Employment At-Will Exceptions by State

 

State

Public Policy

Implied Contract

Covenant of Good Faith & Fair Dealing

Alabama

No

Yes

Yes

Alaska

Yes

Yes

Yes

Arizona

Yes

Yes

Yes

Arkansas

Yes

Yes

Yes

California

Yes

Yes

Yes

Colorado

Yes

Yes

No

Connecticut

Yes

Yes

Yes

Delaware

Yes

No

Yes

District of Columbia

Yes

Yes

No

Florida

No

No

No

Georgia

No

No

No

Hawaii

Yes

Yes

No

Idaho

Yes

Yes

Yes

Illinois

Yes

Yes

Yes

Indiana

Yes

No

Yes

Iowa

Yes

Yes

No

Kansas

Yes

Yes

No

Kentucky

Yes

Yes

No

Louisiana

No

No

Yes

Maine

No

Yes

No

Maryland

No

Yes

No

Massachusetts

Yes

Yes

Yes

Michigan

Yes

Yes

No

Minnesota

Yes

Yes

No

Mississippi

Yes

Yes

No

Missouri

Yes

No

No

Montana

Yes

Yes

No

Nebraska

Yes

Yes

No

Nevada

Yes

Yes

Yes

New Hampshire

Yes

Yes

Yes

New Jersey

Yes

Yes

Yes

New Mexico

Yes

Yes

No

New York

No

Yes

No

North Carolina

Yes

No

No

North Dakota

Yes

Yes

No

Ohio

Yes

Yes

No

Oklahoma

Yes

Yes

Yes

Oregon

Yes

Yes

No

Pennsylvania

Yes

Yes

Yes

Rhode Island

No

No

No

South Carolina

Yes

Yes

Yes

South Dakota

Yes

Yes

No

Tennessee

Yes

No

No

Texas

Yes

Yes

No

Utah

Yes

Yes

No

Vermont

Yes

Yes

Yes

Virginia

Yes

Yes

No

Washington

Yes

Yes

No

West Virginia

Yes

Yes

No

Wisconsin

Yes

Yes

No

Wyoming

Yes

Yes

Yes

Total

43

42

20

 

Sources

Kenneth G. Dau-Schmidt and Timothy A. Haley, “Governance of the Workplace:  The Contemporary Regime of Individual Contract,” Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal (Winter 2007).

Nadjia Limani, Note, “Righting Wrongful Discharge:  A Recommendation for the New York Judiciary to Adopt a Public Policy Exception to the Employment-At-Will Doctrine,”  Cardoza Public Law, Policy and Ethics Journal (Fall 2006). 

Charles J. Muhl, “The Employment-At-Will Doctrine:  Three Major Exceptions,” Monthly Labor Review (January 2001).