thurston; elected in 2022 for a second four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, County Board of Election Commissioners 

Number of jurisdictions: 75 

State website: www.sos.arkansas.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

Not provided  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 15 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7:30 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibits drop boxes 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Seven days before Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

California

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Shirley Weber; elected in 2022 for a four-year term  

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Registrar of Voters 

Number of jurisdictions: 58 

State website: www.sos.ca.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting  

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 29 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Seven days after Election Day*  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

29 days before Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters only  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits  

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Top-two  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Colorado

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Jena Griswold; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk 

Number of jurisdictions: 64 

State website: www.coloradosos.gov/pubs/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 15 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A voter’s designee, or qualified election official 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt   

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Connecticut

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Stephanie Thomas; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs election locally: Town Clerk, Registrar of Voters  

Number of jurisdictions: 169 

State website: www.portal.ct.gov/SOTS  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 15 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Immediate family members or designated caregiver  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

At the discretion of the local registrar of voters  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Delaware

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Delaware Department of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Election Commissioners 

Number of jurisdictions:

State website: www.elections.delaware.gov 

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

4th Saturday preceding Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 10 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Used only during early voting  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

30 days before Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities   

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 and D.C. states require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

District of Columbia

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: District of Columbia Board of Elections  

Number of jurisdictions:

District website: www.dcboe.org  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

12 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters 

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received within 7 days of Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Prior to tabulation, timing not specified 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Florida

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Cord Byrd; appointed by the governor in 2023 

Who runs elections locally: County Supervisor of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 67 

State website: www.dos.fl.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

29 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 10 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Emergency affidavit required to receive mail ballot  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Georgia

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger; elected in 2022 for a second four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Board of Elections and Registration, Probate Judge, Board of Registrars, Election Supervisor and Registrar 

Number of jurisdictions: 159 

State website: https://sos.ga.gov/elections-division-georgia-secretary-states-office  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

37 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17.5-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

29 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins on the 4th Monday before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Family members, household members or caregivers  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Signature verification upon receipt, all other processing on third Monday before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Hawaii

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Hawaii Office of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, City Clerk (Honolulu) 

Number of jurisdictions:

State website: www.elections.hawaii.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 10 business days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voter 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter can return ballot in “any manner”  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities   

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Idaho

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Phil McGrane; elected in 2022 for a 4-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk 

Number of jurisdictions: 44 

State website sos.idaho.gov/elections-division/ 

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 3rd Monday before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

8 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Idaho is NVRA exempt. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Illinois

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Illinois Board of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, County Election Commissioner, Municipal Election Commissions 

Number of jurisdictions: 108 

State website: www.elections.il.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day*  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 40 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

14 days after the election**  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially open  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Preregistration is only available online or through AVR agencies. 
**Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Indiana

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Diego Morales; elected in 2022 for a 4-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections and Registration 

Number of jurisdictions: 92 

State website: www.in.gov/sos/elections/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

29 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 28 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted   

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

6 p.m. on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Household, family members and bonded courier 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted** 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities   

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially open  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

**Drop boxes are only permitted under control and supervision of the County Board of Elections. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Iowa

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Paul Pate; elected in 2022 for a 4-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Commissioner of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 99 

State website: www.sos.iowa.gov/elections

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17.5-year-olds may preregister  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 20 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

 A voter’s household member, immediate family member or special precinct officials 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted*  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

The day before the election, if directed by the commissioner 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA active-duty voters or civilians living in imminent danger area as designated by the D.O.D. 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially open  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

**Drop boxes are limited to one per county and must be located on election office property. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Kansas

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Scott Schwab; elected in 2022 for a 4-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Election Commissioner 

Number of jurisdictions: 105 

State website: www.sos.ks.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

21 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 20 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are authorized 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

No-excuse absentee voting is permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

3 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Prior to Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by close of polls on Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies. 

Kentucky

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Michael Adams; elected in 2019 for a 4-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 120 

State website: www.elect.ky.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

29 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins the Thursday before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted   

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Family, household member or caregiver  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection law 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

14 days before Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Louisiana

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Kyle Ardoin, elected in 2019 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Clerk of Court, Registrar of Voters 

Number of jurisdictions: 64 

State website: www.sos.la.gov/electionsandvoting  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 14 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Day before Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Immediate family member, must sign statement  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Three days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters; absentee voters with approval 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Top-two primary 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Maine

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Shannon Bellows, elected by the legislature for a two-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Municipal Clerk, Registrar of Voters 

Number of jurisdictions: 497 

State website: www.maine.gov/sos/cec/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day for in-person voting 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 35-40 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted   

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

7 days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Pilot after 2024 general election 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Maryland

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Maryland State Board of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 24 

State website: www.elections.maryland.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins on the second Thursday before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used during the early voting period 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

10 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee who is at least 18 years old with an affidavit 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

After the election 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Massachusetts

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of the Commonwealth William Galvin; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: City Clerks, Town Clerks, Registrars and Election Commissioners 

Number of jurisdictions: 351 

State website: www.sec.state.ma.us/divisions/elections/elections-and-voting.htm  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted during early voting 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

10 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration* 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

17 days before Election Day** 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Used for early voting only 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted for mail ballots 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

5 p.m. on the 3rd day after the election*** 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s family member 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters who cannot mark a paper ballot  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits only after presidential elections  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

* ID required for first-time voters and voters who cannot be verified by HAVA. 

** EIPV dates are different for primaries. 
***Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day for biennial state elections. Ballots must be received by the close of polls for primary and municipal elections. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Michigan

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Board of County Election Commissioners, Board of County Canvassers, City or Township Clerk, Board of City or Township Election Commission 

Number of jurisdictions: 83 

State website: www.michigan.gov/sos.elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 9 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Immediate family or household members 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

7 a.m. on Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Minnesota

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Steve Simon; elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Auditor, City or Township Clerk 

Number of jurisdictions: 87 

State website: https://www.sos.state.mn.us/elections-voting/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 46 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

After close of business on the 19th day before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Minnesota is NVRA exempt. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Mississippi

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Michael Watson, elected in 2019 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Election Commissioners, County Registrar (Clerk of the Circuit Court), Municipal Election Commission 

Number of jurisdictions: 82 

State website: www.sos.ms.gov/elections-voting  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

Not provided 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Not provided 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

5 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

When polls open on Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA Voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Missouri

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Jay Ashcroft, elected in 2020 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Board of Election Commissioners 

Number of jurisdictions: 116 

State website: www.sos.mo.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17.5-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

27 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

In-person absentee voting begins the second Tuesday before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received by close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A relative within the second degree of consanguinity and/or affinity 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Five days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters with restrictions 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Montana

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Christi Jacobsen, elected in 2020 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Election Administrator  

Number of jurisdictions: 56 

State website: www.sosmt.gov/elections/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

Not provided 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

12 p.m. on the day before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 30 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received by close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Caregiver, family or household member or acquaintance 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

3 business days before the election** 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

**Counties that have fewer than 8,000 registered voters or fewer than 3,000 absentee voters may not begin ballot processing until 1 business day before Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Nebraska

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Robert Evnen, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Election Commissioner 

Number of jurisdictions: 93 

State website: www.sos.nebraska.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

11 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 30 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received by close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process defined by statute 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Second Friday before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters with prior approval 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Nonpartisan for state legislature; other primaries are closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Nevada

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Francisco V. Aguliar, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Registrar of Voters 

Number of jurisdictions: 17 

State website: www.nvsos.gov/sos/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins the 3rd Saturday before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used   

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered active voters  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered active voters   

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

5 p.m. on the fourth day after the election* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities, and tribal voters who live on a colony or reservation 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

New Hampshire

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State David Scanlan, elected by the New Hampshire Legislature in 2022 for a two-year term 

Who runs elections locally: City or Town Clerk, Moderator, Supervisors of the Checklist  

Number of jurisdictions: 320 

State website: www.sos.nh.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

Not provided 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Not provided 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received by 5 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Family member or staff member of care facility with identity confirmation by clerk 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

1 p.m. on Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Not required 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*New Hampshire is NVRA exempt. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies. 

New Jersey

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Lieutenant Governor Tahesha Way, appointed by the Governor in 2018 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 21 

State website: www.nj.gov/state/elections/vote.shtml  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

21 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 45 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

6 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee with proof of identity 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters with a hard copy sent via postal mail 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

New Mexico

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Board of Registration 

Number of jurisdictions: 33 

State website: www.sos.nm.gov/voting-and-elections/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 28 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A member of the voter’s immediate family or household or voter’s caregiver 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Counties receiving more than 10,000 abs. ballots may begin processing 2 weeks before Election Day** 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

* Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 
** Counties that receive less than 10,000 absentee ballots may begin processing five days before Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

New York

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: New York State Board of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 62 

State website: www.elections.ny.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

10 days before election day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 10 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Within four days of receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

North Carolina

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: North Carolina State Board of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 100 

State website: www.ncsbe.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted through the DMV 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Same-day registration permitted through the early voting period 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

25 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins the 3rd Thursday before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7:30 p.m. on Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s near relative or legal guardian 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

5th Tuesday before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

North Dakota

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Michael Howe, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Auditor 

Number of jurisdictions: 53 

State website: www.sos.nd.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

ND does not have voter registration 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

ND does not have voter registration 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

ND does not have voter registration 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

ND does not have voter registration 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

ND does not have voter registration 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 15 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used   

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

4 p.m. on the day before Election Day** 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

3 business days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*North Dakota is NVRA exempt. 

**Ballots that are postmarked by Election Day will be counted at the canvass, which takes place 13 days after Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

Ohio

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Frank LaRose, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 88 

State website: www.ohiosos.gov/elections/ 

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 29 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Four days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

A family member 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide   

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Before Election Day as determined by Board of Elections 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits  

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by the day before Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Oklahoma

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Oklahoma State Election Board 

Who runs elections locally: County Election Board 

Number of jurisdictions: 77 

State website: www.oklahoma.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17.5-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

25 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins Wednesday before Election Day for general elections 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s spouse can return by mail 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Examination may begin at 10 a.m. on the Thursday before Election Day, or earlier if permitted by the state board 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

UOCAVA voters may return ballot by fax 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Oregon

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State LaVonne Griffin-Valade, appointed in 2023 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Elections Director and Manager 

Number of jurisdictions: 36 

State website: www.sos.oregon.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

21 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Conducts entirely by mail 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters   

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

7 days after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Pennsylvania

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Al Schmidt, appointed by the Governor in 2023 

Who runs elections locally: County Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 67 

State website: www.vote.pa.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

15 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

50 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

8 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter only 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

7 a.m. on Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Rhode Island

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Gregg Amore, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Board of Canvassers in conjunction with the Rhode Island State Board of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 39 

State website: vote.ri.gov and www.elections.ri.gov 

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided* 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 20 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

8 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

20 days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open to unaffiliated voters 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Election Day registration is permitted for the presidential and vice-presidential election only. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

South Carolina

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: South Carolina Election Commission 

Who runs elections locally: Board of Voter Registration and Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 46 

State website: www.scvotes.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 2 weeks before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

7 a.m. on two days preceding Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

South Dakota

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Monae L. Johnson, 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs election locally: County Auditors 

Number of jurisdictions: 66 

State website: www.sdsos.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

Not provided  

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided  

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Must be 18 by Election Day  

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided  

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

15 days before Election Day  

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required  

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

In-person absentee voting begins 46 days before Election Day  

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Permitted  

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day  

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter’s designee  

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited  

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Election Day  

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed  

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Tennessee

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Tre Hargett, elected by the Tennessee State Legislature 

Who runs elections locally: County Administrator of Elections 

Number of jurisdictions: 95 

State website: www.sos.tn.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Bottom-up 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 20 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

No statute; no one other than the voter can return a ballot 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide 

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Texas

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Jane Nelson, appointed by the Governor 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, County Elections Administrator 

Number of jurisdictions: 254

State website: www.votetexas.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

Not provided 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

Individuals 17 years and 10 months old may register 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

30 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Begins 17 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Permitted

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

5 p.m. the day after Election Day* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Household members or family members within second or third degree 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters living in a hostile fire area 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballots must be postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Utah

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Lieutenant Governor Diedre Henderson, elected in 2020 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk  

Number of jurisdictions: 29 

State website: www.vote.utah.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

14 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Noon on the day of the official canvass* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Four states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Before election day, exact timing not specified 

32 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters and voters with disabilities  

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Vermont

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Sarah Copeland Hanzas, elected in 2022 for a two-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Town Clerk, Board of Civil Authority 

Number of jurisdictions: 247 

State website: www.sos.vermont.gov/elections/  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID not required if presented at the time of registration 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

45 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters for general elections 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters for general elections only  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day* 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permits drop boxes on municipal property 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

30 days before Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Virginia

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Virginia Department of Elections 

Who runs elections locally: County and City Electoral Boards, County and City General Registrars 

Number of jurisdictions: 133 

State website: www.elections.virginia.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

22 days before election or on Election Day to vote via provisional ballot 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

45 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

No, ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

12 p.m. three days after the election* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Voter only if in person; mail and drop boxes not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Washington

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Steve Hobbs, elected in 2022 to serve until 2024 

Who runs elections locally:  County Auditor, Election Director (in King County only) 

Number of jurisdictions: 39 

State website: www.sos.wa.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Hybrid 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

16 and 17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

18 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers are used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted; ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Not specified* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

Ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Upon receipt 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Top-two 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.

West Virginia

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Mac Warner, elected in 2020 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: Clerk of the County Commission 

Number of jurisdictions: 55 

State website: www.sos.wv.gov/elections  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

AVR permitted 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

17-year-olds may preregister 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Not provided 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

21 days before Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

Between 3 and 13 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Not permitted 

27 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

No, ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Must be received before the fifth day after the election, excluding Sundays and holidays* 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

An individual may deliver up to two absentee ballots 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Not specified 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Permitted for UOCAVA voters, voters with disabilities and qualified first responders 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Partially closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

* Ballot must be postmarked by Election Day. 

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

Wisconsin

View State Profile PDF

Chief election authority: Wisconsin Elections Commission  

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk, Municipal Clerk, Municipal Board of Election Commissioners, County Board of Election Commissioners 

Number of jurisdictions: 1,851 

State website: www.elections.wi.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

OVR permitted 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

14 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Not used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

8 p.m. on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Only the voter, except for disabled voters 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Prohibited 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

After polls open on Election Day 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Used pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits 

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Open 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Wisconsin is NVRA exempt. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies. 

Wyoming

View State Profile PDF

Chief election official: Secretary of State Chuck Gray, elected in 2022 for a four-year term 

Who runs elections locally: County Clerk 

Number of jurisdictions: 23 

State website: www.sos.wyo.gov  

ELECTION POLICY 

STATUS 

NATIONAL COMPARISON 

VOTER REGISTRATION* 

Online voter registration 

Not provided 

42 states and D.C. have online voter registration 

Automatic/automated voter registration 

Not provided 

24 states and D.C. have automatic voter registration 

Type of state voter registration database 

Top-down 

36 states and D.C. use top-down; seven states use bottom-up; seven states use a hybrid system 

Pre-registration  

18 by the election 

22 states and D.C. permit pre-registration for 16- and 17-year-olds  

Election Day/same-day registration  

Permitted 

22 states and D.C. have same-day registration 

Registration deadline 

Election Day 

National average is 20 days before Election Day 

VOTING  

Voter ID for in-person voting 

ID required 

36 states require ID to vote in person 

Early in-person voting  

28 days before Election Day 

47 states and D.C. allow early in-person voting; national average is 26 days 

Vote centers  

Vote centers used 

30 states and D.C. allow vote centers  

No-excuse absentee voting 

Permitted 

28 states permit no-excuse absentee voting 

Mails ballots to all registered voters  
(aka “mostly mail elections”) 

Ballots are not mailed to all registered voters  

Eight states and D.C. mail ballots to all registered voters 

Deadline for absentee/mail ballot return  

Close of polls on Election Day 

31 states require ballots returned by Election Day** 

Laws governing who can return a voted ballot 

Not specified 

32 states have laws governing ballot collection 

Ballot drop boxes 

Permitted 

Six states prohibit; 23 states permit; other states are silent 

Ballot cure process 

No ballot cure process offered statewide  

30 states and D.C. have a ballot cure process 

When absentee/mail ballot processing begins 

Election Day or Thursday and Friday preceding Election Day at the discretion of the Clerk 

34 states and D.C. begin processing before Election Day 

Electronic ballot return 

Not permitted 

33 states and D.C. allow for military and overseas voters; 13 states and D.C. allow for voters with disabilities 

OTHER 

Pre-election audits (logic and accuracy testing) 

Uses pre-election audits 

47 states and D.C. have pre-election audits 

Post-election tabulation audits 

Uses post-election audits  

48 states and D.C. require post-election audits 

State primary type 

Closed 

Primaries range from fully open to fully closed 

*Wyoming is NVRA exempt. 

**Other states accept ballots postmarked by Election Day.  

Note: Neither NCSL nor the U.S. Election Assistance Commission advocate for or against any election policies.  

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Related Resources

NCSL Election Resources

The NCSL elections team provides a variety of resources on election issues, including but not limited to 50-state surveys on state laws, legislation databases, a monthly elections newsletter, enactment summaries and other publications.

Table 10: Ballot Collection Laws

This table is part of the Voting Outside the Polling Place report and details who can return an absentee or mail ballot and other restrictions by state.
Table