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Related Topic: Elections

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Topic Descriptions

Absentee Voting-Application for

Includes legislation relating to applications to receive an absentee ballot or to vote absentee, including requesting an absentee ballot electronically.

Absentee Voting-Distributing Ballots

Includes legislation relating to the distribution of absentee ballots.

Early Voting/In-Person Absentee

Includes legislation relating to early in-person voting and in-person absentee voting.

Absentee Voting-Eligibility

Includes legislation regarding the eligibility to vote absentee, including whether an excuse is required.

Absentee Voting-Military/Overseas

Includes legislation relating to absentee voting for military and overseas voters, or those that fall under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (UOCAVA).

Absentee Voting-Misc.

Includes legislation relating to absentee voting that does not fit within other absentee voting categories.

Absentee Voting-MOVE Act

Includes state legislation relating to the federal Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment “MOVE” Act of 2009.

Absentee Voting-No Excuse

Includes legislation relating to no-excuse absentee voting.

Absentee Voting-Permanent Status

Includes legislation relating to permanent absentee voting, also known as permanent absentee voter lists, where a voter can ask to receive absentee ballots for not just one election but for future elections.

Absentee Voting-Returning Ballots

Includes legislation relating to the return of absentee ballots, such as the date they must be received by election officials, whether postage is paid, and ballot drop boxes.

Alt Voting Methods (Ranked Choice, etc.)

Includes legislation relating to alternative voting methods such as ranked-choice voting, instant runoff voting, approval voting and other non-traditional voting methods.


Includes legislation relating to post-election audits, pre-election audits, procedural audits and logic and accuracy testing.

Ballot Access-Candidates

Includes legislation on candidates’ ballot access including nomination petitions, fees and paperwork requirements.

Ballot Access-Parties

Includes legislation on party status, such as what percentage of votes are required to have major party status and how minor parties can get on the ballot.

Ballots-Required Number, Format & Design

Includes legislation on the number of ballots required to be printed and their design and format.

Candidates-Qualifications and Running for Office

Includes legislation relating to candidate qualifications for office such as residency, age, criminal history and more.

Candidates-Resign to Run

Includes legislation on whether a candidate must resign from a currently held office to run for another office.


Includes legislation relating to how a party may (or may not) field a candidate in the event the original candidate withdraws or dies before Election Day.


Includes legislation relating to write-in candidates.

Challenges to Voters

Includes legislation regarding challenges to voter eligibility.

Election Contests (Court Challenges)

Includes legislation relating to election contests, the act of disputing the conduct or results of an election in court.

Costs of, and Funding for, Elections

Includes legislation relating to election costs and funding, including what level of government (federal, state or local) pay for what expenses, and prohibitions on some funding sources.

Counting Votes 

Includes legislation regarding counting, including counting absentee ballots, signature verification and cure processes.


Includes legislation relating to cybersecurity pertaining to elections.

Dates of Elections

Includes legislation regarding dates of elections, such as measures to standardize when state and local elections can be held. For primary dates see Primary Elections-Dates.


Includes legislation on direct recording electronic voting machines, including requirements to have paper trail.

Election Crimes

Includes legislation regarding election crimes such as voter crimes, election official crimes and crimes against election officials.

Election Data-Collection/Retention of

Includes legislation relating to election data collection and retention.

Election Day Holiday

Includes legislation regarding paid time off on election day or making election day a holiday.

Election Officials-Campaign Activities

Includes legislation regarding election official’s campaign activity.

Election Officials-Local

Includes legislation regarding local election officials, including their duties, compensation and how they are selected.

Election Officials-Statewide

Includes legislation regarding statewide election officials, including their duties, compensation and how they are selected.

Election Results/Canvass, Reporting of

Includes legislation relating to canvassing, certifying and reporting votes and results.


Includes legislation relating to electioneering (campaigning at or near polling places) and using artificial intelligence in campaigning.

Electoral College

Includes legislation regarding presidential electors and the electoral college. This tag does not include legislation relating to the National Popular Vote Compact.

Electoral College-National Popular Vote

Includes state legislation regarding the National Popular Vote Compact.


Includes legislation relating to emergencies or natural disasters and elections, such as who has authority to call an emergency, and what actions can be taken in the event of a disaster or emergency.

Exit Polling

Includes legislation relating to exit polling.


Includes legislation on more than one party nominating the same candidates, or a candidate being endorsed by more than one party.

Internet/Electronic Voting

Includes legislation relating to internet (or electronic) voting and electronic ballot return, whether for overseas voters, voters with disabilities, first responders or other voters.

Mail Voting

Includes legislation relating to mostly-mail voting, all-mail ballot voting or sending mail ballots to active voters. Note that this does not include traditional absentee voting or in-person absentee voting. See absentee voting categories above.


Includes election legislation that does not fit into any other category.

Offices-Method of Filling

Includes legislation relating to filling offices.

Political Parties

Includes legislation regarding political parties, but not related to ballot access.

Poll Watchers, Poll Challengers, Election Observers

Includes legislation that who can serve as poll watchers, poll challengers, or election observers more generally, and limitations and permissions for their work.

Poll Workers-Compensation

Includes legislation regarding poll worker compensation.

Poll Workers-Misc.

Includes poll worker legislation that does not fit in with the other poll worker categories.

Poll Workers-Selection/Qualifications of

Includes legislation on the selection method and qualification of poll workers.

Poll Workers-Training

Includes legislation regarding poll worker training.

Poll Workers-Youth

Includes legislation regarding poll workers who are minors.

Polling Places-Arrangement of/Procedures at

Includes legislation regarding procedures and arrangements of polling places, including what is allowable at a polling location. This may include ballot selfies, guns at polling places and giving out food and water in line.

Polling Places-Disabled Access

Includes legislation regarding polling place access for people with disabilities.

Polling Places-Hours

Includes legislation relating to polling place hours of operation.

Polling Places-Locations

Includes legislation regarding polling place locations.

Polling Places-Vote Centers

Includes legislation regarding voter centers or consolidated polling locations.


Includes legislation relating to precincts, such as the maximum number of voters in a precinct, and laws relating to drawing precinct boundaries and reporting of precinct boundaries to a state entity.


Includes legislation regarding dates of primary elections.


Includes primary legislation that does not fit in the other primary-related categories.


Includes legislation relating to presidential primaries.


Includes legislation regarding primary runoffs.


Includes legislation relating to primary types such as open or closed primaries.

Provisional Ballots

Includes legislation relating to voting via provisional ballots and regulations on how they are verified and counted.


Includes legislation relating to election recounts, including mandatory thresholds and who can request a recount.

Registration Drives

Includes legislation relating to voter registration drives, including third-party registration.

Registration-Application Form/Content

Includes legislation regarding voter registration applications.


Includes legislation relating to the automatic registration or updating of voter registration records as a result of qualified citizens interacting with government agencies.

Registration-Statewide Voter Registration Databases

Includes legislation relating to centralized statewide voter registration lists.


Includes legislation regarding voter registration deadlines.

Registration-Election Day or Same Day

Includes legislation regarding Election Day or same-day, voter registration, by which an eligible citizen can register and vote on the same day (typically during the early voting period).


Includes legislation relating to electronic voter registration including online voter registration.

Registration-Eligibility ID Required

Includes legislation regarding identification requirements to register to vote.

Registration-List Maintenance

Includes legislation relating to voter registration list maintenance procedures, such as checking voter lists against state and federal data sources and procedures for contacting those on the rolls who have not voted in recent elections.


Includes legislation relating to the registration of voters that does not fit into the other registration categories.

Registration-Preregistration for 16- and 17-year-olds

Includes legislation regarding the preregistration of individuals under 18 years of age who will be eligible voters when they turn 18.

Registration-Sale/Distribution/Use of Lists

Includes legislation relating to the use, sale and distribution of voter registration lists.

Runoff Elections

Includes legislation relating to runoff elections when a candidate does not receive a certain threshold of the vote.

Special Elections

Includes legislation relating to special elections.

Straight Ticket Voting

Includes legislation relating to straight ticket voting.

Task Forces/Study Commissions/Interim Committees

Includes legislation regarding election-related task forces, study commissions and interim committees.


Includes legislation regarding how vacancies are filled.

Voter Education/Information

Includes legislation relating to voter information and education, such as voter pamphlets, website standards and government mailings to voters.

Voter Identification

Includes legislation on voter identification requirements to vote.

Voters-Absence from Work

Includes legislation relating to voter absences from work.


Includes legislation relating to the age at which a voter can vote, including in primary elections and in local elections.

Voters-Assistance to

Includes legislation regarding voter assistance for those who have disabilities or where language assistance may be required.

Voters-Incarceration and Voting

Includes legislation relating to the restoration of voting rights for former felons and voting from jail.

Voters-Miscellaneous Qualifications

Includes legislation on voter qualifications that do not fit in the other voter categories, including citizenship verification.

Voting Equipment/Technology-Selection & Standards

Includes legislation regarding voting technology and equipment as well as the selection and standards of voting equipment.

Voting System Testing/Security/Storage

Includes legislation regarding voting system testing, security and storage.

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Related Resources

NCSL Election Resources

The NCSL elections team provides a variety of resources on election issues, including but not limited to 50-state surveys on state laws, legislation databases, a monthly elections newsletter, enactment summaries and other publications.

Policies for Election Observers

Summary of state laws on election observation in the U.S. Who can observe, how are observers accredited and which aspects of the process can they access?
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