Redistricting and Use of Census Data

7/8/2019

The United States Constitution, Article I, Section 2 requires congressional apportionment to be based on an “enumeration” of the U.S. population. However, the Constitution is silent on what data is to be used for redistricting.

The chart below examines whether each state’s constitution or statutes explicitly mentions the use of the U.S. Census data for congressional and legislative redistricting.  In short:

21 states explicitly require the use of census data for redistricting.
17 states have an implied basis or in-practice reliance on using the census for redistricting.
6 states permit the use of the census or other datasets for their redistricting, depending on circumstances.

Six states do not fit the categories above:

OH flagNew York laws provide for the census data to be used unless the federal census data is unavailable or delayed. In that case, New York can conduct their own census or use an alternative data source.

NY flagOhio laws, like New York, provide for the census data to be used unless the federal census data is unavailable or delayed. In those circumstances, Ohio can conduct their own census or use an alternative data source.

OH flagArkansas explicitly requires the use of federal census data to be used for the redistricting of the members in the state House of Representatives. However, the Arkansas Constitution does not use explicit language when addressing the redistricting of the members in the state Senate.

OH flagHawaii requires that federal census data be used only for congressional reapportionment. The Hawaii Constitution and statutes are silent regarding the use of federal census data and boundaries for state legislative redistricting.

OH flagTexas requires the use of population data from the U.S. Census to redraw state house districts but does not use the same language for state senate. Neither the Texas Constitution nor state law addresses the census in regard to congressional redistricting.   

IN flagIndiana explicitly requires that federal census data be used for legislative redistricting, but it does not use explicit language when addressing congressional redistricting.   

Select a state in the following table to display its full constitutional or statutory language on census data use for redistricting.

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State: Explicitly requires the use of federal census data: An implied or practiced use of federal census data: Does not require the use of federal census data or other options are possible:

Alabama
Congressional Districts: 7 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 105
(Total number of seats: 140 – 35 senators, 105 representatives)

 

   

Congressional and Legislative: Alabama Const. Art. IX, Sec. 201: “Should any decennial census of the United States not be taken, or if when taken, the same, as to this state, be not full and satisfactory, the legislature shall have the power at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this state, upon which it shall be the duty of the legislature to make the apportionment of representatives and senators”

Alaska
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 20 State House Districts: 40
(Total number of seats: 60 – 20 senators, 40 representatives)

 

Legislative

   

Arizona
Congressional Districts: 9 State Senate Districts: 30 State House Districts: 60
(Total number of seats: 90 – 30 senators, 60 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

   

Arkansas
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 135 – 35 senators, 100 representatives)

Legislative -- House of Representatives

Congressional Legislative -- Senate

 

California
Congressional Districts: 53 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 80
(Total number of seats: 120 – 40 senators, 80 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Colorado
Congressional Districts: 7 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 65
(Total number of seats: 100 – 35 senators, 65 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Connecticut
Congressional Districts: 5 State Senate Districts: 36 State House Districts: 151
(Total number of seats: 187 – 36 senators, 151 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Delaware
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 21 State House Districts: 41
(Total number of seats: 62 – 21 senators, 41 representatives)

Legislative

 

 

Florida
Congressional Districts: 27 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 120
(Total number of seats: 160 – 40 senators, 120 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Georgia
Congressional Districts: 14 State Senate Districts: 56 State House Districts: 180
(Total number of seats: 236 – 56 senators, 180 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Hawaii
Congressional Districts: 2 State Senate Districts: 25 State House Districts: 51
(Total number of seats: 76 – 25 senators, 51 representatives)

Congressional

Legislative

 

Idaho
Congressional Districts: 2 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 35
(Total number of seats: 105 – 35 senators, 70 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Illinois
Congressional Districts: 18 State Senate Districts: 59 State House Districts: 118
(Total number of seats: 177 – 59 senators, 118 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Indiana
Congressional Districts: 9 State Senate Districts: 50 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 150 – 50 senators, 100 representatives)

Legislative

Congressional

 

Iowa
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 50 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 150 – 50 senators, 100 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Kansas
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 125
(Total number of seats: 165 – 40 senators, 125 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Kentucky
Congressional Districts: 6 State Senate Districts: 38 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 138 – 38 senators, 100 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Louisiana
Congressional Districts: 6 State Senate Districts: 39 State House Districts: 105
(Total number of seats: 144 – 39 senators, 105 representatives)

Legislative

Congressional  

Maine
Congressional Districts: 2 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 151
(Total number of seats: 186 – 35 senators, 151 representatives)

   

Congressional and Legislative: Me. Const. Art. IV, Pt. 1, § 2: “The number of Representatives shall be divided into the number of inhabitants of the State exclusive of foreigners not naturalized according to the latest Federal Decennial Census or a State Census previously ordered by the Legislature to coincide with the Federal Decennial Census, to determine a mean population figure for each Representative District.”

Maryland
Congressional Districts: 8 State Senate Districts: 47 State House Districts: 47
(Total number of seats: 188 – 47 senators, 141 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Massachusetts
Congressional Districts: 9 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 160
(Total number of seats: 200 – 40 senators, 160 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Michigan
Congressional Districts: 14 State Senate Districts: 38 State House Districts: 110
(Total number of seats: 148 – 38 senators, 110 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Minnesota
Congressional Districts: 8 State Senate Districts: 67 State House Districts: 134
(Total number of seats: 201 – 67 senators, 134 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Mississippi
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 52 State House Districts: 122
(Total number of seats: 174 – 52 senators, 122 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Missouri
Congressional Districts: 8 State Senate Districts: 34 State House Districts: 163
(Total number of seats: 197 – 34 senators, 163 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

 

 

Montana
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 50 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 150 – 50 senators, 100 representatives)

 

Legislative

 

Nebraska
Congressional Districts: 3 State Districts: 49
(Total number of seats: 49)

Legislative

Congressional  

Nevada
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 21 State House Districts: 42
(Total number of seats: 63 – 21 senators, 42 representatives)

   

Congressional and Legislative: Nev. Const. Art. 15, § 13: "The enumeration of the inhabitants of this State shall be taken under the direction of the Legislature if deemed necessary … and these enumerations, together with the census that may be taken under the direction of the Congress of the United States in A.D. Eighteen hundred and Seventy, and every subsequent ten years shall serve as the basis of representation in both houses of the Legislature."

New Hampshire
Congressional Districts: 2 State Senate Districts: 24 State House Districts: 204
(Total number of seats: 424 – 24 senators; 400 representatives)

   

Congressional and Legislative: N.H. Const. Pt. SECOND, Art. 9: "the legislature shall make an apportionment of representatives according to the last general census of the inhabitants of the state taken by authority of the United States or of this state."

New Jersey
Congressional Districts: 12 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 40
(Total number of seats: 120 –(40 legislative districts (multi-member) - from each of the 40 legislative districts, 1 member of the State Senate and 2 members of the State General Assembly)

Congressional Legislative

   

New Mexico
Congressional Districts: 3 State Senate Districts: 42 State House Districts: 70
(Total number of seats: 112 – 42 senators, 70 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

New York
Congressional Districts: 27 State Senate Districts: 63 State House Districts: 150
(Total number of seats: 213 – 63 senators, 150 representatives)

Congressional Legislative*: NY CLS Const Art III, § 4: "the federal census taken in the year nineteen hundred thirty and each federal census taken decennially thereafter shall be controlling as to the number of inhabitants in the state or any part thereof for the purposes of the apportionment of members of assembly and readjustment or alteration of senate and assembly districts next occurring, in so far as such census and the tabulation thereof purport to give the information necessary therefor."

 

Legislative*: NY CLS Const Art III, § 4: "The legislature, by law, may provide in its discretion for an enumeration by state authorities of the inhabitants of the state, to be used for such purposes, in place of a federal census, when the return of a decennial federal census is delayed so that it is not available at the beginning of the regular session of the legislature in the second year after the year nineteen hundred thirty or after any tenth year therefrom, or if an apportionment of members of assembly and readjustment or alteration of senate districts is not made at or before such a session."

North Carolina
Congressional Districts: 13 State Senate Districts: 50 State House Districts: 120
(Total number of seats: 170 – 50 senators, 120 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

North Dakota
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 47 State House Districts: 47
(Total number of seats: 141 – 47 senators, 94 representatives)

 

Legislative

 

Ohio
Congressional Districts: 16 State Senate Districts: 33 State House Districts: 99
(Total number of seats: 132 – 33 senators, 99 representatives)

Congressional and Legislative*

 

Congressional and Legislative*: Oh. Const. Art. XI, § 3 [Effective 1/1/2021]: "The whole population of the state, as determined by the federal decennial census or, if such is unavailable, such other basis as the general assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number "ninety-nine" and by the number "thirty-three" and the quotients shall be the ratio of representation in the house of representatives and in the senate, respectively, for ten years next succeeding such redistricting."

Oklahoma
Congressional Districts: 5 State Senate Districts: 48 State House Districts: 101
(Total number of seats: 149 – 48 senators, 101 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Oregon
Congressional Districts: 5 State Senate Districts: 30 State House Districts: 60
(Total number of seats: 90 – 30 senators, 60 representatives)

   

Congressional and Legislative: Ore. Const. Art. IV, § 6: "Apportionment of Senators and Representative (1) At the odd-numbered year regular session of the Legislative Assembly next following an enumeration of the inhabitants by the United States Government, the number of Senators and Representatives shall be fixed by law and apportioned among legislative districts according to population."

Pennsylvania
Congressional Districts: 18 State Senate Districts: 50 State House Districts: 203
(Total number of seats: 253 – 50 senators, 203 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Rhode Island
Congressional Districts: 2 State Senate Districts: 38 State House Districts: 75
(Total number of seats: 113 – 38 senators, 75 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

South Carolina
Congressional Districts: 7 State Senate Districts: 46 State House Districts: 124
(Total number of seats: 170 – 46 senators, 124 representatives)

 

 

Congressional and Legislative: S.C. Const. Ann. Art. III, § 3: "The General Assembly may at any time, in its discretion, adopt the immediately preceding United States Census as a true and correct enumeration of the inhabitants of the several Counties, and make the apportionment of Representatives among the several Counties"

South Dakota
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 35 State House Districts: 35
(Total number of seats: 105 – 35 senators, 70 representatives)

Legislative

   

Tennessee
Congressional Districts: 9 State Senate Districts: 33 State House Districts: 99
(Total number of seats: 132 – 33 senators, 99 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Texas
Congressional Districts: 36 State Senate Districts: 31 State House Districts: 150
(Total number of seats: 181 – 31 senators, 150 representatives)

Legislative -- House of Representatives

Congressional Legislative -- Senate

 

Utah
Congressional Districts: 4 State Senate Districts: 29 State House Districts: 75
(Total number of seats: 104 – 29 senators, 75 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Vermont
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 13 State House Districts: 108
(Total number of seats: 180 – 30 senators, 150 representatives)

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Virginia
Congressional Districts: 11 State Senate Districts: 40 State House Districts: 100
(Total number of seats: 140 – 40 senators, 100 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

Washington
Congressional Districts: 10 State Senate Districts: 49 State House Districts: 49
(Total number of seats: 147, 49 senators, 98 representatives)

Congressional Legislative

   

West Virginia
Congressional Districts: 3 State Senate Districts: 17 State House Districts: 67
(Total number of seats: 134 – 34 senators, 100 representatives)

Legislative -- Senate

Congressional Legislative -- House of Representation

 

Wisconsin
Congressional Districts: 8 State Senate Districts: 33 State House Districts: 99
(Total number of seats: 132 – 33 senators, 99 representatives

 

Congressional Legislative

 

Wyoming
Congressional Districts: 1 State Senate Districts: 30 State House Districts: 60
(Total number of seats: 90 – 30 senators, 60 representatives)

Legislative

   

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Ak flagAlaska

Alaska Const. Art. VI, § 3: The Redistricting Board shall reapportion the house of representatives and the senate immediately following the official reporting of each decennial census of the United States. Reapportionment shall be based upon the population within each house and senate district as reported by the official decennial census of the United States.

Alaska Stat. § 15.10.200: (a) In art. VI, Constitution of the State of Alaska, reference to the official decennial census of the United States is a reference to the census enumeration used to establish apportionment among the several states.
(b) In adopting a redistricting plan under art. VI, Constitution of the State of Alaska, the redistricting board may not adjust the census numbers by using estimates, population surveys, or sampling for the purpose of excluding or discriminating among persons counted based on race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, occupation, military or civilian status, or length of residency.
(c) A qualified voter may bring an action in the superior court against the redistricting board to enforce the provisions of (b) of this section.

AZ flagArizona

A.R.S. Const. Art. IV, Pt. 2, § 1: Section 1. (1) The senate shall be composed of one member elected from each of the thirty legislative districts established pursuant to this section. The house of representatives shall be composed of two members elected from each of the thirty legislative districts established pursuant to this section.
(2) Upon the presentation to the governor of a petition bearing the signatures of not less than two-thirds of the members of each House, requesting a special session of the legislature and designating the date of convening, the governor shall promptly call a special session to assemble on the date specified. At a special session so called the subjects which may be considered by the legislature shall not be limited.
(3) By February 28 of each year that ends in one, an independent redistricting commission shall be established to provide for the redistricting of congressional and state legislative districts. The independent redistricting commission shall consist of five members. No more than two members of the independent redistricting commission shall be members of the same political party. Of the first four members appointed, no more than two shall reside in the same county. Each member shall be a registered Arizona voter who has been continuously registered with the same political party or registered as unaffiliated with a political party for three or more years immediately preceding appointment, who is committed to applying the provisions of this section in an honest, independent and impartial fashion and to upholding public confidence in the integrity of the redistricting process. Within the three years previous to appointment, members shall not have been appointed to, elected to, or a candidate for any other public office, including precinct committeeman or committeewoman but not including school board member or officer, and shall not have served as an officer of a political party, or served as a registered paid lobbyist or as an officer of a candidate’s campaign committee.
(4) The commission on appellate court appointments shall nominate candidates for appointment to the independent redistricting commission, except that, if a politically balanced commission exists whose members are nominated by the commission on appellate court appointments and whose regular duties relate to the elective process, the commission on appellate court appointments may delegate to such existing commission (hereinafter called the commission on appellate court appointments’ designee) the duty of nominating members for the independent redistricting commission, and all other duties assigned to the commission on appellate court appointments in this section.
(5) By January 8 of years ending in one, the commission on appellate court appointments or its designee shall establish a pool of persons who are willing to serve on and are qualified for appointment to the independent redistricting commission. The pool of candidates shall consist of twenty-five nominees, with ten nominees from each of the two largest political parties in Arizona based on party registration, and five who are not registered with either of the two largest political parties in Arizona.
(6) Appointments to the independent redistricting commission shall be made in the order set forth below. No later than January 31 of years ending in one, the highest ranking officer elected by the Arizona house of representatives shall make one appointment to the independent redistricting commission from the pool of nominees, followed by one appointment from the pool made in turn by each of the following: the minority party leader of the Arizona house of representatives, the highest ranking officer elected by the Arizona senate, and the minority party leader of the Arizona senate. Each such official shall have a seven-day period in which to make an appointment. Any official who fails to make an appointment within the specified time period will forfeit the appointment privilege. In the event that there are two or more minority parties within the house or the senate, the leader of the largest minority party by statewide party registration shall make the appointment.
(7) Any vacancy in the above four independent redistricting commission positions remaining as of March 1 of a year ending in one shall be filled from the pool of nominees by the commission on appellate court appointments or its designee. The appointing body shall strive for political balance and fairness.
(8) At a meeting called by the Secretary of State, the four independent redistricting commission members shall select by majority vote from the nomination pool a fifth member who shall not be registered with any party already represented on the independent redistricting commission and who shall serve as chair. If the four commissioners fail to appoint a fifth member within fifteen days, the commission on appellate court appointments or its designee, striving for political balance and fairness, shall appoint a fifth member from the nomination pool, who shall serve as chair.
(9) The five commissioners shall then select by majority vote one of their members to serve as vice-chair.
(10) After having been served written notice and provided with an opportunity for a response, a member of the independent redistricting commission may be removed by the governor, with the concurrence of two-thirds of the senate, for substantial neglect of duty, gross misconduct in office, or inability to discharge the duties of office.
(11) If a commissioner or chair does not complete the term of office for any reason, the commission on appellate court appointments or its designee shall nominate a pool of three candidates within the first thirty days after the vacancy occurs. The nominees shall be of the same political party or status as was the member who vacated the office at the time of his or her appointment, and the appointment other than the chair shall be made by the current holder of the office designated to make the original appointment. The appointment of a new chair shall be made by the remaining commissioners. If the appointment of a replacement commissioner or chair is not made within fourteen days following the presentation of the nominees, the commission on appellate court appointments or its designee shall make the appointment, striving for political balance and fairness. The newly appointed commissioner shall serve out the remainder of the original term.
(12) Three commissioners, including the chair or vice-chair, constitute a quorum. Three or more affirmative votes are required for any official action. Where a quorum is present, the independent redistricting commission shall conduct business in meetings open to the public, with 48 or more hours public notice provided.
(13) A commissioner, during the commissioner’s term of office and for three years thereafter, shall be ineligible for Arizona public office or for registration as a paid lobbyist.
(14) The independent redistricting commission shall establish congressional and legislative districts. The commencement of the mapping process for both the congressional and legislative districts shall be the creation of districts of equal population in a grid-like pattern across the state. Adjustments to the grid shall then be made as necessary to accommodate the goals as set forth below:

A. Districts shall comply with the United States constitution and the United States Voting Rights Act;
B. Congressional districts shall have equal population to the extent practicable, and state legislative districts shall have equal population to the extent practicable;
C. Districts shall be geographically compact and contiguous to the extent practicable;
D. District boundaries shall respect communities of interest to the extent practicable;
E. To the extent practicable, district lines shall use visible geographic features, city, town and county boundaries, and undivided census tracts;
F. To the extent practicable, competitive districts should be favored where to do so would create no significant detriment to the other goals.

(15) Party registration and voting history data shall be excluded from the initial phase of the mapping process but may be used to test maps for compliance with the above goals. The places of residence of incumbents or candidates shall not be identified or considered.
(16) The independent redistricting commission shall advertise a draft map of congressional districts and a draft map of legislative districts to the public for comment, which comment shall be taken for at least thirty days. Either or both bodies of the legislature may act within this period to make recommendations to the independent redistricting commission by memorial or by minority report, which recommendations shall be considered by the independent redistricting commission. The independent redistricting commission shall then establish final district boundaries.
(17) The provisions regarding this section are self-executing. The independent redistricting commission shall certify to the Secretary of State the establishment of congressional and legislative districts.
(18) Upon approval of this amendment, the department of administration or its successor shall make adequate office space available for the independent redistricting commission. The treasurer of the state shall make $6,000,000 available for the work of the independent redistricting commission pursuant to the year 2000 census. Unused monies shall be returned to the state’s general fund. In years ending in eight or nine after the year 2001, the department of administration or its successor shall submit to the legislature a recommendation for an appropriation for adequate redistricting expenses and shall make available adequate office space for the operation of the independent redistricting commission. The legislature shall make the necessary appropriations by a majority vote.
(19) The independent redistricting commission, with fiscal oversight from the department of administration or its successor, shall have procurement and contracting authority and may hire staff and consultants for the purposes of this section, including legal representation.
(20) The independent redistricting commission shall have standing in legal actions regarding the redistricting plan and the adequacy of resources provided for the operation of the independent redistricting commission. The independent redistricting commission shall have sole authority to determine whether the Arizona attorney general or counsel hired or selected by the independent redistricting commission shall represent the people of Arizona in the legal defense of a redistricting plan.
(21) Members of the independent redistricting commission are eligible for reimbursement of expenses pursuant to law, and a member’s residence is deemed to be the member’s post of duty for purposes of reimbursement of expenses.
(22) Employees of the department of administration or its successor shall not influence or attempt to influence the district-mapping decisions of the independent redistricting commission.
(23) Each commissioner’s duties established by this section expire upon the appointment of the first member of the next redistricting commission. The independent redistricting commission shall not meet or incur expenses after the redistricting plan is completed, except if litigation or any government approval of the plan is pending, or to revise districts if required by court decisions or if the number of congressional or legislative districts is changed.

A.R.S. § 16-1103: Legislative and congressional redistricting; census enumeration: For purposes of adopting legislative and congressional district boundaries, the legislature or any entity that is charged with recommending or adopting legislative or congressional district boundaries shall make its recommendations or determinations using population data from the United States bureau of the census identical to those from the actual enumeration conducted by the bureau for the apportionment of the representatives of the United States house of representatives in the United States decennial census and shall not use census bureau population counts derived from any other means, including the use of statistical sampling, to add or subtract population by inference.

IL flagIllinois

Illinois Const., Art. IV, § 3: (a) Legislative Districts shall be compact, contiguous and substantially equal in population. Representative Districts shall be compact, contiguous, and substantially equal in population.
(b) In the year following each Federal decennial census year, the General Assembly by law shall redistrict the Legislative Districts and the Representative Districts.

If no redistricting plan becomes effective by June 30 of that year, a Legislative Redistricting Commission shall be constituted not later than July 10. The Commission shall consist of eight members, no more than four of whom shall be members of the same political party.
The Speaker and Minority Leader of the House of Representatives shall each appoint to the Commission one Representative and one person who is not a member of the General Assembly. The President and Minority Leader of the Senate shall each appoint to the Commission one Senator and one person who is not a member of the General Assembly.

The members shall be certified to the Secretary of State by the appointing authorities. A vacancy on the Commission shall be filled within five days by the authority that made the original appointment. A Chairman and Vice Chairman shall be chosen by a majority of all members of the Commission.
Not later than August 10, the Commission shall file with the Secretary of State a redistricting plan approved by at least five members.

If the Commission fails to file an approved redistricting plan, the Supreme Court shall submit the names of two persons, not of the same political party, to the Secretary of State not later than September 1.

Not later than September 5, the Secretary of State publicly shall draw by random selection the name of one of the two persons to serve as the ninth member of the Commission.

Not later than October 5, the Commission shall file with the Secretary of State a redistricting plan approved by at least five members.

An approved redistricting plan filed with the Secretary of State shall be presumed valid, shall have the force and effect of law and shall be published promptly by the Secretary of State.

The Supreme Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction over actions concerning redistricting the House and Senate, which shall be initiated in the name of the People of the State by the Attorney General.

KY flagKentucky

Ky. Const. § 33: The first General Assembly after the adoption of this Constitution shall divide the State into thirty-eight Senatorial Districts, and one hundred Representative Districts, as nearly equal in population as may be without dividing any county, except where a county may include more than one district, which districts shall constitute the Senatorial and Representative Districts for ten years. Not more than two counties shall be joined together to form a Representative District: Provided, In doing so the principle requiring every district to be as nearly equal in population as may be shall not be violated. At the expiration of that time, the General Assembly shall then, and every ten years thereafter, redistrict the State according to this rule, and for the purposes expressed in this section. If, in making said districts, inequality of populations should be unavoidable, any advantage resulting therefrom shall be given to districts having the largest territory. No part of a county shall be added to another county to make a district, and the counties forming a district shall be contiguous.

ME flagMaine

Me. Const. Art. IX, § 24: SECTION 24. REAPPORTIONMENT. Congressional districts must be reapportioned as follows.
1. PROCEDURE.
Beginning in 2021 and every 10 years thereafter, when the Secretary of State has received notification of the number of congressional seats to which the State is entitled and the Federal Decennial Census population count is final, the Legislative Apportionment Commission, established every 10 years pursuant to Article IV, Part Third, Section 1-A, shall review the existing congressional districts. If the districts do not conform to Supreme Judicial Court guidelines, the commission shall reapportion the State into congressional districts.

In making such a reapportionment, the commission shall ensure that each congressional district is formed of compact and contiguous territory and crosses political subdivisions the least number of times necessary to establish districts as equally populated as possible. The commission shall submit its plan to the Clerk of the House of Representatives no later than June 1st of the year in which apportionment is required. The Legislature shall enact the submitted plan of the commission or a plan of its own in regular or special session by a vote of 2/3 of the members of each House by June 11th of the year in which apportionment is required to the Clerk of the House of Representatives. This action is subject to the Governor’s approval, as provided in Article IV, Part Third, Section 2.

2. COURT APPORTIONMENT. If the Legislature fails to make an apportionment by June 11th, the Supreme Judicial Court shall make the apportionment within 60 days following the period in which the Legislature is required to act but fails to do so. In making the apportionment, the Supreme Judicial Court shall take into consideration plans and briefs filed by the public with the court during the first 30 days of the period in which the court is required to apportion.

3. JUDICIAL REVIEW. The Supreme Judicial Court has original jurisdiction to hear any challenge to an apportionment law enacted by the Legislature, as registered by any citizen or group of citizens. If a challenge is sustained, the Supreme Judicial Court shall make the apportionment.

Me. Const. Art. IV, Pt. 1, § 2: SECTION 2. NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES; BIENNIAL TERMS; DIVISION OF THE STATE INTO DISTRICTS FOR HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. The House of Representatives shall consist of 151 members, to be elected by the qualified electors, and hold their office 2 years from the day next preceding the first Wednesday in December following the general election. The Legislature which convenes in 2013, and also the Legislature which convenes in 2021 and every 10th year thereafter, shall cause the State to be divided into districts for the choice of one Representative for each district. The number of Representatives shall be divided into the number of inhabitants of the State exclusive of foreigners not naturalized according to the latest Federal Decennial Census or a State Census previously ordered by the Legislature to coincide with the Federal Decennial Census, to determine a mean population figure for each Representative District. Each Representative District shall be formed of contiguous and compact territory and shall cross political subdivision lines the least number of times necessary to establish as nearly as practicable equally populated districts. Whenever the population of a municipality entitles it to more than one district, all whole districts shall be drawn within municipal boundaries. Any population remainder within the municipality shall be included in a district with contiguous territory and shall be kept intact.

MN flagMinnesota

MN Constitution, article IV, section 3:(Minn. Const., Art. IV, § 3) Sec. 3. Census enumeration apportionment; congressional and legislative district boundaries; senate districts. At its first session after each enumeration of the inhabitants of this state made by the authority of the United States, the legislature shall have the power to prescribe the bounds of congressional and legislative districts. Senators shall be chosen by single districts of convenient contiguous territory. No representative district shall be divided in the formation of a senate district. The senate districts shall be numbered in a regular series.

Minn. Stat. § 645.44, subd. 8:
Subd. 8.Population; inhabitants. When used in reference to population, "population" and "inhabitants" mean that shown by the last preceding federal decennial census unless otherwise expressly provided.

MS flagMissouri

[*Note: In 2018, Amendment 1 passed. Article III of the Constitution is being revised.]

Mo. Const. Art. III, § 45: When the number of representatives to which the state is entitled in the House of the Congress of the United States under the census of 1950 and each census thereafter is certified to the governor, the general assembly shall by law divide the state into districts corresponding with the number of representatives to which it is entitled, which districts shall be composed of contiguous territory as compact and as nearly equal in population as may be.

Mo. Const. Art. III, § 2: The house of representatives shall consist of one hundred sixty-three members elected at each general election and apportioned in the following manner: Within sixty days after the population of this state is reported to the President for each decennial census of the United States and, in the event that a reapportionment has been invalidated by a court of competent jurisdiction, within sixty days after notification by the governor that such a ruling has been made, the congressional district committee of each of the two parties casting the highest vote for governor at the last preceding election shall meet and the members of the committee shall nominate, by a majority vote of the members of the committee present, provided that a majority of the elected members is present, two members of their party, residents in that district, as nominees for reapportionment commissioners. Neither party shall select more than one nominee from any one state legislative district. The congressional committees shall each submit to the governor their list of elected nominees. Within thirty days the governor shall appoint a commission consisting of one name from each list to reapportion the state into one hundred and sixty-three representative districts and to establish the numbers and boundaries of said districts.

If any of the congressional committees fails to submit a list within such time the governor shall appoint a member of his own choice from that district and from the political party of the committee failing to make the appointment.

Members of the commission shall be disqualified from holding office as members of the general assembly for four years following the date of the filing by the commission of its final statement of apportionment.

For the purposes of this article, the term congressional district committee or congressional district refers to the congressional district committee or the congressional district from which a congressman was last elected, or, in the event members of congress from this state have been elected at large, the term congressional district committee refers to those persons who last served as the congressional district committee for those districts from which congressmen were last elected, and the term congressional district refers to those districts from which congressmen were last elected. Any action pursuant to this section by the congressional district committee shall take place only at duly called meetings, shall be recorded in their official minutes and only members present in person shall be permitted to vote.

The commissioners so selected shall on the fifteenth day, excluding Sundays and holidays, after all members have been selected, meet in the capitol building and proceed to organize by electing from their number a chairman, vice chairman and secretary and shall adopt an agenda establishing at least three hearing dates on which hearings open to the public shall be held. A copy of the agenda shall be filed with the clerk of the house of representatives within twenty-four hours after its adoption. Executive meetings may be scheduled and held as often as the commission deems advisable.

The commission shall reapportion the representatives by dividing the population of the state by the number one hundred sixty-three and shall establish each district so that the population of that district shall, as nearly as possible, equal that figure.

Each district shall be composed of contiguous territory as compact as may be.

Not later than five months after the appointment of the commission, the commission shall file with the secretary of state a tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts and during the ensuing fifteen days shall hold such public hearings as may be necessary to hear objections or testimony of interested persons.

Not later than six months after the appointment of the commission, the commission shall file with the secretary of state a final statement of the numbers and the boundaries of the districts together with a map of the districts, and no statement shall be valid unless approved by at least seven-tenths of the members. After the statement is filed members of the house of representatives shall be elected according to such districts until a reapportionment is made as herein provided, except that if the statement is not filed within six months of the time fixed for the appointment of the commission, it shall stand discharged and the house of representatives shall be apportioned by a commission of six members appointed from among the judges of the appellate courts of the state of Missouri by the state supreme court, a majority of whom shall sign and file its apportionment plan and map with the secretary of state within ninety days of the date of the discharge of the apportionment commission. Thereafter members of the house of representatives shall be elected according to such districts until a reapportionment is made as herein provided.

Each member of the commission shall receive as compensation fifteen dollars a day for each day the commission is in session but not more than one thousand dollars, and, in addition, shall be reimbursed for his actual and necessary expenses incurred while serving as a member of the commission.
No reapportionment shall be subject to the referendum.

Mo. Const. Art. III, § 7: Within sixty days after the population of this state is reported to the President for each decennial census of the United States, and within sixty days after notification by the governor that a reapportionment has been invalidated by a court of competent jurisdiction, the state committee of each of the two political parties casting the highest vote for governor at the last preceding election shall, at a committee meeting duly called, select by a vote of the individual committee members, and thereafter submit to the governor a list of ten persons, and within thirty days thereafter the governor shall appoint a commission of ten members, five from each list, to reapportion the thirty-four senatorial districts and to establish the numbers and boundaries of said districts.

If either of the party committees fails to submit a list within such time the governor shall appoint five members of his own choice from the party of the committee so failing to act.

Members of the commission shall be disqualified from holding office as members of the general assembly for four years following the date of the filing by the commission of its final statement of apportionment.

The commissioners so selected shall on the fifteenth day, excluding Sundays and holidays, after all members have been selected, meet in the capitol building and proceed to organize by electing from their number a chairman, vice chairman and secretary and shall adopt an agenda establishing at least three hearing dates on which hearings open to the public shall be held. A copy of the agenda shall be filed with the secretary of the senate within twenty-four hours after its adoption. Executive meetings may be scheduled and held as often as the commission deems advisable.

The commission shall reapportion the senatorial districts by dividing the population of the state by the number thirty-four and shall establish each district so that the population of that district shall, as nearly as possible, equal that figure; no county lines shall be crossed except when necessary to add sufficient population to a multi-district county or city to complete only one district which lies partly within such multi-district county or city so as to be as nearly equal as practicable in population. Any county with a population in excess of the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the state by the number thirty-four is hereby declared to be a multi-district county.

Not later than five months after the appointment of the commission, the commission shall file with the secretary of state a tentative plan of apportionment and map of the proposed districts and during the ensuing fifteen days shall hold such public hearings as may be necessary to hear objections or testimony of interested persons.

Not later than six months after the appointment of the commission, the commission shall file with the secretary of state a final statement of the numbers and the boundaries of the districts together with a map of the districts, and no statement shall be valid unless approved by at least seven members.
After the statement is filed senators shall be elected according to such districts until a reapportionment is made as herein provided, except that if the statement is not filed within six months of the time fixed for the appointment of the commission, it shall stand discharged and the senate shall be apportioned by a commission of six members appointed from among the judges of the appellate courts of the state of Missouri by the state supreme court, a majority of whom shall sign and file its apportionment plan and map with the secretary of state within ninety days of the date of the discharge of the apportionment commission. Thereafter senators shall be elected according to such districts until a reapportionment is made as herein provided.

Each member of the commission shall receive as compensation fifteen dollars a day for each day the commission is in session, but not more than one thousand dollars, and, in addition, shall be reimbursed for his actual and necessary expenses incurred while serving as a member of the commission.
No reapportionment shall be subject to the referendum.

Mo. Const. Art. III, § 10: Basis of apportionment — alteration of districts. The last decennial census of the United States shall be used in apportioning representatives and determining the population of senatorial and representative districts. Such districts may be altered from time to time as public convenience may require.

NE flagNebraska

Ne. Const. Art. III, § 5: The Legislature shall by law determine the number of members to be elected and divide the state into legislative districts. In the creation of such districts, any county that contains population sufficient to entitle it to two or more members of the Legislature shall be divided into separate and distinct legislative districts, as nearly equal in population as may be and composed of contiguous and compact territory. One member of the Legislature shall be elected from each such district. The basis of apportionment shall be the population excluding aliens, as shown by the next preceding federal census. The Legislature shall redistrict the state after each federal decennial census. In any such redistricting, county lines shall be followed whenever practicable, but other established lines may be followed at the discretion of the Legislature.

NV flagNevada

Nev. Const. Art. 4, § 5: Sec. 5. Number of Senators and members of Assembly; apportionment. Senators and members of the Assembly shall be duly qualified electors in the respective counties and districts which they represent, and the number of Senators shall not be less than one-third nor more than one-half of that of the members of the Assembly.

It shall be the mandatory duty of the Legislature at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year 1950, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of Senators and Assemblymen, and apportion them among the several counties of the State, or among legislative districts which may be established by law, according to the number of inhabitants in them, respectively.

The past several redistricting cycles have included language in the Senate and Assembly Joint Standing Rules providing that districts must be drawn using Census geography and that “the federal decennial census must be the exclusive database for redistricting by the Nevada Legislature.” While Joint Standing Rules do not have the full force and effect of law, the Legislature has followed these guidelines over the years (and the court-appointed “special masters” who drew the lines in 2011 also adhered to these population principles). Please refer to Rule nos. 13.1, 13.2, and 13.3 in the 2011 Joint Standing Rules of the Senate and Assembly for these specific guidelines.

Nev. Const. Art. 15, § 13: Census by legislature and Congress: Basis of representation in houses of legislature.

The enumeration of the inhabitants of this State shall be taken under the direction of the Legislature if deemed necessary in AD Eighteen hundred and Sixty five, AD Eighteen hundred and Sixty seven, AD Eighteen hundred and Seventy five, and every ten years thereafter; and these enumerations, together with the census that may be taken under the direction of the Congress of the United States in A.D. Eighteen hundred and Seventy, and every subsequent ten years shall serve as the basis of representation in both houses of the Legislature.

ND flagNorth Dakota

N.D. Const. Art. IV, § 1 [Composition of senate and house of representatives — Designation as legislative assembly] The senate must be composed of not less than forty nor more than fifty-four members, and the house of representatives must be composed of not less than eighty nor more than one hundred eight members. These houses are jointly designated as the legislative assembly of the state of North Dakota.

N.D. Const. Art. IV, § 2: [Senatorial districts — Apportionment] The legislative assembly shall fix the number of senators and representatives and divide the state into as many senatorial districts of compact and contiguous territory as there are senators. The districts thus ascertained and determined after the 1990 federal decennial census shall continue until the adjournment of the first regular session after each federal decennial census, or until changed by law.

The legislative assembly shall guarantee, as nearly as is practicable, that every elector is equal to every other elector in the state in the power to cast ballots for legislative candidates. A senator and at least two representatives must be apportioned to each senatorial district and be elected at large or from subdistricts from those districts. The legislative assembly may combine two senatorial districts only when a single member senatorial district includes a federal facility or federal installation, containing over two-thirds of the population of a single member senatorial district, and may provide for the election of senators at large and representatives at large or from subdistricts from those districts.

OH flagOhio

Oh. Const. Art. XI, § 2: Each house of representatives district shall be entitled to a single representative in each general assembly. Each senate district shall be entitled to a single senator in each general assembly.

§ 03 [Effective until 1/1/2021] Population of each House of Representatives district

The population of each house of representatives district shall be substantially equal to the ratio of representation in the house of representatives, as provided in section 2 of this Article, and in no event shall any house of representatives district contain a population of less than ninety-five per cent nor more than one hundred five per cent of the ratio of representation in the house of representatives, except in those instances where reasonable effort is made to avoid dividing a county in accordance with section 9 of this Article.

(Enacted Nov. 7, 1967. Former § 3 repealed, see SJR 24, 107th General Assembly.) § 03* [Effective 1/1/2021] Requirements for drawing House of Representatives districts

(A) The whole population of the state, as determined by the federal decennial census or, if such is unavailable, such other basis as the general assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number "ninety-nine" and by the number "thirty-three" and the quotients shall be the ratio of representation in the house of representatives and in the senate, respectively, for ten years next succeeding such redistricting.
(B) A general assembly district plan shall comply with all of the requirements of division (B) of this section.

(1) The population of each house of representatives district shall be substantially equal to the ratio of representation in the house of representatives, and the population of each senate district shall be substantially equal to the ratio of representation in the senate, as provided in division (A) of this section. In no event shall any district contain a population of less than ninety-five per cent nor more than one hundred five per cent of the applicable ratio of representation.
(2) Any general assembly district plan adopted by the commission shall comply with all applicable provisions of the constitutions of Ohio and the United States and of federal law.
(3) Every general assembly district shall be composed of contiguous territory, and the boundary of each district shall be a single nonintersecting continuous line.

(C) House of representatives districts shall be created and numbered in the following order of priority, to the extent that such order is consistent with the foregoing standards:

(1) Proceeding in succession from the largest to the smallest, each county containing population greater than one hundred five per cent of the ratio of representation in the house of representatives shall be divided into as many house of representatives districts as it has whole ratios of representation. Any fraction of the population in excess of a whole ratio shall be a part of only one adjoining house of representatives district.
(2) Each county containing population of not less than ninety-five per cent of the ratio of representation in the house of representatives nor more than one hundred five per cent of the ratio shall be designated a representative district.
(3) The remaining territory of the state shall be divided into representative districts by combining the areas of counties, municipal corporations, and townships. Where feasible, no county shall be split more than once.

(D)

(1)

(a) Except as otherwise provided in divisions (D)(1)(b) and (c) of this section, a county, municipal corporation, or township is considered to be split if any contiguous portion of its territory is not contained entirely within one district.
(b) If a municipal corporation or township has territory in more than one county, the contiguous portion of that municipal corporation or township that lies in each county shall be considered to be a separate municipal corporation or township for the purposes of this section.
(c) If a municipal corporation or township that is located in a county that contains a municipal corporation or township that has a population of more than one ratio of representation is split for the purpose of complying with division (E)(1)(a) or (b) of this section, each portion of that municipal corporation or township shall be considered to be a separate municipal corporation or township for the purposes of this section.

(2) Representative districts shall be drawn so as to split the smallest possible number of municipal corporations and townships whose contiguous portions contain a population of more than fifty per cent, but less than one hundred per cent, of one ratio of representation.
(3) Where the requirements of divisions (B), (C), and (D) of this section cannot feasibly be attained by forming a representative district from whole municipal corporations and townships, not more than one municipal corporation or township may be split per representative district.

(E)

(1) If it is not possible for the commission to comply with all of the requirements of divisions (B), (C), and (D) of this section in drawing a particular representative district, the commission shall take the first action listed below that makes it possible for the commission to draw that district:

(a) Notwithstanding division (D)(3) of this section, the commission shall create the district by splitting two municipal corporations or townships whose contiguous portions do not contain a population of more than fifty per cent, but less than one hundred per cent, of one ratio of representation.
(b) Notwithstanding division (D)(2) of this section, the commission shall create the district by splitting a municipal corporation or township whose contiguous portions contain a population of more than fifty per cent, but less than one hundred per cent, of one ratio of representation.
(c) Notwithstanding division (C)(2) of this section, the commission shall create the district by splitting, once, a single county that contains a population of not less than ninety-five per cent of the ratio of representation, but not more than one hundred five per cent of the ratio of representation.
(d) Notwithstanding division (C)(1) of this section, the commission shall create the district by including in two districts portions of the territory that remains after a county that contains a population of more than one hundred five per cent of the ratio of representation has been divided into as many house of representatives districts as it has whole ratios of representation.

(2) If the commission takes an action under division (E)(1) of this section, the commission shall include in the general assembly district plan a statement explaining which action the commission took under that division and the reason the commission took that action.
(3) If the commission complies with divisions (E)(1) and (2) of this section in drawing a district, the commission shall not be considered to have violated division (C)(1), (C)(2), (D)(2), or (D)(3) of this section, as applicable, in drawing that district, for the purpose of an analysis under division (D) of Section 9 of this article.

§ 02 Requirements for drawing congressional districts
(A)

(1) Each congressional district shall be entitled to a single representative in the United States house of representatives in each congress.
(2) The whole population of the state, as determined by the federal decennial census or, if the federal decennial census is unavailable, another basis as directed by the general assembly, shall be divided by the number of congressional districts apportioned to the state pursuant to Section 2 of Article I of the Constitution of the United States, and the quotient shall be the congressional ratio of representation for the next ten years.
(3) Notwithstanding the fact that boundaries of counties, municipal corporations, and townships within a district may be changed, district boundaries shall be created by using the data from the most recent federal decennial census or from the basis directed by the general assembly, as applicable.

(B) A congressional district plan shall comply with all of the following requirements:

(1) The plan shall comply with all applicable provisions of the constitutions of Ohio and the United States and of federal law, including federal laws protecting racial minority voting rights.
(2) Every congressional district shall be compact.
(3) Every congressional district shall be composed of contiguous territory, and the boundary of each district shall be a single nonintersecting continuous line.
(4) Except as otherwise required by federal law, in a county that contains a population that exceeds the congressional ratio of representation, the authority drawing the districts shall take the first of the following actions that applies to that county:

(a) If a municipal corporation or township located in that county contains a population that exceeds the congressional ratio of representation, the authority shall attempt to include a significant portion of that municipal corporation or township in a single district and may include in that district other municipal corporations or townships that are located in that county and whose residents have similar interests as the residents of the municipal corporation or township that contains a population that exceeds the congressional ratio of representation. In determining whether the population of a municipal corporation or township exceeds the congressional ratio of representation for the purpose of this division, if the territory of that municipal corporation or township completely surrounds the territory of another municipal corporation or township, the territory of the surrounded municipal corporation or township shall be considered part of the territory of the surrounding municipal corporation or township.
(b) If one municipal corporation or township in that county contains a population of not less than one hundred thousand and not more than the congressional ratio of representation, that municipal corporation or township shall not be split. If that county contains two or more such municipal corporations or townships, only the most populous of those municipal corporations or townships shall not be split.

(5) Of the eighty-eight counties in this state, sixty-five counties shall be contained entirely within a district, eighteen counties may be split not more than once, and five counties may be split not more than twice. The authority drawing the districts may determine which counties may be split.

(6) If a congressional district includes only part of the territory of a particular county, the part of that congressional district that lies in that particular county shall be contiguous within the boundaries of the county.

(7) No two congressional districts shall share portions of the territory of more than one county, except for a county whose population exceeds four hundred thousand.
(8) The authority drawing the districts shall attempt to include at least one whole county in each congressional district. This division does not apply to a congressional district that is contained entirely within one county or that cannot be drawn in that manner while complying with federal law.

(C)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in division (C)(2) of this section, for purposes of this article, a county, municipal corporation, or township is considered to be split if, based on the census data used for the purpose of redistricting, any contiguous portion of its territory is not contained entirely within one district.
(2) If a municipal corporation or township has territory in more than one county, the contiguous portion of that municipal corporation or township that lies in each county shall be considered to be a separate municipal corporation or township for purposes of this section.
(SJR 5, 132nd General Assembly, Approved May 8, 2018; Effective 1/1/2021)

OR flagOregon

Ore. Const. Art. IV, § 6: Apportionment of Senators and Representative (1) At the odd-numbered year regular session of the Legislative Assembly next following an enumeration of the inhabitants by the United States Government, the number of Senators and Representatives shall be fixed by law and apportioned among legislative districts according to population. A senatorial district shall consist of two representative districts. Any Senator whose term continues through the next odd-numbered year regular legislative session after the operative date of the reapportionment shall be specifically assigned to a senatorial district. The ratio of Senators and Representatives, respectively, to population shall be determined by dividing the total population of the state by the number of Senators and by the number of Representatives. A reapportionment by the Legislative Assembly becomes operative as described in subsection (6) of this section.

Reapportionment of districts according to population may be based on reliable sources of population information other than official census published by United States Census Bureau. Hartung v. Bradbury, 332 Or 570, 33 P3d 972 (2001)

PA flagPennsylvania

Pa. Const. Art. II, § 16: The Commonwealth shall be divided into 50 senatorial and 203 representative districts, which shall be composed of compact and contiguous territory as nearly equal in population as practicable. Each senatorial district shall elect one Senator, and each representative district one Representative. Unless absolutely necessary no county, city, incorporated town, borough, township or ward shall be divided in forming either a senatorial or representative district.

Pa. Const. Art. II, § 17: Legislative Reapportionment Commission.

(a) In each year following the year of the Federal decennial census, a Legislative Reapportionment Commission shall be constituted for the purpose of reapportioning the Commonwealth. The commission shall act by a majority of its entire membership.

(b) The commission shall consist of five members: four of whom shall be the majority and minority leaders of both the Senate and the House of Representatives, or deputies appointed by each of them, and a chairman selected as hereinafter provided. No later than 60 days following the official reporting of the Federal decennial census as required by Federal law, the four members shall be certified by the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives to the elections officer of the Commonwealth who under law shall have supervision over elections.

The four members within 45 days after their certification shall select the fifth member, who shall serve as chairman of the commission, and shall immediately certify his name to such elections officer. The chairman shall be a citizen of the Commonwealth other than a local, State or Federal official holding an office to which compensation is attached.

If the four members fail to select the fifth member within the time prescribed, a majority of the entire membership of the Supreme Court within 30 days thereafter shall appoint the chairman as aforesaid and certify his appointment to such elections officer.
Any vacancy in the commission shall be filled within 15 days in the same manner in which such position was originally filled.

(c) No later than 90 days after either the commission has been duly certified or the population data for the Commonwealth as determined by the Federal decennial census are available, whichever is later in time, the commission shall file a preliminary reapportionment plan with such elections officer.

The commission shall have 30 days after filing the preliminary plan to make corrections in the plan.

Any person aggrieved by the preliminary plan shall have the same 30-day period to file exceptions with the commission in which case the commission shall have 30 days after the date the exceptions were filed to prepare and file with such elections officer a revised reapportionment plan. If no exceptions are filed within 30 days, or if filed and acted upon, the commission’s plan shall be final and have the force of law.

(d) Any aggrieved person may file an appeal from the final plan directly to the Supreme Court within 30 days after the filing thereof. If the appellant establishes that the final plan is contrary to law, the Supreme Court shall issue an order remanding the plan to the commission and directing the commission to reapportion the Commonwealth in a manner not inconsistent with such order.

(e) When the Supreme Court has finally decided an appeal or when the last day for filing an appeal has passed with no appeal taken, the reapportionment plan shall have the force of law and the districts therein provided shall be used thereafter in elections to the General Assembly until the next reapportionment as required under this section 17.

(f) Any district which does not include the residence from which a member of the Senate was elected whether or not scheduled for election at the next general election shall elect a Senator at such election.

(g) The General Assembly shall appropriate sufficient funds for the compensation and expenses of members and staff appointed by the commission, and other necessary expenses. The members of the commission shall be entitled to such compensation for their services as the General Assembly from time to time shall determine, but no part thereof shall be paid until a preliminary plan is filed. If a preliminary plan is filed but the commission fails to file a revised or final plan within the time prescribed, the commission members shall forfeit all right to compensation not paid.

(h) If a preliminary, revised or final reapportionment plan is not filed by the commission within the time prescribed by this section, unless the time be extended by the Supreme Court for cause shown, the Supreme Court shall immediately proceed on its own motion to reapportion the Commonwealth.

(i) Any reapportionment plan filed by the commission, or ordered or prepared by the Supreme Court upon the failure of the commission to act, shall be published by the elections officer once in at least one newspaper of general circulation in each senatorial and representative district. The publication shall contain a map of the Commonwealth showing the complete reapportionment of the General Assembly by districts, and a map showing the reapportionment districts in the area normally served by the newspaper in which the publication is made. The publication shall also state the population of the senatorial and representative districts having the smallest and largest population and the percentage variation of such districts from the average population for senatorial and representative districts.

Pa. Const. Art. IX, § 11: Local reapportionment Within the year following that in which the Federal decennial census is officially reported as required by Federal law, and at such other times as the governing body of any municipality shall deem necessary, each municipality having a governing body not entirely elected at large shall be reapportioned, by its governing body or as shall otherwise be provided by uniform law, into districts which shall be composed of compact and contiguous territory as nearly equal in population as practicable, for the purpose of describing the districts for those not elected at large.

25 P.S. § 3596.301

RI flagRhode Island

R.I. Const. Art. VII, § 1: There shall be one hundred members of the house of representatives, provided, however, that commencing in 2003 there shall be seventy-five members of the house of representatives. The house of representatives shall be constituted on the basis of population and the representative districts shall be as nearly equal in population and as compact in territory as possible. The general assembly shall, after any new census taken by authority of the United States, reapportion the representation to conform to the Constitution of the state and the Constitution of the United States.

R.I. Const. Art. VIII, § 1: The senate shall consist of the lieutenant governor and fifty members from the senatorial districts in the state, provided, however, that commencing in 2003 the senate shall consist of thirty-eight members from the senatorial districts in the state. The senate shall be constituted on the basis of population and the senatorial districts shall be as nearly equal in population and as compact in territory as possible. The general assembly shall, after any new census taken by authority of the United States, reapportion the representation to conform to the Constitution of the state and the Constitution of the United States.

SC flagSouth Carolina

S.C. Const. Ann. Art. III, § 3: The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred and twenty-four members, to be apportioned among the several Counties according to the number of inhabitants contained in each. Each County shall constitute one election district. An enumeration of the inhabitants for this purpose shall be made in the year Nineteen hundred and One, and shall be made in the course of every tenth year thereafter, in such manner as shall be by law directed: Provided, That the General Assembly may at any time, in its discretion, adopt the immediately preceding United States Census as a true and correct enumeration of the inhabitants of the several Counties, and make the apportionment of Representatives among the several Counties, according to said enumeration: Provided, further, That until the apportionment which shall be made upon the next enumeration shall take effect, the representation of the several Counties as they now exist (including the County of Saluda established by ordinance) shall be as follows: Abbeville, 5; Aiken, 3; Anderson, 5; Barnwell, 5; Beaufort, 4; Berkeley, 4; Charleston, 9; Chester, 3; Chesterfield, 2; Clarendon, 3; Colleton, 4; Darlington, 3; Edgefield, 3; Fairfield, 3; Florence, 3; Georgetown, 2; Greenville, 5; Hampton, 2; Horry, 2; Kershaw, 2; Lancaster, 2; Laurens, 3; Lexington, 2; Marion, 3; Marlboro, 3; Newberry, 3; Oconee, 2; Orangeburg, 5; Pickens, 2; Richland, 4; Saluda, 2; Spartanburg, 6; Sumter, 5; Union, 3; Williamsburg, 3; York, 4; Provided further, That in the event other Counties are hereafter established, then the General Assembly shall reapportion the Representatives between the Counties.

S.C. Code Ann. § 4-9-90: Election of council members; reapportionment of single-member election districts; terms of office and vacancies; election at large of chairman; procedure for changing term of office; continuation in office after reapportionment. Council members must be elected from defined single-member election districts unless otherwise determined under the provisions of subsection (a), (b), or (c) of § 4-9-10 or under the provisions of any plan ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction prior to May 1, 1986. In the event the members of the governing body are required to be elected from defined single-member election districts, they must be elected by the qualified electors of the district in which they reside. All districts must be reapportioned as to population by the county council within a reasonable time prior to the next scheduled general election which follows the adoption by the State of each federal decennial census. The population variance between defined election districts shall not exceed ten percent.

TN flagTennessee

Tenn. Const. Art. II, § 4: The apportionment of Senators and Representatives shall be substantially according to population. After each decennial census made by the Bureau of Census of the United States is available the General Assembly shall establish senatorial and representative districts. Nothing in this Section nor in this Article II shall deny to the General Assembly the right at any time to apportion one House of the General Assembly using geography, political subdivisions, substantially equal population and other criteria as factors; provided such apportionment when effective shall comply with the Constitution of the United States as then amended or authoritatively interpreted. If the Constitution of the United States shall require that Legislative apportionment not based entirely on population be approved by vote of the electorate, the General Assembly shall provide for such vote in the apportionment act.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-16-103: Composition of state congressional districts. (a)
(1) All census descriptions, counties, voting districts (VTDs), tracts, blocks, census delineations, census district lines and other census designations are those established for or by the United States department of commerce, bureau of the census, for taking the 2010 federal decennial census in Tennessee as contained in the automated geographic database, known as the TIGER (topologically integrated geographic encoding and referencing) system.
(2) As provided in subsection (b), each district is described county by county in alphabetical order and, if a county is split, by the portion of such split county. Split counties are described by VTDs and, if further divided, by census blocks.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 3-1-102: Composition of state senatorial districts. (b)
(1) All census descriptions, counties, voting districts (VTDs), whether designated as precincts, wards, council districts, or otherwise, tracts, blocks, census delineations, census district lines and other census designations are those established for or by the United States department of commerce, bureau of the census, for taking the 2010 federal decennial census in Tennessee as contained in the automated geographic database, known as the TIGER (topologically integrated geographic encoding and referencing) system.
(2) As provided in subsection (d), each district is described county by county in alphabetical order and, if a county is split, by the portion of such split county. Split counties are described by VTDs and, if further divided, by census blocks.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 3-1-103: Composition of state house of representative districts. (a) (1) All census descriptions, counties, tracts, blocks, census delineations, census district lines and other census designations are those established for or by the United States department of commerce, bureau of the census, for taking the 2010 federal decennial census in Tennessee as contained in the automated geographic database, known as the TIGER (topologically integrated geographic encoding and referencing) system. All voting districts (VTDs) are precincts aggregated from such census blocks as reported to the office of management information services for the general assembly by the office of local government, comptroller of the treasury pursuant to title 2, chapter 3, part 1.
(2) As provided in subsection (c), each district is described county by county in alphabetical order and, if a county is split, by the portion of such split county. Split counties are described by VTDs and, if further divided, by census blocks.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-3-102: 2-3-102. Precincts -- Establishment, consolidation, or change of boundaries. (a) No voting precinct shall be established, created, consolidated, divided, or the boundaries otherwise altered unless ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction, by reason of an annexation or other change in the boundary of a county or municipality, or in accordance with subsection (b). Any precinct boundary that is altered in accordance with this subsection (a) shall coincide with a census block as designated by the United States census bureau in the latest federal decennial census.

Tenn. Code Ann. § 5-1-111: County legislative bodies -- Reapportionment.
(d) The county legislative body must use the latest federal census data whenever a reapportionment is made.

SD flagSouth Dakota

S.D. Const. Article III, § 5: The Legislature shall apportion its membership by dividing the state into as many single-member, legislative districts as there are state senators. House districts shall be established wholly within senatorial districts and shall be either single-member or dual-member districts as the Legislature shall determine. Legislative districts shall consist of compact, contiguous territory and shall have population as nearly equal as is practicable, based on the last preceding federal census. An apportionment shall be made by the Legislature in 1983 and in 1991, and every ten years after 1991. Such apportionment shall be accomplished by December first of the year in which the apportionment is required. If any Legislature whose duty it is to make an apportionment shall fail to make the same as herein provided, it shall be the duty of the Supreme Court within ninety days to make such apportionment.

WV flagWest Virginia

W. Va. Const. Art. VI, § 4: For the election of senators, the State shall be divided into twelve senatorial districts, which number shall not be diminished, but may be increased as hereinafter provided. Every district shall elect two senators, but, where the district is composed of more than one county, both shall not be chosen from the same county. The districts shall be compact, formed of contiguous territory, bounded by county lines, and, as nearly as practicable, equal in population, to be ascertained by the census of the United States. After every such census, the legislature shall alter the senatorial districts, so far as may be necessary to make them conform to the foregoing provision.

W. Va. Const. Art. VI, § 10: The arrangement of the senatorial and delegate districts, and apportionment of delegates, shall hereafter be declared by law, as soon as possible after each succeeding census, taken by authority of the United States. When so declared they shall apply to the first general election for members of the legislature, to be thereafter held, and shall continue in force unchanged, until such districts shall be altered, and delegates apportioned, under the succeeding census.

W. Va. Code § 1-2-2: (a) As used in this section:
(1) “County” means the territory comprising a county of this state as it existed on January 1, 2010, notwithstanding any boundary changes made subsequent thereto;
(2) “Block” and “VTD” (voting district) mean those geographic areas as defined by the Bureau of the Census of the United States Department of Commerce for the taking of the 2010 census of population and described on census maps prepared by the Bureau of the Census. The maps are, at the time of the reenactment of this section in the year 2011, maintained by the Bureau of the Census and filed in Redistricting Office of the Joint Committee on Government and Finance.

WI flagWisconsin

Wisconsin Const. Art. IV, sec. 3:
Apportionment. SECTION 3. At its first session after each enumeration made by the authority of the United States, the legislature shall apportion and district anew the members of the senate and assembly, according to the number of inhabitants.

Once established, the boundaries of each ward shall remain unchanged until a further decennial federal census of population indicates that the population of a ward is then above or below the applicable population range, or until the ward boundaries are required to be changed to permit creation of supervisory or aldermanic districts of substantially equal population or to enhance the participation of members of a racial or language minority group in the political process and their ability to elect representatives of their choice, or until otherwise authorized or required under this section.

WY flagWyoming

Wyo. Const. Art. 3, § 48: At the first budget session of the legislature following the federal census, the legislature shall reapportion its membership based upon that census. Notwithstanding any other provision of this article, any bill to apportion the legislature may be introduced in a budget session in the same manner as in a general session.

Wyo. Const. Art. 3, § 3: Each county shall constitute a senatorial and representative district; the senate and house of representatives shall be composed of members elected by the legal voters of the counties respectively, every two (2) years. They shall be apportioned among the said counties as nearly as may be according to the number of their inhabitants. Each county shall have at least one senator and one representative; but at no time shall the number of members of the house of representatives be less than twice nor greater than three times the number of members of the senate. The senate and house of representatives first elected in pursuance of this constitution shall consist of sixteen and thirty-three members respectively.

Wyo. Stat. § 8-1-102: Definitions.
(a) As used in the statutes unless the legislature clearly specifies a different meaning or interpretation or the context clearly requires a different meaning:
. . .
(xv) “Last federal census” means the last official federal decennial census as conducted and officially corrected by the bureau of census, including any changes for boundary modifications, to become effective on July 1 next following the receipt of the official census figures;
(xvi) “Population” of a city, town, county, legislative district or other political subdivision shall be determined by resort to the last federal census.

CO flagColorado

[*Note: Colorado's constitutional redistricting language changed in the last election. The printed constitution has not been updated to reflect these changes. Colo. Const. Art. 5, § 48 (amended by Amendment Z)]

C.R.S. 2-2-901: Population data for redistricting - legislative declaration

(1) The general assembly hereby finds and declares that:

(a) Section 44 of article V of the state constitution requires the general assembly to divide the state into congressional districts after each new apportionment of seats in the United States house of representatives, and a new apportionment occurs after each federal decennial census;
(b) Section 48 of article V of the state constitution requires that a reapportionment commission be appointed after each federal census to establish, revise, and alter the state senatorial and representative districts;
(c) These sections imply that the general assembly and the reapportionment commission must perform their constitutional duty to redraw the boundaries of congressional and state legislative districts using population data derived from the latest federal census, so that the equal population requirements of the federal and state constitutions can be satisfied;
(d) Federal officials have proposed using statistical sampling techniques to modify the traditional headcount of the population;
(e) The United States supreme court has held that the federal census act prohibits the use of statistically adjusted population data to apportion seats in the United States house of representatives among the states;
(f) Many have argued that statistically adjusted population data does not satisfy the requirement of the federal constitution for an "actual enumeration" of the population;
(g) There is no reason for congress to use one set of population data for apportionment of seats in congress and for state redistricting authorities to use a different set of data to redraw congressional and state legislative district boundaries, and the federal government would incur additional costs by furnishing two sets of data to the states;
(h) Using different population data for redistricting would subject the state of Colorado to the risk of litigation over the appropriate population figures, which form the very foundation of any congressional or state legislative redistricting plan;
(i) It is therefore necessary to establish the intent of the general assembly that the same population data be used in the congressional and state legislative redistricting processes as is used for purposes of apportioning seats in the United States house of representatives among the states.

(2) For purposes of redrawing the boundaries of congressional, state senatorial, and state representative districts after the federal census in the year 2010, the general assembly and the Colorado reapportionment commission shall use population data supplied by the United States bureau of the census that has been used to apportion the seats in the United States house of representatives among the states.

Congressional: C.R.S. 2-1-100.5: The general assembly hereby finds and declares that the state of Colorado shall be divided into districts pursuant to the official figures of the most recent decennial census of the United States. The general assembly further finds and declares that such figures are the most reliable data that the state has available and that the use of any other data or of any data adjustments may create a serious risk of inaccuracy and injustice in establishing congressional districts to represent the citizens of Colorado.

Colo. Const. Art. V, Section 48: REVISION AND ALTERATION OF DISTRICTS - REAPPORTIONMENT COMMISSION
(1)

(a) After each federal census of the United States, the senatorial districts and representative districts shall be established, revised, or altered, and the members of the senate and the house of representatives apportioned among them, by a Colorado reapportionment commission consisting of eleven members, to be appointed and having the qualifications as prescribed in this section. Of such members, four shall be appointed by the legislative department, three by the executive department, and four by the judicial department of the state.
(b) The four legislative members shall be the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the house of representatives, and the majority and minority leaders of the senate, or the designee of any such officer to serve in his or her stead, which acceptance of service or designation shall be made no later than April 15 of the year following that in which the federal census is taken. The three executive members shall be appointed by the governor between April 15 and April 25 of such year, and the four judicial members shall be appointed by the chief justice of the Colorado supreme court between April 25 and May 5 of such year.
(c) Commission members shall be qualified electors of the state of Colorado. No more than four commission members shall be members of the general assembly. No more than six commission members shall be affiliated with the same political party. No more than four commission members shall be residents of the same congressional district, and each congressional district shall have at least one resident as a commission member. At least one commission member shall reside west of the continental divide.
(d) Any vacancy created by the death or resignation of a member, or otherwise, shall be filled by the respective appointing authority. Members of the commission shall hold office until their reapportionment and redistricting plan is implemented. No later than May 15 of the year of their appointment, the governor shall convene the commission and appoint a temporary chairman who shall preside until the commission elects its own officers.
(e) Within one hundred thirteen days after the commission has been convened or the necessary census data are available, whichever is later, the commission shall publish a preliminary plan for reapportionment of the members of the general assembly and shall hold public hearings thereon in several places throughout the state within forty-five days after the date of such publication. No later than one hundred twenty-three days prior to the date established in statute for precinct caucuses in the second year following the year in which the census was taken or, if the election laws do not provide for precinct caucuses, no later than one hundred twenty-three days prior to the date established in statute for the event commencing the candidate selection process in such year, the commission shall finalize its plan and submit the same to the Colorado supreme court for review and determination as to compliance with sections 46 and 47 of this article. Such review and determination shall take precedence over other matters before the court. The supreme court shall adopt rules for such proceedings and for the production and presentation of supportive evidence for such plan. Any legal arguments or evidence concerning such plan shall be submitted to the supreme court pursuant to the schedule established by the court; except that the final submission must be made no later than ninety days prior to the date established in statute for precinct caucuses in the second year following the year in which the census was taken or, if the election laws do not provide for precinct caucuses, no later than ninety days prior to the date established in statute for the event commencing the candidate selection process in such year. The supreme court shall either approve the plan or return the plan and the court's reasons for disapproval to the commission. If the plan is returned, the commission shall revise and modify it to conform to the court's requirements and resubmit the plan to the court within the time period specified by the court. The supreme court shall approve a plan for the redrawing of the districts of the members of the general assembly by a date that will allow sufficient time for such plan to be filed with the secretary of state no later than fifty-five days prior to the date established in statute for precinct caucuses in the second year following the year in which the census was taken or, if the election laws do not provide for precinct caucuses, no later than fifty-five days prior to the date established in statute for the event commencing the candidate selection process in such year. The court shall order that such plan be filed with the secretary of state no later than such date. The commission shall keep a public record of all the proceedings of the commission and shall be responsible for the publication and distribution of copies of each plan.
(f) The general assembly shall appropriate sufficient funds for the compensation and payment of the expenses of the commission members and any staff employed by it. The commission shall have access to statistical information compiled by the state or its political subdivisions and necessary for its reapportionment duties.

DC flagDistrict of Columbia

N/A

DE flagDelaware

29 Del. C. § 803 Numbering of districts. Each representative district and each senatorial district shall be designated by number.

29 Del. C. § 804 Determining district boundaries; criteria.
In determining the boundaries of the several representative and senatorial districts within the State, the General Assembly shall use the following criteria. Each district shall, insofar as is possible:
(1) Be formed of contiguous territory;
(2) Be nearly equal in population;
(3) Be bounded by major roads, streams or other natural boundaries; and
(4) Not be created so as to unduly favor any person or political party.

29 Del. C. § 804A Determining district boundaries for incarcerated individuals; criteria.
(a) The General Assembly, in determining the reapportionment and redistricting for the State, applying the criteria set forth in § 804 of this title, and using the official reporting of the federal decennial census as set forth in § 805 of this title, shall not count as part of the population in a given district boundary any incarcerated individual who:

(1) Was incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility, as determined by the decennial census; and
(2) Was not a resident of the State before the person's incarceration.

(b) The General Assembly, in determining the reapportionment and redistricting for the State as provided in this subchapter, shall count as part of the population in a given district boundary any individual incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility, as determined by the decennial census, if the individual was a resident of the State prior to incarceration. Such individual shall be counted for reapportionment and redistricting purposes at the individual's last known residence prior to incarceration.
(c) This section shall not apply to the redistricting of the State following the 2010 federal decennial census. This section shall apply to the redistricting of the State following each federal decennial census thereafter.

§ 805 Redistricting after federal decennial census.
The apportionment provided for by this chapter shall continue in effect until the official reporting by the President of the United States of the next federal decennial census. After the official reporting of the 2020 federal decennial census by the President to Congress, the General Assembly shall, not later than June 30, 2021, reapportion and redistrict the State, wherever necessary, for the general election of 2022 and thereafter in such a manner that the several representative and senatorial districts shall comply, insofar as possible, with the criteria set forth in § 804(1)-(4) of this title. Such apportionment shall thence continue in effect until the next succeeding federal decennial census.

KS flagKansas

Article 10—APPORTIONMENT OF THE LEGISLATURE
§ 1. Reapportionment of senatorial and representative districts. (a) At its regular session in 1989, the legislature shall by law reapportion the state representative districts, the state senatorial districts or both the state representative and senatorial districts upon the basis of the latest census of the inhabitants of the state taken by authority of chapter 61 of the 1987 Session Laws of Kansas. At its regular session in 1992, and at its regular session every tenth year thereafter, the legislature shall by law reapportion the state senatorial districts and representative districts on the basis of the population of the state as established by the most recent census of population taken and published by the United States bureau of the census. Senatorial and representative districts shall be reapportioned upon the basis of the population of the state adjusted: (1) To exclude nonresident military personnel stationed within the state and nonresident students attending colleges and universities within the state; and (2) to include military personnel stationed within the state who are residents of the state and students attending colleges and universities within the state who are residents of the state in the district of their permanent residence. Bills reapportioning legislative districts shall be published in the Kansas register immediately upon final passage and shall be effective for the next following election of legislators and thereafter until again reapportioned.

MS flagMississippi

Regarding Legislative redistricting, Article 13, Section 254, Mississippi Constitution of 1890 provides:
The Legislature shall at its regular session in the second year following the 1980 decennial census and every ten (10) years thereafter, and may, at any other time, by joint resolution, by majority vote of all members of each house, apportion the state in accordance with the Constitution of the state and of the United States into consecutively numbered Senatorial and Representative districts of contiguous territory. The Senate shall consist of not more than fifty-two (52) Senators, and the House of Representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred twenty-two (122) Representatives, the number of members of each house to be determined by the Legislature. Should the Legislature adjourn without apportioning itself as required hereby, the Governor by proclamation shall reconvene the Legislature within thirty (30) days in special apportionment session which shall not exceed thirty (30) consecutive days, during which no other business shall be transacted, and it shall be the mandatory duty of the Legislature to adopt a joint resolution of apportionment. Should a special apportionment session not adopt a joint resolution of apportionment as required hereby, a five-member commission consisting of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as chairman, the Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the speaker of the House of Representatives and the president pro tempore of the Senate shall immediately convene and within one hundred eighty (180) days of the adjournment of such special apportionment session apportion the Legislature, which apportionment shall be final upon filing with the office of the Secretary of State. Each apportionment shall be effective for the next regularly scheduled elections of members of the Legislature.

Regarding legislative redistricting, MCA Section 5-3-93 provides
§ 5-3-93. Committee to draw plan to apportion Mississippi Legislature
The members of the committee shall draw a plan to apportion, according to constitutional standards, the membership of the Mississippi Senate and the Mississippi House of Representatives no later than fifteen (15) days prior to the scheduled adjournment of the next regular session of the Legislature following the delivery of the 2000 decennial census data to the state and every ten (10) years thereafter and at such other times as they may be directed by joint resolution of the Mississippi Legislature.

Provided, however, the committee shall not be required to present a plan to the Legislature prior to four (4) months after the publication of census data.

Miss. Code Ann. § 5-3-99:
Procedure for determining norm to be represented by senators and representatives.
(1) The committee shall divide the number of members of the senate that it recommends within constitutional limitations into the total population of the state as reported in each census to determine the number of persons which constitutes the norm to be represented by a senator.
(2) The committee shall divide the number of members of the house of representatives that it recommends within constitutional limitations into the total population of the state as reported in each census to determine the number of persons which constitutes the norm to be represented by a representative.

Regarding Congressional redistricting, MCA Section 5-3-123 provides § 5-3-123. Preparation of plan to redistrict congressional districts

The members of the committee shall draw a plan to redistrict, according to constitutional standards, the United States congressional districts for the state of Mississippi no later than thirty (30) days preceding the convening of the next regular session of the legislature after the results of the 1980 decennial census are published and every ten (10) years thereafter.

Provided, however, the committee shall not be required to present a plan to the governor and to the legislature prior to four (4) months after the publication of census data

No provision set out above specifically provides that only census information will be used, the use of the term “decennial census” in all provisions creates the strong implication that the census data will be the basis for any plan devised. While the contrary argument could be offered that the drafters used the term “decimal census” simply as an occurrence to be used to trigger the beginning of the redistricting process, a counter argument could be offered that other trigger dates or occurrences could have been used instead of the delivery of the decennial census if the drafters simply wanted to provide a trigger for beginning the process. Historically, our state has used the decennial census as a basis for redistricting. To my knowledge it has never considered using any other information since Section 254 was completely re-written in 1979. Note, Connor v. Finch, 419 F. Supp. 1052 (SD Miss, 1976) in which the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi relied upon half decade old census data to redistrict the MS House and Senate because it was the only “definite” data available.

MT flagMontana

Mont. Const., Art. V § 14: (1) The state shall be divided into as many districts as there are members of the house, and each district shall elect one representative. Each senate district shall be composed of two adjoining house districts and shall elect one senator. Each district shall consist of compact and contiguous territory. All districts shall be as nearly equal in population as is practicable.
(2) In the legislative session following ratification of this constitution and thereafter in each session preceding each federal population census, a commission of five citizens, none of whom may be public officials, shall be selected to prepare a plan for redistricting and reapportioning the state into legislative districts and a plan for redistricting the state into congressional districts. The majority and minority leaders of each house shall each designate one commissioner. Within 20 days after their designation, the four commissioners shall select the fifth member, who shall serve as chairman of the commission. If the four members fail to select the fifth member within the time prescribed, a majority of the supreme court shall select him.
(3) Within 90 days after the official final decennial census figures are available, the commission shall file its final plan for congressional districts with the secretary of state and it shall become law.
(4) The commission shall submit its plan for legislative districts to the legislature at the first regular session after its appointment or after the census figures are available. Within 30 days after submission, the legislature shall return the plan to the commission with its recommendations. Within 30 days thereafter, the commission shall file its final plan for legislative districts with the secretary of state and it shall become law.
(5) Upon filing both plans, the commission is then dissolved.

5-1-115, MCA: (1) Subject to federal law, legislative and congressional districts must be established on the basis of population.
(2) In the development of legislative districts, a plan is subject to the Voting Rights Act and must comply with the following criteria, in order of importance:

(a) The districts must be as equal as practicable, meaning to the greatest extent possible, within a plus or minus 1% relative deviation from the ideal population of a district as calculated from information provided by the federal decennial census. The relative deviation may be exceeded only when necessary to keep political subdivisions intact or to comply with the Voting Rights Act.
(b) District boundaries must coincide with the boundaries of political subdivisions of the state to the greatest extent possible. The number of counties and cities divided among more than one district must be as small as possible. When there is a choice between dividing local political subdivisions, the more populous subdivisions must be divided before the less populous, unless the boundary is drawn along a county line that passes through a city.
(c) The districts must be contiguous, meaning that the district must be in one piece. Areas that meet only at points of adjoining corners or areas separated by geographical boundaries or artificial barriers that prevent transportation within a district may not be considered contiguous.
(d) The districts must be compact, meaning that the compactness of a district is greatest when the length of the district and the width of a district are equal. A district may not have an average length greater than three times the average width unless necessary to comply with the Voting Rights Act.

(3) A district may not be drawn for the purposes of favoring a political party or an incumbent legislator or member of congress. The following data or information may not be considered in the development of a plan:

(a) addresses of incumbent legislators or members of congress;
(b) political affiliations of registered voters;
(c) partisan political voter lists; or
(d) previous election results, unless required as a remedy by a court.

NJ flagNew Jersey

New Jersey Constitution, Article IV, Section III, paragraphs 1, 2, 3
1. After the next and every subsequent decennial census of the United States, the Senate districts and Assembly districts shall be established, and the senators and members of the General Assembly shall be apportioned among them, by an Apportionment Commission consisting of ten members, five to be appointed by the chairman of the State committee of each of the two political parties whose candidates for Governor receive the largest number of votes at the most recent gubernatorial election. Each State chairman, in making such appointments, shall give due consideration to the representation of the various geographical areas of the State. Appointments to the Commission shall be made on or before November 15 of the year in which such census is taken and shall be certified by the Secretary of State on or before December 1 of that year. The Commission, by a majority of the whole number of its members, shall certify the establishment of Senate and Assembly districts and the apportionment of senators and members of the General Assembly to the Secretary of State within one month of the receipt by the Governor of the official decennial census of the United States for New Jersey, or on or before February 1 of the year following the year in which the census is taken, whichever date is later.
2. If the Apportionment Commission fails so to certify such establishment and apportionment to the Secretary of State on or before the date fixed or if prior thereto it determines that it will be unable so to do, it shall so certify to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New Jersey and he shall appoint an eleventh member of the Commission. The Commission so constituted, by a majority of the whole number of its members, shall, within one month after the appointment of such eleventh member, certify to the Secretary of State the establishment of Senate and Assembly districts and the apportionment of senators and members of the General Assembly.
3. Such establishment and apportionment shall be used thereafter for the election of members of the Legislature and shall remain unaltered until the following decennial census of the United States for New Jersey shall have been received by the Governor.

N.J. Const., Art. IV, Sec. II, Para. 1: Composition of Senate; senate districts
The Senate shall be composed of forty senators apportioned among Senate districts as nearly as may be according to the number of their inhabitants as reported in the last preceding decennial census of the United States and according to the method of equal proportions. Each Senate district shall be composed, wherever practicable, of one single county, and, if not so practicable, of two or more contiguous whole counties.

N.J. Const., Art. IV, Sec. II, Para. 3: Composition of General Assembly; assembly districts
The General Assembly shall be composed of eighty members. Each Senate district to which only one senator is apportioned shall constitute an Assembly district. Each of the remaining Senate districts shall be divided into Assembly districts equal in number to the number of senators apportioned to the Senate district. The Assembly districts shall be composed of contiguous territory, as nearly compact and equal in the number of their inhabitants as possible, and in no event shall each such district contain less than eighty per cent nor more than one hundred twenty per cent of one-fortieth of the total number of inhabitants of the State as reported in the last preceding decennial census of the United States. Unless necessary to meet the foregoing requirements, no county or municipality shall be divided among Assembly districts unless it shall contain more than one-fortieth of the total number of inhabitants of the State, and no county or municipality shall be divided among a number of Assembly districts larger than one plus the whole number obtained by dividing the number of inhabitants in the county or municipality by one-fortieth of the total number of inhabitants of the State.

New Jersey Constitution, Article II, Section II: 1. (a) After each federal census taken in a year ending in zero, the Congressional districts shall be established by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission. The commission shall consist of 13 members, none of whom shall be a member or employee of the Congress of the United States. The members of the commission shall be appointed with due consideration to geographic, ethnic and racial diversity and in the manner provided herein.
(b) There shall first be appointed 12 members as follows:

(1) two members to be appointed by the President of the Senate;
(2) two members to be appointed by the Speaker of the General Assembly;
(3) two members to be appointed by the minority leader of the Senate;
(4) two members to be appointed by the minority leader of the General Assembly; and
(5) four members, two to be appointed by the chairman of the State committee of the political party whose candidate for the office of Governor received the largest number of votes at the most recent gubernatorial election and two to be appointed by the chairman of the State committee of the political party whose candidate for the office of Governor received the next largest number of votes in that election.

Appointments to the commission under this subparagraph shall be made on or before June 15 of each year ending in one and shall be certified by the respective appointing officials to the Secretary of State on or before July 1 of that year.
Each partisan delegation so appointed shall appoint one of its members as its chairman who shall have authority to make such certifications and to perform such other tasks as the members of that delegation shall reasonably require.

(c) There shall then be appointed one member, to serve as an independent member, who shall have been for the preceding five years a resident of this State, but who shall not during that period have held public or party office in this State.

The independent member shall be appointed upon the vote of at least seven of the previously appointed members of the commission on or before July 15 of each year ending in one, and those members shall certify that appointment to the Secretary of State on or before July 20 of that year. If the previously appointed members are unable to appoint an independent member within the time allowed therefor, they shall so certify to the Supreme Court not later than that July 20 and shall include in that certification the names of the two persons who, in the members' final vote upon the appointment of the independent member, received the greatest number of votes. Not later than August 10 following receipt of that certification, the Supreme Court shall by majority vote of its full authorized membership select, of the two persons so named, the one more qualified by education and occupational experience, by prior public service in government or otherwise, and by demonstrated ability to represent the best interest of the people of this State, to be the independent member. The Court shall certify that selection to the Secretary of State not later than the following August 15.

(d) Vacancies in the membership of the commission occurring prior to the certification by the commission of Congressional districts or during any period in which the districts established by the commission may be or are under challenge in court shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointments were made within five days of their occurrence. In the case of a vacancy in the membership of the independent member, if the other members of the commission are unable to fill that vacancy within that five-day period, they shall transmit certification of such inability within three days of the expiration of the period to the Supreme Court, which shall select the person to fill the vacancy within five days of receipt of that certification.

2. The independent member shall serve as the chairman of the commission. The commission shall meet to organize as soon as may be practicable after certification of the appointment of the independent member, but not later than the Wednesday after the first Monday in September of each year ending in one. At the organizational meeting the members of the commission shall determine such organizational matters as they deem appropriate. Thereafter, a meeting of the commission may be called by the chairman or upon the request of seven members, and seven members of the commission shall constitute a quorum at any meeting thereof for the purpose of taking any action.
3. On or before the third Tuesday of each year ending in two, or within three months after receipt in each decade by the appropriate State officer of the official statement by the Clerk of the United States House of Representatives, issued pursuant to federal law, regarding the number of members of the House of Representatives apportioned to this State for that decade, whichever is later, the commission shall certify the establishment of the Congressional districts to the Secretary of State. The commission shall certify the establishment of districts pursuant to a majority vote of the full authorized membership of the commission convened in open public meeting, of which meeting there shall be at least 24 hours' public notice. Any vote by the commission upon a proposal to certify the establishment of a Congressional district plan shall be taken by roll call and shall be recorded, and the vote of any member in favor of any Congressional district plan shall nullify any vote which that member shall previously have cast during the life of the commission in favor of a different Congressional district plan. If the commission is unable to certify the establishment of districts by the time required due to the inability of a plan to achieve seven votes, the two district plans receiving the greatest number of votes, but not fewer than five votes, shall be submitted to the Supreme Court, which shall select and certify whichever of the two plans so submitted conforms most closely to the requirements of the Constitution and laws of the United States.
4. The New Jersey Redistricting Commission shall hold at least three public hearings in different parts of the State. The commission shall, subject to the constraints of time and convenience, review written plans for the establishment of Congressional districts submitted by members of the public.
5. Meetings of the New Jersey Redistricting Commission shall be held at convenient times and locations and, with the exception of the public hearings required by paragraph 4 of this section and the meeting at which the establishment of districts is certified as prescribed by paragraph 3 of this section, may be closed to the public.
6. The Legislature shall appropriate the funds necessary for the efficient operation of the New Jersey Redistricting Commission.
7. Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary of this Constitution and except as otherwise required by the Constitution or laws of the United States, no court of this State other than the Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction over any judicial proceeding challenging the appointment of members to the New Jersey Redistricting Commission, or any action, including the establishment of Congressional districts, by the commission or other public officer or body under the provisions of this section.
8. The establishment of Congressional districts shall be used thereafter for the election of members of the House of Representatives and shall remain unaltered through the next year ending in zero in which a federal census for this State is taken.
9. If a plan certified by the commission is declared unlawful, the commission shall reorganize and adopt another Congressional district plan in the same manner as herein required and within the period of time prescribed by the court or within such shorter period as may be necessary to ensure that the new plan is effective for the next succeeding primary and general election for all members of the United States House of Representatives.

NM flagNew Mexico

N.M. Const. Art. IV, § 3: D. Once following publication of the official report of each federal decennial census hereafter conducted, the legislature may by statute reapportion its membership.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-3-11: The purpose of the Precinct Boundary Adjustment Act [1-3-10 NMSA 1978] is to comply with the criteria established pursuant to the provisions of Subsection (c) of Section 141 of Title 13 of the United States Code in order to obtain an enumeration of the populations of election precincts by the bureau of the census in the federal decennial census and in order to provide such enumeration data to the New Mexico legislature for purposes of legislative reapportionment.

N.M. Stat. Ann. § 1-3-12: Adjusting precinct boundaries.
A. Before each federal decennial census, every precinct boundary shall be adjusted to coincide with a feature or a boundary that is:

(1) shown on the standard base maps developed pursuant to Subsection B of this section;
(2) a designated census block boundary on the proposed federal PL 94-171 2010 census block maps; or
(3) approved by the secretary of state and the bureau of the census.

B. Prior to commencement of the federal decennial census, the secretary of state shall have prepared and shall furnish to each county clerk standard base maps of the county. The standard base map for urban and nonurban areas of the county shall, as nearly as practical, show:

(1) all state and federal highways;
(2) all numbered and named county roads that have been certified to the department of transportation;
(3) all military installation boundaries and federal and state prison boundaries;
(4) all major railroad lines;
(5) federal, state and county political boundaries, municipal boundaries and school district boundaries;
(6) all streets within urban areas; and
(7) other major terrain features such as flowing rivers and streams, arroyos, powerlines, pipelines, roads, trails and ridgelines and other acceptable census block boundaries.

C. The board of county commissioners and the county clerks, upon receipt of the standard base maps from the secretary of state, shall:

(1) adjust all precinct boundaries to coincide with numbered or named street boundaries or suitable visible terrain features shown on the standard base map; provided that the precincts shall be composed of contiguous and compact areas, and state, county, municipal, school district and other political boundary lines shall serve as precinct boundaries whenever possible; and
(2) upon the completion of the precinct boundary adjustments as required in this section, indicate on the standard base maps the boundaries for both urban and nonurban precincts and, together with a written description of the precincts, shall send an electronic copy in a format approved by the secretary of state or four copies of the precinct maps to the secretary of state for approval.

D. The precincts shown upon the standard base maps submitted pursuant to the provisions of this section and as revised and approved by the secretary of state pursuant to the Precinct Boundary Adjustment Act [1-3-10 NMSA 1978] shall become the official precincts of each county for the 2011 redistricting. For the 2012 and subsequent primary and general elections, changes in precincts shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 1, Article 3 NMSA 1978.
E. A local public body, when creating or redrawing districts, shall not split a precinct into two or more districts for any elected office unless necessary to comply with federal law or to preserve communities of interest.
F. Precincts shall be designated solely by whole numbers.

VT flagVermont

17 V.S.A. § 1903: (a) The house of representatives and the senate shall be reapportioned and redistricted on the basis of population during the biennial session after the taking of each decennial census of the United States, or after a census taken for the purpose of such reapportionment under the authority of this state.
(b) The standard for creating districts for the election of representatives to the general assembly shall be to form representative districts with minimum percentages of deviation from the apportionment standard for the house of representatives. The standard for creating districts for the election of senators on a county basis to the general assembly shall be to form senatorial districts with minimum percentages of deviation from the apportionment standard for the senate. The representative and senatorial districts shall be formed consistent with the following policies insofar as practicable:

(1) preservation of existing political subdivision lines;
(2) recognition and maintenance of patterns of geography, social interaction, trade, political ties, and common interests;
(3) use of compact and contiguous territory.

17 V.S.A. § 1902: (4) “Population" means the most recent census taken under the authority of Congress or a special census ordered to be taken by the legislature.

Al flagAlabama

Alabama Const. Art. IX, Sec. 198: The house of representatives shall consist of not more than one hundred and five members, unless new counties shall be created, in which event each new county shall be entitled to one representative. The members of the house of representatives shall be apportioned by the legislature among the several counties of the state, according to the number of inhabitants in them, respectively, as ascertained by the decennial census of the United States, which apportionment, when made, shall not be subject to alteration until the next session of the legislature after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken.

Alabama Const. Art. IX, Sec. 199: It shall be the duty of the legislature at its first session after the taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of representatives and apportion them among the several counties of the state, according to the number of inhabitants in them, respectively; provided, that each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.

Alabama Const. Art. IX, Sec. 200: It shall be the duty of the legislature at its first session after taking of the decennial census of the United States in the year nineteen hundred and ten, and after each subsequent decennial census, to fix by law the number of senators, and to divide the state into as many senatorial districts as there are senators, which districts shall be as nearly equal to each other in the number of inhabitants as may be, and each shall be entitled to one senator, and no more; and such districts, when formed, shall not be changed until the next apportioning session of the legislature, after the next decennial census of the United States shall have been taken; provided, that counties created after the next preceding apportioning session of the legislature may be attached to senatorial districts. No county shall be divided between two districts, and no district shall be made up of two or more counties not contiguous to each other.

Alabama Const. Art. IX, Sec. 201: Should any decennial census of the United States not be taken, or if when taken, the same, as to this state, be not full and satisfactory, the legislature shall have the power at its first session after the time shall have elapsed for the taking of said census, to provide for an enumeration of all the inhabitants of this state, upon which it shall be the duty of the legislature to make the apportionment of representatives and senators as provided for in this article.

AR flagArkansas

Ark. Const. Art. 8, § 1: A Board to be known as "The Board of Apportionment," consisting of the Governor (who shall be Chairman), the Secretary of State and the Attorney General is hereby created and it shall be its imperative duty to make apportionment of representatives in accordance with the provisions hereof; the action of a majority in each instance shall be deemed the action of said board.

Ark. Const. Art. 8, § 2: The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred members and each county existing at the time of any apportionment shall have at least one representative; the remaining members shall be equally distributed (as nearly as practicable) among the more populous counties of the State, in accordance with a ratio to be determined by the population of said counties as shown by the Federal census next preceding any apportionment hereunder.

Ark. Const. Art. 8, § 3: The Senate shall consist of thirty-five members. Senatorial districts shall at all times consist of contiguous territory, and no county shall be divided in the formation of such districts. "The Board of Apportionment" hereby created shall, from time to time, divide the state into convenient senatorial districts in such manner as that the Senate shall be based upon the inhabitants of the state, each senator representing, as nearly as practicable, an equal number thereof; each district shall have at least one senator.

Ark. Const. Art. 8, §4:On or before February 1 immediately following each Federal census, said board shall reapportion the State for Representatives, and in each instance said board shall file its report with the Secretary of State, setting forth (a) the basis of population adopted for representatives; (b) the number of representatives assigned to each county; whereupon, after 30 days from such filing date, the apportionment thus made shall become effective unless proceedings for revision be instituted in the Supreme Court within said period.

CA flagCalifornia

ARTICLE XXI REDISTRICTING OF SENATE, ASSEMBLY, CONGRESSIONAL AND BOARD OF EQUALIZATION DISTRICTS [SECTION 1 - SEC. 3] (Heading of Article 21 amended Nov. 4, 2008, by Prop. 11. Initiative measure.)

SECTION 1.
In the year following the year in which the national census is taken under the direction of Congress at the beginning of each decade, the Citizens Redistricting Commission described in Section 2 shall adjust the boundary lines of the congressional, State Senatorial, Assembly, and Board of Equalization districts (also known as “redistricting”) in conformance with the standards and process set forth in Section 2. (Sec. 1 amended Nov. 2, 2010, by Prop. 20. Initiative measure.)

SEC. 2.
(a) The Citizens Redistricting Commission shall be created no later than December 31 in 2010, and in each year ending in the number zero thereafter.
(b) The commission shall: (1) conduct an open and transparent process enabling full public consideration of and comment on the drawing of district lines; (2) draw district lines according to the redistricting criteria specified in this article; and (3) conduct themselves with integrity and fairness.
(c)

(1) The selection process is designed to produce a commission that is independent from legislative influence and reasonably representative of this State’s diversity.
(2) The commission shall consist of 14 members, as follows: five who are registered with the largest political party in California based on registration, five who are registered with the second largest political party in California based on registration, and four who are not registered with either of the two largest political parties in California based on registration.
(3) Each commission member shall be a voter who has been continuously registered in California with the same political party or unaffiliated with a political party and who has not changed political party affiliation for five or more years immediately preceding the date of his or her appointment. Each commission member shall have voted in two of the last three statewide general elections immediately preceding his or her application.
(4) The term of office of each member of the commission expires upon the appointment of the first member of the succeeding commission.
(5) Nine members of the commission shall constitute a quorum. Nine or more affirmative votes shall be required for any official action. The four final redistricting maps must be approved by at least nine affirmative votes which must include at least three votes of members registered from each of the two largest political parties in California based on registration and three votes from members who are not registered with either of these two political parties.
(6) Each commission member shall apply this article in a manner that is impartial and that reinforces public confidence in the integrity of the redistricting process. A commission member shall be ineligible for a period of 10 years beginning from the date of appointment to hold elective public office at the federal, state, county, or city level in this State. A member of the commission shall be ineligible for a period of five years beginning from the date of appointment to hold appointive federal, state, or local public office, to serve as paid staff for, or as a paid consultant to, the Board of Equalization, the Congress, the Legislature, or any individual legislator, or to register as a federal, state or local lobbyist in this State.


(d) The commission shall establish single-member districts for the Senate, Assembly, Congress, and State Board of Equalization pursuant to a mapping process using the following criteria as set forth in the following order of priority:

(1) Districts shall comply with the United States Constitution. Congressional districts shall achieve population equality as nearly as is practicable, and Senatorial, Assembly, and State Board of Equalization districts shall have reasonably equal population with other districts for the same office, except where deviation is required to comply with the federal Voting Rights Act or allowable by law.
(2) Districts shall comply with the federal Voting Rights Act (42 U.S.C. Sec. 1971 and following).
(3) Districts shall be geographically contiguous.
(4) The geographic integrity of any city, county, city and county, local neighborhood, or local community of interest shall be respected in a manner that minimizes their division to the extent possible without violating the requirements of any of the preceding subdivisions. A community of interest is a contiguous population which shares common social and economic interests that should be included within a single district for purposes of its effective and fair representation. Examples of such shared interests are those common to an urban area, a rural area, an industrial area, or an agricultural area, and those common to areas in which the people share similar living standards, use the same transportation facilities, have similar work opportunities, or have access to the same media of communication relevant to the election process. Communities of interest shall not include relationships with political parties, incumbents, or political candidates.
(5) To the extent practicable, and where this does not conflict with the criteria above, districts shall be drawn to encourage geographical compactness such that nearby areas of population are not bypassed for more distant population.
(6) To the extent practicable, and where this does not conflict with the criteria above, each Senate district shall be comprised of two whole, complete, and adjacent Assembly districts, and each Board of Equalization district shall be comprised of 10 whole, complete, and adjacent Senate districts.

(e) The place of residence of any incumbent or political candidate shall not be considered in the creation of a map. Districts shall not be drawn for the purpose of favoring or discriminating against an incumbent, political candidate, or political party.
(f) Districts for the Congress, Senate, Assembly, and State Board of Equalization shall be numbered consecutively commencing at the northern boundary of the State and ending at the southern boundary.
(g) By August 15 in 2011, and in each year ending in the number one thereafter, the commission shall approve four final maps that separately set forth the district boundary lines for the congressional, Senatorial, Assembly, and State Board of Equalization districts. Upon approval, the commission shall certify the four final maps to the Secretary of State.
(h) The commission shall issue, with each of the four final maps, a report that explains the basis on which the commission made its decisions in achieving compliance with the criteria listed in subdivision (d) and shall include definitions of the terms and standards used in drawing each final map.
(i) Each certified final map shall be subject to referendum in the same manner that a statute is subject to referendum pursuant to Section 9 of Article II. The date of certification of a final map to the Secretary of State shall be deemed the enactment date for purposes of Section 9 of Article II.
(j) If the commission does not approve a final map by at least the requisite votes or if voters disapprove a certified final map in a referendum, the Secretary of State shall immediately petition the California Supreme Court for an order directing the appointment of special masters to adjust the boundary lines of that map in accordance with the redistricting criteria and requirements set forth in subdivisions (d), (e), and (f). Upon its approval of the masters’ map, the court shall certify the resulting map to the Secretary of State, which map shall constitute the certified final map for the subject type of district.
(Sec. 2 amended Nov. 2, 2010, by Prop. 20. Initiative measure.)

SEC. 3.
(a) The commission has the sole legal standing to defend any action regarding a certified final map, and shall inform the Legislature if it determines that funds or other resources provided for the operation of the commission are not adequate. The Legislature shall provide adequate funding to defend any action regarding a certified map. The commission has sole authority to determine whether the Attorney General or other legal counsel retained by the commission shall assist in the defense of a certified final map.
(b)

(1) The California Supreme Court has original and exclusive jurisdiction in all proceedings in which a certified final map is challenged or is claimed not to have taken timely effect.
(2) Any registered voter in this state may file a petition for a writ of mandate or writ of prohibition, within 45 days after the commission has certified a final map to the Secretary of State, to bar the Secretary of State from implementing the plan on the grounds that the filed plan violates this Constitution, the United States Constitution, or any federal or state statute. Any registered voter in this state may also file a petition for a writ of mandate or writ of prohibition to seek relief where a certified final map is subject to a referendum measure that is likely to qualify and stay the timely implementation of the map.
(3) The California Supreme Court shall give priority to ruling on a petition for a writ of mandate or a writ of prohibition filed pursuant to paragraph (2). If the court determines that a final certified map violates this Constitution, the United States Constitution, or any federal or state statute, the court shall fashion the relief that it deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, the relief set forth in subdivision (j) of Section 2.

CT flagConnecticut

Conn. Const. Art. III., Sec. 5: (Congressional and general assembly districts to be consistent with federal standards.)
Sec. 5. The establishment of congressional districts and of districts in the general assembly shall be consistent with federal constitutional standards.
Historical Note: This section, as printed here, incorporates Article XVI., Sec. 1 of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut. Said Article XVI., Sec. 1 was adopted on November 26, 1980, and required that congressional districts be established in a manner consistent with federal constitutional standards. https://www.cga.ct.gov/red2011/laws.asp

Conn. Const. Art. III., Sec. 6: (Reapportionment procedure. Reapportionment Committee. Reapportionment Commission.)
Sec. 6. a. The assembly and senatorial districts and congressional districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the taking of the next census of the United States. On or before the fifteenth day of February next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the general assembly shall appoint a reapportionment committee consisting of four members of the senate, two who shall be designated by the president pro tempore of the senate and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the senate, and four members of the house of representatives, two who shall be designated by the speaker of the house of representatives and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the house of representatives, provided there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the committee in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. Such committee shall advise the general assembly on matters of apportionment. Upon the filing of a report of such committee with the clerk of the house of representatives and the clerk of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate shall, if the general assembly is not in regular session, convene the general assembly in special session for the sole purpose of adopting a plan of districting. Upon the request of the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate, the secretary of the state shall give notice of such special session by mailing a true copy of the call of such special session, by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to each member of the house of representatives and of the senate at his or her address as it appears upon the records of said secretary not less than ten nor more than fifteen days prior to the date of convening of such special session or by causing a true copy of the call to be delivered to each member by a constable, state policeman or indifferent person at least twenty-four hours prior to the time of convening of such special session. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session or special session called for the purpose of adopting a plan of districting following the completion of the taking of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

b. If the general assembly fails to adopt a plan of districting by the fifteenth day of the September next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the governor shall forthwith appoint a commission designated by the president pro tempore of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the senate and the minority leader of the house of representatives, each of whom shall designate two members of the commission, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. The eight members of the commission so designated shall within thirty days select an elector of the state as a ninth member.

c. The commission shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and it shall submit a plan of districting to the secretary of the state by the thirtieth day of the November next succeeding the appointment of its members. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least five members of the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law. If the commission shall fail to submit such a plan by the thirtieth day of November, the secretary of the state shall forthwith so notify the chief justice of the supreme court.

d. Original jurisdiction is vested in the supreme court to be exercised on the petition of any registered voter whereby said court may compel the commission, by mandamus or otherwise, to perform its duty or to correct any error made in its plan of districting, or said court may take such other action to effectuate the purposes of this article, including the establishing of a plan of districting if the commission fails to file its plan of districting by the thirtieth day of November as said court may deem appropriate. Any such petition shall be filed within thirty days of the date specified for any duty or within thirty days after the filing of a plan of districting. The supreme court shall render its decision not later than forty-five days following the filing of such petition or shall file its plan with the secretary of the state not later than the fifteenth day of February next following the time for submission of a plan of districting by the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law.

Historical Note: This section, as printed here, incorporates Article XII., of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut, and Article XVI., Sec. 2, Article XXVI., and Article XXX., Sec. 2, of said Amendments. Said Article XII., was adopted on November 24, 1976, and added provisions in subsection a. requiring the appointment of a reapportionment committee and set forth the procedures governing the designation of its members, changed the deadline for enactment of a redistricting plan in subsection b. from the April first next following the completion of a census to the May fifteenth next following completion and added a ninth commission member, to be selected by the eight appointees of the speaker, president pro tem and minority leaders, in subsection c., changed the deadline for the submission of the plan to the secretary of the state from the July first next succeeding the appointment of commission members to the September first next succeeding their appointment, required certification by five commission members rather than six and added new provision requiring secretary of the state to notify the chief justice in the event that the commission fails to submit a plan, and entirely replaced former subsections d. and e. which had authorized empaneling a three-member board to consist of superior court judges charged with altering districts as need be with a new subsection d. vesting original jurisdiction in the supreme court to compel the commission to perform its duties or to correct errors in the plan or to establish a plan itself. Said Article XVI., Sec. 2, was adopted on November 26, 1980, and replaced references to the "completion" of a census with references to the "taking" of a census throughout this section, amended subsection a. to include congressional districts and to add provisions governing the calling of a special session to adopt a redistricting plan, amended subsection b. to change the deadline for adoption of a plan from May fifteenth to August first in the year next following the census, amended subsection c. to change the deadline from the September first next succeeding the appointment of members to the October thirtieth next succeeding their appointment, and amended subsection d. to change the deadline for filing a petition from "within forty-five days of the date specified for any duty or within forty-five days after the filing of a plan of districting" to "within thirty days" of such date for any duty or filing, to reduce the time allotted for supreme court action on a petition from sixty to forty-five days and to change court's deadline for filing its own plan from the December fifteenth following a census to the January fifteenth next following the commission's deadline for submission of a plan. Said Article XXVI., was adopted on November 28, 1990, and amended subsection b. to change the deadline for adoption of a plan from the August first next following the year a census is taken to the fifteenth of September next following such year, amended subsection c. to change the deadline from the October thirtieth next succeeding the appointment of members to the November thirtieth next succeeding their appointment and amended subsection d. to change court's deadline for filing its own plan from the January fifteenth next following the commission's deadline for submission of a plan to the February fifteenth following the commission's deadline. Said Article XXX., Sec. 2, was adopted on November 29, 2000, and amended subsection a. by deleting reference to sheriff and deputy sheriff. https://www.cga.ct.gov/red2011/laws.asp

FL flagFlorida

Forfeiture for:

Nonappearance: Fla. Stat. §§ 843.15, 903.23 (b)

Fla. Const. Art. X, § 8: (a) Each decennial census of the state taken by the United States shall be an official census of the state.
(b) Each decennial census, for the purpose of classifications based upon population, shall become effective on the thirtieth day after the final adjournment of the regular session of the legislature convened next after certification of the census.

Fla. Const. Art. III, § 16: (a) Senatorial and representative districts. — The legislature at its regular session in the second year following each decennial census, by joint resolution, shall apportion the state in accordance with the constitution of the state and of the United States into not less than thirty nor more than forty consecutively numbered senatorial districts of either contiguous, overlapping or identical territory, and into not less than eighty nor more than one hundred twenty consecutively numbered representative districts of either contiguous, overlapping or identical territory. Should that session adjourn without adopting such joint resolution, the governor by proclamation shall reconvene the legislature within thirty days in special apportionment session which shall not exceed thirty consecutive days, during which no other business shall be transacted, and it shall be the mandatory duty of the legislature to adopt a joint resolution of apportionment.

Fla. Stat. § 11.031: (1) All acts of the Florida Legislature based upon population and all constitutional apportionments shall be based upon the last federal decennial statewide census.
(2) No special county or district census shall be effective for any purposes other than to ascertain the population for the purpose of interpreting an existing law relating to additional judges of the circuit court and additional county court judges, but no existing population or apportionment act shall be affected by a special census.
(3) The last federal decennial statewide census shall not be effective for the purpose of affecting acts of the Legislature enacted prior thereto which apply only to counties of the state within a stated population bracket until July 1 of the year following the taking of such census.

GA flagGeorgia

Ga. Const. Art. III, § II, Para. II: The General Assembly shall apportion the Senate and House districts. Such districts shall be composed of contiguous territory. The apportionment of the Senate and of the House of Representatives shall be changed by the General Assembly as necessary after each United States decennial census.

HI flagHawaii

Section 25-2, HRS, provides in pertinent part that:
At times that may be required by the Constitution and that may be required by law of the United States, the commission shall redraw congressional district lines for the districts from which the members of the United States House of Representatives allocated to this State shall be elected. The commission shall first determine the total number of members to which the State is entitled and shall then apportion those members among single member districts so that the average number of persons in the total population counted in the last preceding United States census per member in each district shall be as nearly equal as practicable. In effecting the reapportionment and districting, the commission shall be guided by the following criteria:

(1) No district shall be drawn so as to unduly favor a person or political party;
(2) Except in the case of districts encompassing more than one island, districts shall be contiguous;
(3) Insofar as practicable, districts shall be compact;
(4) Where possible, district lines shall follow permanent and easily recognized features such as streets, streams, and clear geographical features, and when practicable, shall coincide with census tract boundaries;
(5) Where practicable, state legislative districts shall be wholly included within congressional districts; and
(6) Where practicable, submergence of an area in a larger district wherein substantially different socio-economic interests predominate shall be avoided.

HRS Const. Art. IV, § 1-10: provides in pertinent part that a reapportionment commission shall redraw district lines where necessary so that for each state legislative house the average number of permanent residents per member in each district is as nearly equal as practicable to the average for the applicable island or specified group of islands.

At times that may be required by the Constitution and that may be required by law of the United States, the commission shall redraw congressional district lines for the districts from which the members of the United States House of Representatives allocated to this State shall be elected. The commission shall first determine the total number of members to which the State is entitled and shall then apportion those members among single member districts so that the average number of persons in the total population counted in the last preceding United States census per member in each district shall be as nearly equal as practicable. In effecting the reapportionment and districting, the commission shall be guided by the following criteria:

(1) No district shall be drawn so as to unduly favor a person or political party;
(2) Except in the case of districts encompassing more than one island, districts shall be contiguous;
(3) Insofar as practicable, districts shall be compact;
(4) Where possible, district lines shall follow permanent and easily recognized features such as streets, streams, and clear geographical features, and when practicable, shall coincide with census tract boundaries;
(5) Where practicable, state legislative districts shall be wholly included within congressional districts; and
(6) Where practicable, submergence of an area in a larger district wherein substantially different socio-economic interests predominate shall be avoided.

IO flagIdaho

Idaho requires the use of census data for both congressional and legislative redistricting. I.C. 72-1506 is the pertinent statute:
72-1506. CRITERIA GOVERNING PLANS. Congressional and legislative redistricting plans considered by the commission, and plans adopted by the commission, shall be governed by the following criteria:

(1) The total state population as reported by the U.S. census bureau, and the population of subunits determined therefrom, shall be exclusive permissible data.
(2) To the maximum extent possible, districts shall preserve traditional neighborhoods and local communities of interest.
(3) Districts shall be substantially equal in population and should seek to comply with all applicable federal standards and statutes.
(4) To the maximum extent possible, the plan should avoid drawing districts that are oddly shaped.
(5) Division of counties shall be avoided whenever possible. In the event that a county must be divided, the number of such divisions, per county, should be kept to a minimum.
(6) To the extent that counties must be divided to create districts, such districts shall be composed of contiguous counties.
(7) District boundaries shall retain the local voting precinct boundary lines to the extent those lines comply with the provisions of section 34-306, Idaho Code. When the commission determines, by an affirmative vote of at least five (5) members recorded in its minutes, that it cannot complete its duties for a legislative district by fully complying with the provisions of this subsection, this subsection shall not apply to the commission or legislative redistricting plan it shall adopt.
(8) Counties shall not be divided to protect a particular political party or a particular incumbent.
(9) When a legislative district contains more than one (1) county or a portion of a county, the counties or portion of a county in the district shall be directly connected by roads and highways which are designated as part of the interstate highway system, the United States highway system or the state highway system. When the commission determines, by an affirmative vote of at least five (5) members recorded in its minutes, that it cannot complete its duties for a legislative district by fully complying with the provisions of this subsection, this subsection shall not apply to the commission or legislative redistricting plan it shall adopt.

IN flagIndiana

Ind. Const. Art. 4, § 5: The General Assembly elected during the year in which a federal decennial census is taken shall fix by law the number of Senators and Representatives and apportion them among districts according to the number of inhabitants in each district, as revealed by that federal decennial census. The territory in each district shall be contiguous.

Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 3-3-2-1: Congressional districts shall be established by law at the first regular session of the general assembly convening immediately following the United States decennial census.

Burns Ind. Code Ann. § 1-1-3.5-3:

(a) For purposes of the statutes described in section 5(c) [IC 1-1-3.5-5(c)] of this chapter, a reference to population is a reference to population as determined by the most recent of the following:

(1) Federal decennial census.
(2) Federal special census.
(3) Special tabulation.
(4) Corrected population count.

(b) For purposes of statutes relating to drawing boundaries of county executive districts, county fiscal body districts, municipal legislative body districts, or the districts of any other political subdivision, a reference to population is a reference to population as determined by the most recent of the following:

(1) Federal decennial census.
(2) Federal special census.
(3) Special tabulation.
(4) Corrected population count.

(c) For purposes of a noncode statute, a reference to population is the population determined by the most recent federal decennial census in effect before the passage of the statute, unless the population description in the statute is changed by subsequent legislation.
(d) For purposes of statutes not described in subsection (a), (b), or (c), a reference to population is the population determined by the most recent federal decennial census in effect, unless the statute specifically provides otherwise.
(e) This subsection applies to a political subdivision located in more than one (1) county. If a political subdivision is described in a statute by reference to the county in which the political subdivision is located, the reference is to the county that contains a majority of the population of the political subdivision.
(f) The effective date of each:

(1) federal decennial census;
(2) federal special census;
(3) special tabulation; or
(4) corrected population count;
is April 1 of the calendar year following the year in which the tabulation of population or corrected population count is delivered to the state by the United States Secretary of Commerce under 13 U.S.C. 141 and received by the governor.

(g) Promptly upon receiving the tabulation of population or corrected population count, the governor shall issue an executive order:

(1) evidencing the date of receipt; and
(2) noting that the effective date of the tabulation of population or corrected population count for purposes of any statute described in this section is April 1 of the following year.

Ind. Code Ann. § 3-3-4: Chapter 4 General Provisions Relating to Establishing Congressional Districts

IA flagIowa

Iowa Code section 42.2, subsection 3, provides as follows:
3. As soon as possible after January 1 of each year ending in one, the legislative services agency shall obtain from the United States bureau of the census the population data needed for legislative districting which the census bureau is required to provide this state under United States Pub. L. No. 94-171, and shall use that data to assign a population figure based upon certified federal census data to each geographic or political unit described pursuant to subsection 2, paragraph “a”. Upon completing that task, the legislative services agency shall begin the preparation of congressional and legislative districting plans as required by section 42.3.

Iowa Const., Art. III § 34: Senate and house of representatives — limitation.
The senate shall be composed of not more than fifty and the house of representatives of not more than one hundred members. Senators and representatives shall be elected from districts established by law. Each district so established shall be of compact and contiguous territory. The state shall be apportioned into senatorial and representative districts on the basis of population. The general assembly may provide by law for factors in addition to population, not in conflict with the Constitution of the United States, which may be considered in the apportioning of senatorial districts. No law so adopted shall permit the establishment of senatorial districts whereby a majority of the members of the senate shall represent less than forty percent of the population of the state as shown by the most recent United States decennial census.

LA flagLouisiana

Constitutional provisions (Art. III, Section 6):
§6. Legislative Reapportionment; Reapportionment by Supreme Court; Procedure Section 6.
(A) Reapportionment by Legislature. By the end of the year following the year in which the population of this state is reported to the president of the United States for each decennial federal census, the legislature shall reapportion the representation in each house as equally as practicable on the basis of population shown by the census.
(B) Reapportionment by Supreme Court. If the legislature fails to reapportion as required in Paragraph (A), the supreme court, upon petition of any elector, shall reapportion the representation in each house as provided in Paragraph (A).
(C) Procedure. The procedure for review and for petition shall be provided by law.

R.S. 18§1906. Tabulation for reapportionment; legislature
In accordance with Article III, Section 6(A) of the Constitution of Louisiana, the tabulation of population for each decennial census on the basis of which the legislature shall reapportion the representation in each house shall be the tabulation of population reported and transmitted by the United States Bureau of the Census to the governor and the legislature within one year after the census date, under the provisions of Public Law 94-171. Such tabulation of population shall be the sole basis for the establishment of legislative districts, and no other or subsequent tabulation of population shall be considered or utilized in such reapportionment.

MD flagMaryland

Md. Const. art. III, § 5: Section 5. Legislative districting and apportionment following each decennial census
Following each decennial census of the United States and after public hearings, the Governor shall prepare a plan setting forth the boundaries of the legislative districts for electing of the members of the Senate and the House of Delegates.

The Governor shall present the plan to the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Delegates who shall introduce the Governor's plan as a joint resolution to the General Assembly, not later than the first day of its regular session in the second year following every census, and the Governor may call a special session for the presentation of his plan prior to the regular session. The plan shall conform to Sections 2, 3 and 4 of this Article. Following each decennial census the General Assembly may by joint resolution adopt a plan setting forth the boundaries of the legislative districts for the election of members of the Senate and the House of Delegates, which plan shall conform to Sections 2, 3 and 4 of this Article. If a plan has been adopted by the General Assembly by the 45th day after the opening of the regular session of the General Assembly in the second year following every census, the plan adopted by the General Assembly shall become law. If no plan has been adopted by the General Assembly for these purposes by the 45th day after the opening of the regular session of the General Assembly in the second year following every census, the Governor's plan presented to the General Assembly shall become law.

Upon petition of any registered voter, the Court of Appeals shall have original jurisdiction to review the legislative districting of the State and may grant appropriate relief, if it finds that the districting of the State is not consistent with requirements of either the Constitution of the United States of America, or the Constitution of Maryland.

MA flagMassachusetts

The Massachusetts constitution does require that we use the census pursuant to the article below:
ALM Constitution Amend. Art. CI:
Section 1. In the year nineteen hundred and seventy-five and every tenth year thereafter a census of the inhabitants of each city and town shall be taken. Said census shall specify the number of inhabitants residing in each precinct of each town and in each precinct and ward of each city. Said census shall be the basis for determining the representative districts for the ten year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the fourth January following the taking of said census; provided that such districts as established based on the census in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-one shall terminate on the first Wednesday in January in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-nine.] [See Amendments, Arts. CIX and CXVII.]

The House of Representatives shall consist of one hundred and sixty members. The General Court shall, at its first regular session after the year in which said census was taken, divide the Commonwealth into one hundred and sixty representative districts of contiguous territory so that each representative will represent an equal number of inhabitants, as nearly as may be; and such districts shall be formed, as nearly as may be, without uniting two counties or parts of two or more counties, two towns or parts of two or more towns, two cities or parts of two or more cities, or a city and a town, or parts of cities and towns, into one district. Such districts shall also be so formed that no town containing less than twenty-five hundred inhabitants according to said census shall be divided. The General Court may by law limit the time within which judicial proceedings may be instituted calling in question any such division. Every representative, for one year at least immediately preceding his election, shall have been an inhabitant of the district for which he is chosen and shall cease to represent such district when he shall cease to be an inhabitant of the Commonwealth. The manner of calling and conducting the elections for the choice of representatives, and of ascertaining their election, shall be prescribed by law.

Section 2. [Each such census of inhabitants required in section one shall likewise be the basis for determining the senatorial districts and also the councillor districts for the ten year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the fourth January following the taking of such census; provided that such districts as established based on the census in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-one shall terminate on the first Wednesday in January in the year nineteen hundred and seventy-nine.] The Senate shall consist of forty members. The General Court shall, at its first regular session after the year in which said census is taken, divide the Commonwealth into forty districts of contiguous territory, each district to contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants according to said census; and such districts shall be formed, as nearly as may be, without uniting two counties, or parts of two or more counties, into one district. The General Court may by law limit the time within which judicial proceedings may be instituted calling in question such division. Each district shall elect one senator, who shall have been an inhabitant of this Commonwealth five years at least immediately preceding his election and at the time of his election shall be an inhabitant of the district for which he is chosen; and he shall cease to represent such senatorial district when he shall cease to be an inhabitant of the Commonwealth. The manner of calling and conducting the elections for the choice of senators and councillors, and of ascertaining their election, shall be prescribed by law.

Section 3. Original jurisdiction is hereby vested in the supreme judicial court upon the petition of any voter of the Commonwealth, filed with the clerk of the supreme judicial court for the Commonwealth, for judicial relief relative to the establishment of House of Representatives, councillor and senatorial districts.

Section 4. Article XCII of the Amendments to the Constitution is hereby annulled.

ALM Constitution Amend. Art. CI: SECTION 1. The federal census shall be the basis for determining the representative districts for the ten-year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the third January following the taking of said census.

Section 2. Said federal census shall likewise be the basis for determining the senatorial districts and also the councilor districts for the ten-year period beginning with the first Wednesday in the third January following the taking of said census.

MI flagMichigan

[*Note: In 2018, voters approved a constitutional amendment to have an independent redistricting commission. The language refers to plans including “such census data as is necessary to accurately describe the plan and verify the population of each district” (Michigan Constitution; Article IV, Section 6). You can view the new redistricting commission language here: http://legislature.mi.gov/doc.aspx?mcl-Article-IV-6.

MCLS Const. Art. IV, § 6: Call to convene; apportionment; public hearings. Within 30 days after the adoption of this constitution, and after the official total population count of each federal decennial census of the state and its political subdivisions is available, the secretary of state shall issue a call convening the commission not less than 30 nor more than 45 days thereafter. The commission shall complete its work within 180 days after all necessary census information is available. The commission shall proceed to district and apportion the senate and house of representatives according to the provisions of this constitution. All final decisions shall require the concurrence of a majority of the members of the commission. The commission shall hold public hearings as may be provided by law.

Comments: This is a new section requiring that the house and senate be reapportioned following each decennial census by a commission on legislative apportionment. The commission is to consist of eight members, with the state organizations of the two major political parties each selecting four members. One member from each party is to come from each of four regions of the state—Upper Peninsula, northern part of Lower Peninsula, southwestern part of Lower Peninsula, and southeastern part of Lower Peninsula. A third party polling more than 25 percent of the votes for governor shall also be entitled to four members on a 12-member commission.

The commission shall convene within 75 days after the adoption of the constitution and after the results of each decennial census are available and shall complete its work within 180 days after all necessary census information is available. The commission shall reapportion and redistrict house and senate seats in accordance with the provisions of the constitution.

MCLS Const. Art. IV, § 2: Senatorial districts, apportionment factors. In districting the state for the purpose of electing senators after the official publication of the total population count of each federal decennial census, each county shall be assigned apportionment factors equal to the sum of its percentage of the state’s population as shown by the last regular federal decennial census computed to the nearest one-one hundredth of one percent multiplied by four and its percentage of the state’s land area computed to the nearest one-one hundredth of one percent.

NH flagNew Hampshire

N.H. Const. Pt. SECOND, Art. 9: [Representatives Elected Every Second Year; Apportionment of Representatives.]
There shall be in the legislature of this state a house of representatives, biennially elected and founded on principles of equality, and representation therein shall be as equal as circumstances will admit. The whole number of representatives to be chosen from the towns, wards, places, and representative districts thereof established hereunder, shall be not less than three hundred seventy-five or more than four hundred. As soon as possible after the convening of the next regular session of the legislature, and at the session in 1971, and every ten years thereafter, the legislature shall make an apportionment of representatives according to the last general census of the inhabitants of the state taken by authority of the United States or of this state. In making such apportionment, no town, ward or place shall be divided nor the boundaries thereof altered.

N.H. Const. Pt. SECOND, Art. 9-a: [Legislative Adjustments of Census with Reference to Non-Residents.]
The general court shall have the power to provide by statute for making suitable adjustments to the general census of the inhabitants of the state taken by the authority of the United States or of this state on account of non-residents temporarily residing in this state.

N.H. Const. Pt. SECOND, Art. 26: [Senatorial Districts, How Constituted.]
And that the state may be equally represented in the senate, the legislature shall divide the state into single-member districts, as nearly equal as may be in population, each consisting of contiguous towns, city wards and unincorporated places, without dividing any town, city ward or unincorporated place. The legislature shall form the single-member districts at its next session after approval of this article by the voters of the state and thereafter at the regular session following each decennial federal census.

NY flagNew York

NY CLS Const Art III, § 4: [Readjustments and reapportionments; when federal census to control] (a) Except as herein otherwise provided, the federal census taken in the year nineteen hundred thirty and each federal census taken decennially thereafter shall be controlling as to the number of inhabitants in the state or any part thereof for the purposes of the apportionment of members of assembly and readjustment or alteration of senate and assembly districts next occurring, in so far as such census and the tabulation thereof purport to give the information necessary therefor. The legislature, by law, shall provide for the making and tabulation by state authorities of an enumeration of the inhabitants of the entire state to be used for such purposes, instead of a federal census, if the taking of a federal census in any tenth year from the year nineteen hundred thirty be omitted or if the federal census fails to show the number of aliens or Indians not taxed. If a federal census, though giving the requisite information as to the state at large, fails to give the information as to any civil or territorial divisions which is required to be known for such purposes, the legislature, by law, shall provide for such an enumeration of the inhabitants of such parts of the state only as may be necessary, which shall supersede in part the federal census and be used in connection therewith for such purposes. The legislature, by law, may provide in its discretion for an enumeration by state authorities of the inhabitants of the state, to be used for such purposes, in place of a federal census, when the return of a decennial federal census is delayed so that it is not available at the beginning of the regular session of the legislature in the second year after the year nineteen hundred thirty or after any tenth year therefrom, or if an apportionment of members of assembly and readjustment or alteration of senate districts is not made at or before such a session. At the regular session in the year nineteen hundred thirty-two, and at the first regular session after the year nineteen hundred forty and after each tenth year therefrom the senate districts shall be readjusted or altered, but if, in any decade, counting from and including that which begins with the year nineteen hundred thirty-one, such a readjustment or alteration is not made at the time above prescribed, it shall be made at a subsequent session occurring not later than the sixth year of such decade, meaning not later than nineteen hundred thirty-six, nineteen hundred forty-six, nineteen hundred fifty-six, and so on; provided, however, that if such districts shall have been readjusted or altered by law in either of the years nineteen hundred thirty or nineteen hundred thirty-one, they shall remain unaltered until the first regular session after the year nineteen hundred forty. No town, except a town having more than a full ratio of apportionment, and no block in a city inclosed by streets or public ways, shall be divided in the formation of senate districts. In the reapportionment of senate districts, no district shall contain a greater excess in population over an adjoining district in the same county, than the population of a town or block therein adjoining such district. Counties, towns or blocks which, from their location, may be included in either of two districts, shall be so placed as to make said districts most nearly equal in number of inhabitants, excluding aliens. No county shall have four or more senators unless it shall have a full ratio for each senator.

NY CLS Const Art III, § 5: [Apportionment of assemblymen; creation of assembly districts]

NY CLS Legis § 83-m: Legislative task force on demographic research and reapportionment

NC flagNorth Carolina

N.C. Const. art. II, § 3: The Senators shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators among those districts, subject to the following requirements:

(1) Each Senator shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Senator represents being determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Senators apportioned to that district;
(2) Each senate district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory;
(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district;
(4) When established, the senate districts and the apportionment of Senators shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken by order of Congress.

N.C. Const. art. II, § 5: The Representatives shall be elected from districts. The General Assembly, at the first regular session convening after the return of every decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, shall revise the representative districts and the apportionment of Representatives among those districts, subject to the following requirements:

(1) Each Representative shall represent, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, the number of inhabitants that each Representative represents being determined for this purpose by dividing the population of the district that he represents by the number of Representatives apportioned to that district;
(2) Each representative district shall at all times consist of contiguous territory;
(3) No county shall be divided in the formation of a representative district;
(4) When established, the representative districts and the apportionment of Representatives shall remain unaltered until the return of another decennial census of population taken by order of Congress.

N.C. Const. art. VII, § 1: The General Assembly shall provide for the organization and government and the fixing of boundaries of counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions, and, except as otherwise prohibited by this Constitution, may give such powers and duties to counties, cities and towns, and other governmental subdivisions as it may deem advisable.

The General Assembly shall not incorporate as a city or town, nor shall it authorize to be incorporated as a city or town, any territory lying within one mile of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 5,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within three miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 10,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within four miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 25,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress, or lying within five miles of the corporate limits of any other city or town having a population of 50,000 or more according to the most recent decennial census of population taken by order of Congress. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations, the General Assembly may incorporate a city or town by an act adopted by vote of three-fifths of all the members of each house.

N.C. Gen. Stat. § 163A-1065: Participation in the 2020 Census Redistricting Data Program of the United States Census Bureau (a) Participation. -- The State of North Carolina shall participate in the 2020 Census Redistricting Data Program, conducted pursuant to P.L. 94-171, of the United States Bureau of the Census, so that the State will receive 2020 Census data by voting districts.
(b) Reporting of Voting Districts. -- The Executive Director of the State Board shall report to the Bureau of the Census this State's voting precincts as of January 1, 2018, to be used in the 2020 Census as voting districts. Before making that report, the Executive Director shall consult with the Legislative Services Office concerning the accuracy of the information to be reported. The Executive Director shall submit the report to the Bureau of the Census in time to comply with the deadlines of that Bureau for the 2020 Census Redistricting Data Program. The Executive Director, with the assistance of the county boards of elections, shall participate in the Bureau of the Census's verification program and notify the Bureau of the Census of any errors in the entry of the voting districts in time for those errors to be corrected.
(c) Additional Rules. -- The Executive Director and the Legislative Services Officer shall develop a systematic method for review and input by the Legislative Services Office prior to the submission required by subsection (b) of this section.

OK flagOklahoma

Okl. Const. Art. V, § 9A: Senatorial districts—Tenure
The state shall be apportioned into forty-eight senatorial districts in the following manner: the nineteen most populous counties, as determined by the most recent Federal Decennial Census, shall constitute nineteen senatorial districts with one senator to be nominated and elected from each district; the fifty-eight less populous counties shall be joined into twenty-nine two-county districts with one senator to be nominated and elected from each of the two-county districts. In apportioning the State Senate, consideration shall be given to population, compactness, area, political units, historical precedents, economic and political interests, contiguous territory, and other major factors, to the extent feasible.

Each senatorial district, whether single county or multi-county, shall be entitled to one senator, who shall hold office for four years; provided that any senator, serving at the time of the adoption of this amendment, shall serve the full time for which he was elected. Vitalization of senatorial districts shall provide for one-half of the senators to be elected at each general election.

Okl. Const. Art. V, § 10A: House of Representatives—Number of members—Formula—Tenure
The House of Representatives shall consist of the number of Representatives as determined by the formula and procedure set forth herein. The number of members of the House of Representatives to which each county shall be entitled shall be determined according to the following formula:
a. The total population of the state as ascertained by the most recent Federal Decennial Census shall be divided by the number one hundred and the quotient shall be the ratio of representation in the House of Representatives, except as otherwise provided in this Article.

Okl. Const. Art. V, § 11A: The apportionment of the Legislature shall be accomplished by the Legislature according to the provisions of this article, within ninety (90) legislative days after the convening of the first regular session of the Legislature following each Federal Decennial Census. If the Legislature shall fail or refuse to make such apportionment within the time provided herein, then such apportionment shall be accomplished by the Bipartisan Commission on Legislative Apportionment, according to the provisions of this article. The Commission shall be composed of seven (7) members as follows: the Lieutenant Governor, who shall be nonvoting and the chair of the Commission; two members, one republican and one democrat, appointed by the President Pro Tempore of the Senate; two members, one republican and one democrat, appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives; and two members, one republican and one democrat, appointed by the Governor.

Congressional: 14 Okl. St. § 6.2: The State of Oklahoma is hereby divided into five (5) Congressional Districts as described in this section. The following delineation of areas to be included in each Congressional District is based on the official Counties, Voting Tabulation Districts (VTD) and Census Blocks (Block) as defined in 2010 by the United States Bureau of the Census. The five (5) Congressional Districts shall consist of the Counties, Voting Tabulation Districts (VTD) and Census Blocks (Block) described as follows:
14 Okl. St. § 6.5: The Department of Transportation shall prepare and publish a description and maps of the five (5) Congressional Districts, translating the descriptions by official Counties, Voting Tabulation Districts (VTD) and Census Blocks (Block) into commonly understood descriptions by metes and bounds with reference to well-recognized landmarks and boundaries. The Department of Transportation shall provide copies of the descriptions and maps to the State Election Board.

Legislative: 14 Okl. St. § 80.35.2: The State Senate shall be composed of forty-eight (48) members elected from the districts hereinafter described. The following delineation of areas to be included in each Senate district is based on the official counties, voting districts (VTD’s) and blocks as defined in 2010 by the United States Bureau of the Census. The forty-eight (48) Senate districts shall consist of the counties, voting districts (VTD’s) 14 Okl. St. § 133: B. For purposes of the State House of Representatives Redistricting Act of 2011:
1. The total state population based on the 2011 Federal Decennial Census is three million seven hundred fifty-one thousand three hundred fifty-one (3,751,351) persons;
2. The ideal House district contains thirty-seven thousand one hundred forty-two (37,142) persons;
3. The descriptions of House districts in Section 3 of this act are based on geographical units defined by the United States Bureau of the Census for the purposes of compiling and reporting the 2011 Federal Decennial Census and include:

a. counties,
b. voting tabulation districts (VTD), and
c. census blocks (blocks); and

4. The term “percent deviation” means the degree in percentage by which a single district’s population varies from the ideal district.

TX flagTexas

Section 26, Article III, Texas Constitution (Tex. Const. Art. III, § 26):
APPORTIONMENT OF MEMBERS OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned among the several counties, according to the number of population in each, as nearly as may be, on a ratio obtained by dividing the population of the State, as ascertained by the most recent United States census, by the number of members of which the House is composed; provided, that whenever a single county has sufficient population to be entitled to a Representative, such county shall be formed into a separate Representative District, and when two or more counties are required to make up the ratio of representation, such counties shall be contiguous to each other; and when any one county has more than sufficient population to be entitled to one or more Representatives, such Representative or Representatives shall be apportioned to such county, and for any surplus of population it may be joined in a Representative District with any other contiguous county or counties.

Section 28, Article III, Texas Constitution (Tex. Const. Art. III, § 28):
TIME FOR APPORTIONMENT; APPORTIONMENT BY LEGISLATIVE REDISTRICTING BOARD. The Legislature shall, at its first regular session after the publication of each United States decennial census, apportion the state into senatorial and representative districts, agreeable to the provisions of Sections 25 and 26 of this Article. In the event the Legislature shall at any such first regular session following the publication of a United States decennial census, fail to make such apportionment, same shall be done by the Legislative Redistricting Board of Texas, which is hereby created, and shall be composed of five (5) members, as follows: The Lieutenant Governor, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Attorney General, the Comptroller of Public Accounts and the Commissioner of the General Land Office, a majority of whom shall constitute a quorum. Said Board shall assemble in the City of Austin within ninety (90) days after the final adjournment of such regular session. The Board shall, within sixty (60) days after assembling, apportion the state into senatorial and representative districts, or into senatorial or representative districts, as the failure of action of such Legislature may make necessary. Such apportionment shall be in writing and signed by three (3) or more of the members of the Board duly acknowledged as the act and deed of such Board, and, when so executed and filed with the Secretary of State, shall have force and effect of law. Such apportionment shall become effective at the next succeeding statewide general election. The Supreme Court of Texas shall have jurisdiction to compel such Board to perform its duties in accordance with the provisions of this section by writ of mandamus or other extraordinary writs conformable to the usages of law. The Legislature shall provide necessary funds for clerical and technical aid and for other expenses incidental to the work of the Board, and the Lieutenant Governor and the Speaker of the House of Representatives shall be entitled to receive per diem and travel expense during the Board's session in the same manner and amount as they would receive while attending a special session of the Legislature.

Tex. Const. Art. III, § 25: SENATORIAL DISTRICTS. The State shall be divided into Senatorial Districts of contiguous territory, and each district shall be entitled to elect one Senator.

UT flagUtah

[*Note: In 2018 the voters passed proposition 4, creating an Independent Redistricting Commission. Revisions to the Constitution and Code sections have not been printed.]

Utah Const. Art. IX, § 1: [Dividing the state into districts.]
No later than the annual general session next following the Legislature’s receipt of the results of an enumeration made by the authority of the United States, the Legislature shall divide the state into congressional, legislative, and other districts accordingly.

Utah Code Subsection 36-1-201.5(3):
(3) The Legislature adopts the official census population figures and maps of the Bureau of the Census of the United States Department of Commerce developed in connection with the taking of the 2010 national decennial census as the official data for establishing House district boundaries.

Utah Code Subsection 36-1-101.5(3):
(3) The Legislature adopts the official census population figures and maps of the Bureau of the Census of the United States Department of Commerce developed in connection with the taking of the 2010 national decennial census as the official data for establishing Senate district boundaries.

Utah Code Subsection 20A-13-101.5(2):
(2) The Legislature adopts the official census population figures and maps of the Bureau of the Census of the United States Department of Commerce developed in connection with the taking of the 2010 national decennial census as the official data for establishing Congressional district boundaries.

VI flagVirginia

Va. Code Ann. § 30-265: For the purposes of redrawing the boundaries of the congressional, state Senate, and House of Delegates districts after the United States Census for the year 2000 and every 10 years thereafter, the General Assembly shall use the population data provided by the United States Bureau of the Census identical to those from the actual enumeration conducted by the Bureau for the apportionment of the Representatives of the United States House of Representatives following the United States decennial census, except that the census data used for this apportionment purpose shall not include any population figure which is not allocated to specific census blocks within the Commonwealth, even though that population may have been included in the apportionment population figures of the Commonwealth for the purpose of allocating United States House of Representatives seats among the states.

Va. Code Ann. § 24.2-304.1: C. For the purposes of redistricting and reapportioning representation in 2001 and every 10 years thereafter, the governing body of a county, city, or town shall use the most recent decennial population figures for such county, city, or town from the United States Bureau of the Census, which figures are identical to those from the actual enumeration conducted by the United States Bureau of the Census for the apportionment of representatives in the United States House of Representatives, except that the census data for these redistricting and apportionment purposes will not include any population figure that is not allocated to specific census blocks within the Commonwealth, even though that population may have been included in the apportionment population figures of the Commonwealth for the purpose of allocating United States House of Representatives seats among the states.

WA flagWashington

Rev. Code Wash. (ARCW) § 44.05.090: In the redistricting plan:
(1) Districts shall have a population as nearly equal as is practicable, excluding nonresident military personnel, based on the population reported in the federal decennial census.
(2) To the extent consistent with subsection (1) of this section the commission plan should, insofar as practical, accomplish the following:

(a) District lines should be drawn so as to coincide with the boundaries of local political subdivisions and areas recognized as communities of interest. The number of counties and municipalities divided among more than one district should be as small as possible;
(b) Districts should be composed of convenient, contiguous, and compact territory. Land areas may be deemed contiguous if they share a common land border or are connected by a ferry, highway, bridge, or tunnel. Areas separated by geographical boundaries or artificial barriers that prevent transportation within a district should not be deemed contiguous; and
(c) Whenever practicable, a precinct shall be wholly within a single legislative district.

(3) The commission’s plan and any plan adopted by the supreme court under RCW 44.05.100(4) shall provide for forty-nine legislative districts.
(4) The house of representatives shall consist of ninety-eight members, two of whom shall be elected from and run at large within each legislative district. The senate shall consist of forty-nine members, one of whom shall be elected from each legislative district.
(5) The commission shall exercise its powers to provide fair and effective representation and to encourage electoral competition. The commission’s plan shall not be drawn purposely to favor or discriminate against any political party or group.

Rev. Code Wash. (ARCW) § 44.05.020: Definitions.
The definitions set forth in this section apply throughout this chapter, unless the context requires otherwise.
(1) “Chief election officer” means the secretary of state.
(2) “Federal census” means the decennial census required by federal law to be prepared by the United States bureau of the census in each year ending in zero.
(3) “Lobbyist” means an individual required to register with the Washington public disclosure commission pursuant to RCW 42.17A.600.
(4) “Plan” means a plan for legislative and congressional redistricting mandated by Article II, section 43 of the state Constitution.