Legislation Related to Artificial Intelligence

1/17/2021

artificial intellegence

Artificial intelligence (AI), the development of computer systems to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as learning and decision making, has the potential to transform and spur innovation across industry and government. As the science and technology of AI continues to develop, more products and services are coming onto the market. For example, companies are developing AI to help consumers run their homes and allow the elderly to stay in their homes longer. AI is in use in health care technologies, in self-driving cars, in digital assistants and many other areas of daily life.

Concerns about potential misuse or unintended consequences of AI, however, have prompted efforts to examine and develop standards, such as the
US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiative involving workshops and discussions with the public and private sectors around the development of federal standards to create building blocks for reliable, robust, and trustworthy AI systems.

State lawmakers also are considering AI’s benefits and challenges--a growing number of measures are being introduced to study the impact of AI and the potential roles for policymakers.

This web page covers key legislation related to AI issues generally. Note that legislation related to specific AI technologies, such as facial recognition or autonomous cars, is being tracked separately.
 

2020 Legislation

General artificial intelligence bills or resolutions were introduced at least 14 states in 2020.

California

CA A.B. 976
Status: Failed
Establishes in state government the Artificial Intelligence in State Government Services Commission comprised of eight members, and would require the advisory commission to annually convene a public process to gather input on how artificial intelligence and data science could be used to improve state services. Requires the commission to propose a plan for soliciting artificial intelligence and data science related demonstration projects for critical state services.

CA A.B. 1576
Status: Failed
Requires the Secretary of Government Operations to appoint participants to an artificial intelligence working group. Requires the composition of the working group to be representative of California's demographic and cultural diversity. Requires the working group to evaluate the uses, risks, benefits, and legal implications associated with the development and deployment of artificial intelligence by California-based businesses.

CA A.B. 2269
Status: Failed
Enacts the Automated Decision Systems Accountability Act of 2020. Requires a business in California that provides a person with a program or device that uses an automated decision system (ADS) to take affirmative steps to ensure processes are in place to continually test for biases during the development and usage of the ADS, and conduct an ADS impact assessment on its program or device to determine whether the ADS has a disproportionate adverse impact on a protected class.

CA ACR 125
Status: Failed
Urges policymakers in both federal and state government to explore ways to promote the development and use of new technologies to reduce bias and discrimination in hiring and help reduce discrimination in employment in the state.

CA S.B. 348
Status: Failed
Requires the director to devise a strategic plan designed to aid departments and agencies with the incorporation of artificial intelligence into state information technology strategic plans, policies, standards, and enterprise architecture to improve state services. Encourages the governor to appoint a special adviser on artificial intelligence to create a statewide strategic plan to utilize artificial technology to improve state services.

CA S.B. 444
Status: Failed
Authorizes the University's Berkeley and Irvine law schools, in consultation with the superior courts of the counties of Alameda and Orange, to participate in a research program to develop artificial intelligence or machine learning solutions to address issues of access to justice faced by pro se indigent litigants who are residents of those counties.

CA S.B. 730
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes the Commission on Tech Equity. Requires the commission to develop recommendations on a policy framework to manage the development, deployment, regulation, taxation and fair distribution of the benefits of innovation and technology, and submit its recommendations by a certain date.

Florida

FL H.B. 4145
Status: Failed
Provides an appropriation for the University of Florida Center for Application of Artificial Intelligence.

Hawaii

HI H.B. 1080
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requires the Hawaii Tourism Authority to host a global summit on artificial intelligence in 2020, authorizes the Hawaii Tourism Authority to contract the services of another entity to assist the Hawaii Tourism Authority in hosting the summit, makes an appropriation.

HI H.B. 1185
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Creates a legislative task force to investigate the application and the accompanying advantages and disadvantages of applying artificial intelligence to Hawaii's economy and government operations.

HI H.B. 1389
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Creates a legislative task force to investigate the application and the accompanying advantages and disadvantages of applying artificial intelligence to Hawaii's economy and government operations.

HI H.B. 1685
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes an income tax credit for investment in qualified businesses that develop cybersecurity and artificial intelligence.

Illinois

IL H.B. 4547
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Amends the Election Code, requires a covered website that implements a politically biased algorithm to file a report with the State Board of Elections that includes the candidate, political party, or question the algorithm was designed to promote or defeat and other information, imposes a civil penalty on a covered website that fails to report, allows the State Board of Elections to adopt rules necessary to implement the provisions.

IL H.B. 4977
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Amends the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, provides that employers that rely solely upon artificial intelligence to determine whether an applicant will qualify for an in-person interview must gather and report certain demographic information to the Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, requires the department to analyze the data and report to the governor and General Assembly whether the data discloses a racial bias in the use of artificial intelligence.

IL S.B. 2704
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Amends the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, makes a technical change in a section concerning the short title.

IL S.B. 2855
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Amends the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, makes a technical change in a section concerning the short title.

Massachusetts

MA H.B. 2701
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Relates to state agency automated decision making, artificial intelligence, transparency, fairness, and individual rights.

MA HD 951
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes a commission on automated decision making, artificial intelligence, transparency, fairness, and individual rights.

MA S.B. 1876
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes a commission on transparency and use of artificial intelligence in government decision making.

MA SD 738
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes a commission on transparency and use of artificial intelligence in government decision-making.

Maryland

MD S.B. 369
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Recognizes that manufacturers will need to partner with industry leaders, education stakeholders and others to explore new solutions to a global digital technology transformation the Workgroup to Study Maryland's Emerging Digital Economy is established to study and make recommendations on the state's entry into Industry 4.0 technology, provides for the composition, chair, and staffing of the work group, requires the work group to report its findings and recommendations to the General Assembly.

Missouri

MO H.B. 2387
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes the 21st-Century Missouri Education Task Force.

New Jersey

NJ A.B. 2172
Status: Pending
Establishes Edison Innovation Science and Technology Fund in Economic Development Authority to provide grants for certain science and technology-based university research, appropriates a specified amount.

NJ A.B. 2614
Status: Pending
Creates the 21st Century Integrated Digital Experience Act, requires each state agency to develop and submit an information technology modernization and improvement plan each year, requires the chief technology officer to evaluate on an annual basis the feasibility of using artificial intelligence, machine learning, and commercial cloud computing services to provide public services.

NJ S.B. 1943
Status: Pending
Prohibits certain discrimination by automated decision systems.

NJ S.B. 2723
Status: Pending
Concerns the 21st Century Integrated Digital Experience Act.

NJ S.B. 3141
Status: Pending
Establishes guidelines for creditworthiness determinations concerning affordable housing programs.

New York

NY A.B. 1746
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Creates a temporary state commission to study and investigate how to regulate artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation, repeals such commission a specified time after this act takes effect.

NY A.B. 5605
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Amends the civil rights law, relates to establishing the right of publicity and to providing a private right of action for unlawful dissemination or publication of a sexually explicit depiction of an individual.

NY A.B. 7040
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Prohibits motor vehicle insurers from discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic factors in determining algorithms used to construct actuarial tables, coverage terms, premiums, and rates.

NY A.B. 8446
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes the Commission on the Future of Work within the Department of Labor to research and understand the impact of technology on workers, employers, and the economy of the state.

NY S.B. 4455
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requires regulations authorizing computer science courses to count towards liberal arts content at institutions of higher learning, defines computer science.

NY S.B. 6428
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Creates the Automated Decision Systems Task Force to make specific recommendations on whether and how existing state laws, regulations, programs, policies, and practices related to the use of automated decision systems should be changed to promote fairness, accountability, and transparency.

NY S.B. 7667
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Prohibits motor vehicle insurers from discrimination on the basis of socioeconomic factors in determining algorithms used to construct actuarial tables, coverage terms, premiums and/or rates.

Rhode Island

RI H.B. 7325
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Prohibits certain social media companies from censoring user's speech by either removal of the user's speech or using algorithms to prevent the user's speech.

Utah

UT S.B. 96
Status: Enacted
Creates a deep technology talent initiative within higher education. 

Virginia

VA H.B. 1319
Status: Pending - Carryover
Relates to higher education, relates to public private partnerships, relates to cloud computing, relates to artificial intelligence, requires each institution of higher education to establish a public-private partnership, or partnership if the institution of higher education is not public, with private entities to develop a professional development and training program for instructional and information technology staff to obtain industry certification in cloud computing technology and artificial.

VA HJR 59
Status: Failed
Relates to study, relates to facial recognition, relates to artificial intelligence, relates to report, directs the Joint Commission on Technology and Science to convene a working group of relevant agencies, law enforcement, private industry, and academics to study the proliferation and implementation of facial recognition and artificial intelligence.

Vermont

VT H.B. 919
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Relates to funding a pilot program to increase technology and artificial intelligence education programs.

VT H.B. 920
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Relates to economic incentive recommendations of the Artificial Intelligence Task Force.

VT H.B. 921
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Relates to the Artificial Intelligence Commission and Code of Ethics.

Washington

WA H.B. 2401
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Concerns the use of artificial intelligence in job applications.

WA H.B. 2644
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Concerns artificial intelligence-enabled profiling.

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2019 Legislation

Bills or resolutions dealing specifically with artificial intelligence were introduced in at least 14 states, and measures were enacted or adopted in seven of those states, as indicated in boldface below. Most of the measures proposed task forces or studies.

The llinois General Assembly, however, enacted the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act (820 ILCS 42). The act provides that employers must notify applicants before a videotaped interview that artificial intelligence may be used to analyze the interview and consider the applicant's fitness for the position. Employers also must provide each applicant with information before the interview explaining how the artificial intelligence works and what general types of characteristics it uses to evaluate applicants. Employers also must obtain, before the interview, consent from the applicant to be evaluated by the artificial intelligence program. Employers also may not share applicant videos unnecessarily and they must delete an applicant’s interview upon request of the applicant.

Alabama

AL SJR 45
Status: Enacted
Recognizes Alabama's technology and growing artificial intelligence job sectors' impact on the state's economy.

AL SJR 71
Status: Enacted
Establishes the state Commission on Artificial Intelligence and Associated Technologies to review and advise on all aspects of the growth of artificial intelligence and associated technology in the state and the use of artificial intelligence in various fields.

California


CA A.B. 459
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Requires the Artificial Intelligence in State Government Services Commission to report to the legislature on the commission's recommended minimum standards for the use of artificial intelligence that includes specified information, including fostering accountability in state government services, and prioritizing the safety and security of artificial intelligence technologies used by state government.

CA A.B. 485
Status: Enacted
Requires each local agency to provide specified information to the public before approving an economic development subsidy for a warehouse distribution center, to hold hearings, and to report on those subsidies. Requires local agencies to submit a report to the Governor's Office of Business and Economic Development providing specified information, including any net job loss or replacement due to the use of automation, artificial intelligence, or other technologies, if known.

CA A.B. 594
Status: Vetoed
Authorizes the Director of Technology to designate a position within the department to evaluate the uses of artificial intelligence in state government and to advise the director on incorporating artificial intelligence into state information technology strategic plans, policies, standards, and enterprise architecture. Requires the department, in consideration of recommendations of the Future of Work Commission, to adopt guidelines to govern the use and implementation of artificial intelligence.

CA A.B. 976
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Establishes in state government the Artificial Intelligence in State Government Services Commission composed of eight members, and would require the advisory commission to annually convene a public process to gather input on how artificial intelligence and data science could be used to improve state services. Requires the commission to propose a plan for soliciting artificial intelligence and data science related demonstration projects for critical state services.

CA A.B. 1576
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Requires the Secretary of Government Operations to appoint participants to an artificial intelligence working group. Requires the composition of the working group to be representative of California's demographic and cultural diversity. Requires the working group to evaluate the uses, risks, benefits, and legal implications associated with the development and deployment of artificial intelligence by California-based businesses.

CA ACR 125
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Urges policymakers in both federal and state government to explore ways to promote the development and use of new technologies to reduce bias and discrimination in hiring and help reduce discrimination in employment in the state.

CA S.B. 348
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Requires the director to devise a strategic plan designed to aid departments and agencies with the incorporation of artificial intelligence into state information technology strategic plans, policies, standards, and enterprise architecture to improve state services. Encourages the governor to appoint a special adviser on artificial intelligence to create a statewide strategic plan to utilize artificial technology to improve state services.

CA S.B. 444
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Requires any business entity doing business in California with 50 or more full-time employees, a contractor that performs services for such a business, and a vender that sells data or tangible goods to a such a business, to maintain a written record of the data used relating to any use of artificial intelligence.

CA S.B. 730
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Establishes the Commission on Tech Equity. Requires the commission to develop recommendations on a policy framework to manage the development, deployment, regulation, taxation and fair distribution of the benefits of innovation and technology, and submit its recommendations by a certain date.

CA SJR 6
Status: Adopted
Urges the President and the Congress of the United States to develop a comprehensive Artificial Intelligence Advisory Committee and to adopt a comprehensive artificial intelligence policy.

Connecticut

CT H.B. 6187
Status: Failed
Requires a study of the commercial and practical applications of artificial intelligence, prepares for the modernization of the state's economy through artificial intelligence.

CT H.B. 6889
Status: Failed
Provides educational subsidies for students studying artificial intelligence, virtual reality, autonomous vehicles or quantum computing, provides subsidies to students studying in fields related to emerging technologies if such students work in the state upon graduation.

Delaware

DE HCR 7
Status: Adopted
Recognizes the possible life-changing impact the rise of robotics, automation and artificial intelligence will have on Delawareans and encourages all branches of state government to implement plans to minimize the adverse effects of the rise of such technology.

Florida

FL H.B. 9047
Status: Failed
Relates to the appropriations project titled University of Florida Center for Artificial Intelligence; provides an appropriation.

Hawaii

HI H.B. 1080
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Requires the Hawaii Tourism Authority to host a global summit on artificial intelligence in 2020, authorizes the Hawaii Tourism Authority to contract the services of another entity to assist the Hawaii Tourism Authority in hosting the summit; makes an appropriation.

HI H.B. 1185
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Creates a legislative task force to investigate the application and the accompanying advantages and disadvantages of applying artificial intelligence to Hawaii's economy and government operations.

HI H.B. 1389
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Creates a legislative task force to investigate the application and the accompanying advantages and disadvantages of applying artificial intelligence to Hawaii's economy and government operations.

HI HCR 129
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the state to convene an Artificial Intelligence Advisory Committee to investigate how to implement, develop, and regulate artificial intelligence in the state.

HI HCR 156
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Urges the United States government to place a moratorium on the development, production, deployment, and use of lethal autonomous robotics and to encourage other nations to do the same.

HI HCR 171
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Hawaii Tourism Authority to convene a Global Artificial Intelligence Summit in 2020.

HI HCR 227
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism to convene a working group on artificial intelligence.

HI HR 119
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the state to convene an artificial intelligence advisory committee to investigate how to implement, develop, and regulate artificial intelligence in the state.

HI HR 143
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Urges the United States government to place a moratorium on the development, production, deployment, and use of lethal autonomous robotics and to encourage other nations to do the same.

HI HR 153
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Hawaii Tourism Authority to convene a Global Artificial Intelligence Summit in 2020.

HI HR 202
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism to convene a working group on artificial intelligence.

HI SCR 66
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Hawaii tourism authority to convene a global artificial intelligence summit in 2020.

HI SCR 175
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the state to convene an Artificial Intelligence Advisory Committee to investigate how to implement, develop, and regulate artificial intelligence in the state.

HI SR 44
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Requests the Hawaii tourism authority to convene a global artificial intelligence summit in 2020.

HI SR 142
Status: Adopted
Requests the state to convene an Artificial Intelligence Advisory Committee to investigate how to implement, develop, and regulate artificial intelligence in the state.

Illinois

IL H.B. 2557
Status: Enacted
Creates the Artificial Intelligence Video Interview Act, provides that an employer that asks applicants to record video interviews and uses an artificial intelligence analysis of applicant submitted videos shall notify each applicant in writing before the interview that artificial intelligence may be used to analyze the applicant's facial expressions and consider the applicant's fitness for the position, provides each applicant with an information sheet before the interview.

Indiana

IN H.B. 1624
Status: Failed - Adjourned
Establishes the Information Technology Oversight Committee.

Massachusetts

MA H.B. 2701
Status: Pending
Relates to state agency automated decision making, artificial intelligence, transparency, fairness, and individual rights.

MA S.B. 1876
Status: Pending
Establishes a commission on transparency and use of artificial intelligence in government decision making.

Nevada

NV S.B. 488
Status: Failed
Revises provisions relating to businesses engaged in the development of emerging technologies.

New Jersey

NJ A.B. 5112 (2018)
Status: Pending
Requires the Commissioner of Labor and Workforce Development to conduct a study and issue a report on the impact of artificial intelligence on economic growth.

NJ A.B. 5161 (2018)
Status: Pending
Relates to the 21st Century Integrated Digital Experience Act.

NJ S.B. 3619 (2018)
Status: Pending
Concerns the 21st Century Integrated Digital Experience Act.

New York

NY A.B. 1746
Status: Pending
Creates a temporary state commission to study and investigate how to regulate artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation, repeals such commission a specified time after this act takes effect.

NY A.B. 8446
Status: Pending
Establishes the Commission on the Future of Work within the Department of Labor to research and understand the impact of technology on workers, employers, and the economy of the state.

NY S.B. 3971
Status: Enacted
Creates a temporary state commission to study and investigate how to regulate artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, provides for the repeal after the expiration thereof.

Vermont

VT H.B. 16
Status: Enacted
Requires the Artificial Intelligence Task Force, created by 2018 Acts and Resolves No. 137, Sec. 1 (H.B. 378), to submit a final report to the Senate Committee on Government Operations and the House Committee on Energy and Technology on or before Jan. 15, 2020.

Washington

WA H.B. 1655
Status: Pending - Carryover 
Establishes guidelines for government procurement and use of automated decision systems in order to protect consumers, improve transparency, and create more market predictability.

WA S.B. 5527
Status: Pending - Carryover to 2020
Establishes guidelines for government procurement and use of automated decision systems in order to protect consumers, improve transparency, and create more market predictability.

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