Forty-five states and the District of Columbia provide an incentive for certain EVs and/or PHEVs, either through a specific utility operating in the state or through state legislation. The incentives range from tax credits or rebates to fleet acquisition goals, exemptions from emissions testing or utility time-of-use rate reductions. The five gray-colored states do not have any laws or policies in place that would specifically impact the buying of an electric vehicle or the building of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).
Charging Rate Incentive: Alabama Power offers residential EV customers a rate discount for charging during off-peak hours.
HOV Lane Exemption: Under Ariz. Rev. Stat. 28-2416, the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) provides for alternative fuel vehicles (AVF) with an AFV license plate to use HOV lanes even if the occupant number is under designated thresholds.HOV Lane Exemption: Under Ariz. Rev. Stat. 28-2416, the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) provides for alternative fuel vehicles (AVF) with an AFV license plate to use HOV lanes even if the occupant number is under designated thresholds.
Reduced AFV License Tax: Pursuant to Senate Bill 1332 (enacted 2019) and Ariz. Rev. Stat. 28-5801, vehicle license taxes for an Arizona-registered AFV is $4 for every $100 in assessed value. AFVs include those powered by electricity among other alternative fuels.
EVSE Rebate and Rate Incentive: Tucson Electric Power (TEP) residential customers are eligible for a rebate to cover up to 75% of the cost of installing EVSE, with maximum rebate amounts capped at $500 for a two-way charger and $250 for a one-way charger. TEP also offers a 5% decrease in applicable charges for residential users who charge their EV during off-peak hours.
EVSE Incentive: Entergy customers who purchase electric equipment are eligible for cash incentives that vary depending on technology type. Some examples are $250 for a Level 2 EV Charger and $150 for a golf cart.
Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Incentives: The California Energy Commission (CEC) administers the Clean Transportation Program offering financial incentives to businesses, vehicle and technology manufacturers, workforce training partners, fleet owners, consumers and academic institutions with the goal of developing and deploying alternative and renewable fuels and advanced transportation technologies. The CEC adopts an annual Investment Plan for the program establishing funding priorities and opportunities and outlining how program funding will complement public and private investments.
Low Emission Truck and Bus Purchase Vouchers: Through its Hybrid and Zero Emission Truck and Bus Voucher Incentive Project (HVIP) and Low NOx Engine Incentives, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) provides vouchers to eligible fleets to reduce the cost to purchase qualified electric and hybrid trucks and buses at the time of purchase. Vouchers are available on a first-come, first-served basis and range from $2,000 to $315,000 depending on vehicle weight and type. Only fleets that operate vehicles in California are eligible. Voucher amounts vary depending on whether the vehicles are located in a disadvantaged community.
Plug-In Hybrid and Zero Emission Light-Duty Vehicle Rebates: Pursuant to California Health and Safety Code 44274 and 44258, the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) offers rebates for the purchase or lease of qualified vehicles. Qualified vehicles are those light-duty ZEVs and PHEVs that ARB has approved or certified. Under the program, ARB offers rebates of up to $4,500 for FCEVs, $2,000 for BEVs, $1,000 for PHEVs, and $750 for zero-emission motorcycles. Rebates are available on a first-come, first-served basis to individuals, business owners, and government entities in California that purchase or lease new eligible vehicles.
Residential EVSE Financing Program: Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Loss Reserve Program financing authorizes property owners to borrow funds to pay for energy improvements, including purchasing and installing EVSE. The borrower repays the financing over a defined period of time through a special assessment on the property. Local governments in California are authorized to establish PACE programs. Property owners must meet certain requirements, including agreeing to a contractual assessment on the property tax bill, having a clean property title, and being current on property taxes and mortgages. Financing limits are 15% of the first $700,000 of the property value and 10% of the remaining property value.
Zero-Emission Transit Bus Tax Exemption: Zero-emission transit buses are exempt from state sales and use taxes when sold to public agencies eligible for the Low Emission Truck and Bus Purchase Vouchers. This exemption expires Jan. 1, 2024.
EV Rebate: SCE’s Clean Fuel Reward Program offers rebates of up to $1,000 to residential customers who purchase or lease an eligible new or used EV. Residential account holders may apply on behalf of a EV owner in their household. Note that this incentive expires Dec. 31, 2020.
EVSE Incentives for Commercial Customers: PG&E’s EV Fast Charge Program covers the costs and manages construction of electrical infrastructure necessary to install DC fast chargers. The program also offers a rebate of up to $25,000 per charger for those sites located in disadvantaged communities.
EV Rebate: PG&E offers rebates of $800 to residential customers who purchase or lease an eligible EV. Residential account holders may apply on behalf of an EV owner in their household or their tenant in a multifamily household with the vehicle owner's permission.
EVSE Incentives for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fleets: PG&E’s EV Fleet Program offers competitive incentives to facilitate the installation of EVSE for medium- and heavy-duty vehicle fleet to support organizations in electrifying their fleet operations. PG&E offers dedicated electrical infrastructure design and construction services and reduced costs for electrical infrastructure work. Sites located in disadvantaged communities may be eligible for a rebate covering a portion of costs to purchase a charger.
EV Time of Use (TOU) Rate: PG&E offers discounted residential TOU rates for electricity used for EV charging during off-peak hours.
EV Rebate: MCE offers a rebate for the purchase or lease of a new EV for income-qualifying customers. To be eligible for the rebate, an applicant must live in MCE’s service area, be an MCE customer, and meet at least one of the qualifying income requirements.
EVSE Rebate: Azusa Light & Water offers a $150 rebate to customers for the purchase of an Energy Star certified Level 2 EVSE.
Used EV Rebate: The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power offers rebates up to $1,500 to residential electric customers for the purchase of eligible used EVs.
EV Charging Rate Reduction: Bear Valley Electric Service offers three EV TOU rates to customers enrolled in the Transportation Electrification Pilot Program.
EV Infrastructure Charging Rate Reduction: San Diego Gas & Electric offers three EV TOU rates to customers using a single meter or requiring the installation of a second meter.
EV Tax Credit: EVs titled and registered in Colorado are eligible for a tax credit. The tax credit differs depending on the income tax year and the vehicle category, which includes light-duty EVs, light-duty electric trucks, medium-duty electric trucks and heavy-duty electric trucks. For example, the purchase of a light-duty EV in 2020-2021 is $4,000. House Bill 1159 (enacted 2019).
EV and EVSE Grants: The Colorado Energy Office and Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) provide grants through the Charge Ahead Colorado program to support EV and EVSE adoption among individual drivers and fleets.
Public Fleet Assistance Funding: Through its Energy/Mineral Impact Assistance Fund Grant program the Colorado Department of Local Affairs offers funding for municipalities, counties, and special districts to cover the cost of AFVs for public fleets. Through its Energy/Mineral Impact Assistance Fund Grant program, the Colorado Department of Local Affairs offers funding for municipalities, counties, and special districts to cover the cost of AFVs for public fleets.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: Colorado also exempts vehicles powered exclusively by electricity from state motor vehicle emissions inspections. 1 CCR 204-11-2.
EVSE Rebate: Gunnison County Electric Association offers rebates to residential customers for the purchase of Level 2 EVSE. Eligible customers who purchase and install EVSE can receive a rebate covering 70% of costs, up to $500.
EVSE Incentive: Holy Cross Energy offers a free Level 2 charger to residential customers and discounted Level 2 charger to commercial customers. Holy Cross also offers financing support for installation by covering the upfront costs of installation and allowing residential and commercial customers to repay the utility over a three-year period.
Hydrogen and EV Rebate: The Connecticut Hydrogen and Electric Automobile Purchase Rebate Program (CHEAPR) offers rebates of up to $5,000 toward the cost of purchasing or leasing an EV or hydrogen FCEV. Eligible vehicles may not exceed $60,000 for FCEV models and $42,000 for EV models.
Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Reduction Grants: The Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection allocated some of its funding from the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust for its Diesel Emissions Mitigation Program, which covers costs associated with replacing or repowering eligible heavy-duty on-road vehicles. The program covers different cost amounts for public and private entities. It also covers different cost amounts depending on whether the vehicle is being replaced or repowered.
EV and EVSE Rebates: Groton Utilities offers an Electric Vehicle Rebate Program providing a $2,000 rebate for the purchase of a new EV and $1,000 rebate for the lease of a new EV to a limited number of customers. Customers may also be eligible for a $600 rebate for the installation of a qualifying Level 2 charger.
EV and EVSE Rebates: Norwich Utilities offers customers rebates on the purchase or lease of a new or used EV and the purchase and installation of qualified EVSE. For PHEVs, the rebate is $500, for BEVs the rebate is $1,000, for used PHEVs model year 2018 or newer the rebate is $250, and for used BEVs model year 2018 or newer the rebate is $500. Norwich also offers a $2,000 rebate for the purchase and installation of EVSE.
EV Registration Fee Reduction: The Hydrogen and Electric Automobile Purchase Rebate Program (CHEAPR) provides up to $5,000 for the purchase or lease of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV ), all-electric vehicle, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Rebates are offered on a first-come, first-served basis.
Reduced Registration Fee: EVs are eligible for a reduced biennial vehicle registration fee of $38 per Conn. Gen. Stat. 14-49(f)).
AFV Rebates: The state implements a clean vehicle rebate program for the purchase or lease of a new AFV. Rebate amounts vary depending on vehicle type and range between $1,000 for a new PHEV up to $2,500 for a new BEV. Note that to qualify for the rebate the purchase price of a BEV or PHEV cannot exceed $60,000.
EVSE Rebates: Delaware has an electric vehicle charging rebate program providing rebates for purchasing new Level 2 chargers. Qualifying chargers may provide charging services at commercial, government and nonprofit, or multifamily building locations. Rebates cover 75% of the costs of commercial stations and 90% of the costs for government, nonprofit or multifamily buildings. The maximum rebate amount is $3,500 for a single port and $7,000 for a dual port.
Vehicle-to-Grid Energy CreditVehicle-to-Grid Energy CreditVehicle-to-Grid Energy Credit: Del. Code Ann. tit. 26 § 1014(g) provides for retail electricity customers with at least one grid-integrated EV to receive kilowatt-hour credits for energy discharged to the grid from the EV's battery at the same rate that the customer pays to charge the battery.
Medium- and Heavy-Duty Emissions Reductions Funding: The state also offers a heavy-duty vehicle rebate program offering rebates of $20,000 for qualifying heavy-duty AFVs.
EV Charging Credit: Delaware Electric Cooperative (DEC) offers a one-time $200 billing credit and an additional $5 monthly billing credit to customers for refraining from charging their EVs when the cost to purchase and produce power is high.
EVSE Financing: Fla. Rev. Stat. § 163.08 authorizes local government to assess non-ad Valorem taxes to fund qualifying improvements, including installation of EVSE. Property owners may apply for funding and enter into financing agreements with the local government to install EVSE on their property.
EV Rebate: Jacksonville Electric Authority offers an EV rebate for purchasing or leasing a new EV. Rebate amounts vary depending on battery size.
EV Rebate: Orlando Utilities Commission provides rebates of $200 to residential customers who purchase or lease an EV.
EV and EVSE Rebates: Kissimmee Utility Authority offers a $100 rebate for the purchase of an EV or installation of a home EVSE. A $100 rebate is available on a per-vehicle basis for purchasing an EV and on a per household basis for installing home EVSE.
EVSE Pilot Program: Duke Energy’s Park & Plug pilot program offers free Level 2 and DC fast charging stations to multiunit dwellings, workplaces, businesses, and areas along high-traffic corridors.
Alternative Fuel Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Tax Credit: Georgia offers a tax credit for qualifying AFV medium- and heavy-duty vehicles purchased on or after July 1, 2015.
HOV and High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane Exemption: Under Ga. Code Ann. § 32-9-4, qualifying AFVs displaying the proper alternative fuel license plate may use designated HOV and HOT lanes regardless of the number of occupants in the vehicle without paying a toll. This exemption expires Sept. 30, 2025.
EVSE Rebate: Georgia Power offers residential customers a $250 rebate for Level 2 charging equipment installed between Jan. 1, 2020, and Dec. 31, 2020.
EV Charging Rate Incentive: Georgia Power offers a TOU electricity rate to residential customers who own an EV. Eligible customers must own a smart charger capable of separately metering charger use.
EVSE Rebate Program: Pursuant to Haw. Rev. Stat. § 269-72, the public utilities commission is required to provide a rebate program incentivizing the installation and upgrading of EVSE. Hawaii Energy currently administers the program. Rebates range depending on whether the system is being installed or upgraded. Projects installing or upgrading a Level 2 station are eligible for a rebate of $4,500 and 3,000 respectively. DC fast chargers are also eligible for a rebate of up to $35,000 for an installation and $28,000 for an upgrade. Level 2 Charger upgrades and up to $35,000 for installing a new DC fast charger. Total rebates per fiscal year are capped at $500,000.
EV Charging Rate Incentive: Hawaiian Electric Company offers TOU rates for residential and commercial customers who own an electric vehicle. This program is available to customers on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and the Island of Hawaii.
EV Testing Exemption: EVs, PHEVs, and hybrid electric vehicles are exempt from state motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs. Idaho Stat. Ann. §39-116B.
EVSE Financing: Idaho implements an EVSE program offering cost-shared funds for DC fast-charging stations to create a charging network along state highways. The program is funded by Idaho’s share of the Volkswagen (VW) Environmental Mitigation Trust.
EVSE Incentive: Eligible Idaho Power business customers may apply for funding to purchase or install EVSE for various transportation technologies, including passenger vehicles and forklifts.
School Bus Retrofit Reimbursement: The Illinois Department of Education provides reimbursements to any qualifying school district to cover the cost of retrofitting gasoline buses with more fuel-efficient engines or engines using alternative fuels. 105 ILCS 5/29-5.
Fee Exemption for EV Fleets: Owners of EV fleets are exempt from the annual $20 per vehicle registration fee for fleets with 10 or more vehicles located in a defined area. 415 ILCS 120/35.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: EVs are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections. 625 ILCS 5/13C.
EV Financing and Charging Rate: Illinois Electric Cooperative members are eligible for loan financing for the purchase of new EVs. The cooperative also offers a TOU rate for residential customers who charge their EV.
Medium-and Heavy-Duty Grant Program: The state allocates a portion of its designated funds from the Volkswagen (VW) Environmental Mitigation Trust to support replacing or converting medium- and heavy-duty vehicles including Class 4-8 trucks and Class 4-8 school, shuttle, and public transit buses, among others.
EV Charging Rates: The Indianapolis Power & Light Co offers special EV charging rates, including TOU-based options for residential and business customers who own an EV.
EV Charging Rate: Indiana Michigan Power offers a special rate for residential customers charging their EV.
Diesel Emission Reduction Project Funding: The Iowa Department of Transportation provides funding to repower or replace certain medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. Both government and non-government entities that own and operate diesel fleets and equipment are eligible for funding. The program is funded by Iowa’s share of the VW Environmental Mitigation Trust funds.
EVSE Rebate: Alliant Energy offers a $500 rebate to residential customers who purchase and install Level 2 chargers. The chargers must be purchased and installed in 2020.
Residential EV Rebate: MidAmerican Energy offers residential customers a $500 rebate for purchasing a new EV on or after Jan. 1, 2020.
Non-Residential EVSE Rebate: MidAmerican Energy offers non-residential customers a $1,500 rebate to purchase and install a Level 2 charging station at businesses. The equipment must have been purchased in 2020.
AFV and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit: Pursuant to La. Rev. Stat. 47:6035, Louisiana provides an income tax credit covering 30% of the cost of fuel conversion equipment, alternative fueling equipment or property related to the use of AFVs. For new AFVs, a tax credit of 10% of the cost of the motor vehicle, up to $2,500 is available. Alternative fuels include electricity.
EVSE Rebate: Southwestern Electric Power Company offers residential customers who rent or own a home a $250 rebate for installing an ENERGY STAR-certified Level 2 charger.
Electric Equipment and EVSE Incentive: Entergy customers are eligible to receive incentives in varying amounts for the purchase of Level 2 chargers.
EV Rebates: Efficiency Maine provides rebates for purchasing or leasing a BEV or PHEV. Rebate amounts vary depending on vehicle and participant type (individual, low-income, government). Individuals can qualify for a rebate of up to $3,000 for a BEV and $1,500 for a PHEV if income eligibility requirements are met. Vehicles must be purchased or leased between Aug. 29, 2019 and Dec. 21, 2021. This program is funded through Maine’s portion of the VW Environmental Mitigation Trust. Me. Rev. Stat. 35-A §10126.
EVSE Exemption from Regulation as a Public Utility: Under Me. Rev. Stat. 35-A §3201, an entity that sells electricity only for EV battery charging is not defined or regulated as an electricity provider. An EVSE provider may charge a submetered user only for kilowatt-hours used.
Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Grants: The Maryland Energy Administration administers the Maryland Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Program to support the planning, installing and operating of public access alternative fueling and charging infrastructure, including DC fast chargers. Such DC fast charger projects can be awarded up to $55,000 per station.
EV HOV Lane Exemption: EVs with a maximum speed of 65 miles per hour may operate in any Maryland HOV lane regardless of the number of occupants if they obtain an MDOT MVA permit. This exemption expires on Sept. 30, 2022. Md. Code, Transp. § 25-108.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: Zero-emission vehicles are exempt from vehicle emissions inspection requirements. Md. Code, Transp. § 23-206.4.
EV Charging Rate Incentive: Pepco offers a TOU rate to all qualified residential customers in Maryland for charging their EV.
EVSE Rebate: Pepco provides rebates to residential and multifamily property customers covering a portion of the cost of purchasing a qualified Level 2 charger. Residential customers are eligible for a $300 rebate for Level 2 smart charger. Customers that own or operate multifamily properties are eligible for a 50% discount on the purchase of Level 2 smart chargers and a rebate up to $7,500 for installation costs.
EVSE Charging Rate Incentive: Through the EV Driven Off-Peak Rewards Program, Potomac Edison offers residential customers the opportunity to earn 2 cents per kilowatt-hour when charging with eligible EVSE during off-peak hours.
EVSE Rebate: Potomac Edison offers residential customers a $300 rebate for the purchase and installation of a qualified Level 2 charger through the EV Driven Program. Customers that own a multifamily property are eligible for a rebate up to $5,000 for the purchase and installation of qualified Level 2 chargers or DC fast charger on their property.
EVSE Rebate: Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE) provides rebates to residential and multifamily customers covering a portion of the cost to purchase a qualified Level 2 or DC fast charger. Residential customers are eligible for a $300 rebate for installing a Level 2 charger. Customers who own or operate multifamily properties are eligible for a rebate covering 50% of the purchase and installation costs of a Level 2 charger, up to $5,000 per port, and 50% of the purchase and installation cost of a DC fast charger, up to $15,000 per port. Multifamily rebate awards may not exceed $25,000 per site.
EV Charging Rates: BGE offers TOU rate options to residential customers for charging their EV. Residential customers with a qualified Level 2 charger may apply for a TOU rate. Residential EV drivers without a qualified Level 2 charger may enroll in a whole-house TOU rate, which applies to the energy used for the entire residence during a billing period.
EVSE Rebate: Delmarva Power provides rebates to residential and multifamily customers covering a portion of the costs to purchase qualified Level 2 chargers. Residential customers are eligible for a $300 rebate for a Level 2 smart charger. Chargers purchased and installed after July 1, 2019, are eligible. Customers that are multifamily property owners are eligible for a 50% discount on the purchase price of qualified Level 2 smart chargers and a 100% discount up to $7,500 on installation costs.
AFV and Infrastructure Grants: The Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources' Clean Vehicle Project provides grants to public and private fleets to support the purchase of AFVs and related infrastructure, including electric vehicles and EVSE.
EV and ZEV Rebates: The Massachusetts Offers Rebates for Electric Vehicles (MOR-EV) program provides residents with rebates of up to $2,500 for the purchase or lease of eligible BEVs and FCEVs and up to $1,500 for the purchase or lease of eligible PHEVsVehicle purchase prices must be below $50,000. Only vehicles purchased or leased on or after Jan. 1, 2020 are eligible.
EV and EVSE Grants for Public Fleets: The Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program (MassEVIP) provides grants to public fleets for the purchase or lease of qualified EVs, zero-emission motorcycles, and Level 2 EVSE. The program provides grants of up to $7,500 for purchased BEVs and $5,000 for leased BEVs, $5,000 for purchased PHEVs and $3,000 for leased PHEVs, and up to $750 for purchased or leased zero-emission motorcycles. The program also provides up to $7,500 for EVSE accompanied by the purchase of at least two EVs.
Public Access EVSE Grants: MassEVIP provides grants for 80% of the cost for a nonresidential entity to purchase and install a Level 2 charger, up to $50,000, provided the charger is publicly accessible at least 12 hours per day. This program is funded through Massachusetts’ share of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust fund.
Multiunit Dwelling EVSE Grants: MassEVIP provides grants covering 60% of the cost of Level 1 or Level 2 chargers installed at multiunit dwellings, up to $50,000. Private, public, or nonprofit multiunit dwellings with 10 or more residential units are eligible.
Vehicle Emissions Reduction Grants: The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection’s (MassDEP) Volkswagen Open Solicitation Grant Program covers up to 80% of the cost of new diesel or alternative fuel replacements and repowers for eligible government entities. For eligible non-government entities, the program covers up to 75% of the cost of an all-electric repower or replacement, with associated charging infrastructure. Qualifying alternative fuels include a diesel-electric hybrid. Vehicles that qualify for replacement or repower include school buses, shuttle buses and transit buses. Eligible government and nongovernment entities may also receive funding for up to 80% and 75%, respectively, of the cost of the all-electric repower or replacement of airport ground support equipment, forklifts and port cargo handling equipment.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: Under 310 CMR 60.02, vehicles powered exclusively by electricity are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections.
EV Charging Incentive and EVSE Rebate: Braintree Electric Light Department (BELD)’s EV Rewards program offers a bill credit of $8 per month to customers that charge their EVs during off-peak hours. BELD also offers a $250 rebate for purchasing a qualified Level 2 charger through its EV Rewards program.
EVSE Installation Incentive: Eversource’s EV Charging Station program provides installation and funding support for non-residential customers to install approved Level 2 or DC fast charger at businesses, multiunit dwellings, workplaces and fleet facilities. Customers must own, lease or operate a site where vehicles are typically parked for at least two hours.
Nonresidential EVSE Program: National Grid’s Electric Vehicle Charging Station program provides non-residential customers with installation and funding support by providing 100% of electrical infrastructure needed to install approved Level 2 or DC fast charger at businesses and multiunit dwellings.
EVSE Incentive: The Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company's Home Energy Loss Prevention Services (HELPS) program offers residential customers of participating Massachusetts municipal light plants (MLPs) free or subsidized Level 2 chargers. Incentives vary by MLP.
EV Discounts: Mass Energy's Drive Green program provides discounts for purchasing or leasing a qualified EV from participating dealerships.
AFV Emissions Inspection Exemption: Under Mich. Comp. Laws 324.6311, AFVs, including those powered by electricity, are exempt from emissions inspection requirements.
EV Charging Rate and Infrastructure Rebate: The Lansing Board of Water & Light offers an EV time-of-use charging rate pilot program to single- or multi-family dwellings of four units or less with separately metered Level 2 chargers. BWL also offers an incentive for the purchase and installation of EVSE for customers that have enrolled in the EV charging rate.
EVSE Rebate and TOU rate: DTE Energy offers multiple TOU rate options to qualified residential customers for charging EVs. It also offers a $500 rebate for the installation of Level 2 chargers to residential customers that purchase or lease an EV and enroll in a TOU rate.
EVSE Rebate and TOU rate: Consumers Energy PowerMIDrive program offers rebates to residential and commercial customers who install EVSE. Residential customers are eligible for a $400 rebate to install a Level 2 charger and commercial customers are eligible for rebates for installing publicly accessible EVSE of up to $5,000 per Level 2 charger and up to $70,000 per DC fast charger. Consumers Energy offers a special TOU rate option for EV owners.
EV Toll Credit Pilot Program: The state is piloting a three-year program providing a one-time MnPass account credit to eligible EV drivers to use in toll lanes. Drivers who purchase or lease a new or used PHEV or BEV are eligible for a credit of $125 and $250 respectively. Vehicles must be purchased or leased between Nov. 1, 2019, and Oct. 31, 2022, to be eligible.
Electric School Bus Pilot: Minnesota is using a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust Settlement funds to support an electric school bus pilot program designed to replace older diesel school buses with electric buses. The maximum award per project is $275,000 or up to 75% of total project costs, whichever is less. Applications were accepted until Oct. 13, 2020.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EVSE Rebate: Dakota Electric members enrolled in the ChargeWise program receive a reduced TOU rate for charging their EV. Dakota Electric also offers a rebate of up to $500 to install a Level 1 or Level 2 charger.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EVSE Rebate: Connexus Energy offers a TOU rate to residential customers in their service territory who charge EVs. Participating customers may contact their own electrician or Connexus Energy's electrician to install the metering equipment. Connexus Energy offers residential customers separate rebates rebate for installing and purchasing a qualified Level 2 charger. The application deadline for the installation rebate is Dec. 31, 2020. Connexus also offers a commercial customer rebate of $2,000 for businesses installing a Level 2 charger. Applications must be filed by Nov. 16, 2020.
EV Charging Rate Reduction and EVSE Rebate: Lake Region Electric Cooperative members enrolled in the ChargeWise program receive a reduced TOU rate. To be eligible for the reduced rate, vehicles must use a separate submetered circuit. Customers are also eligible for a rebate of up to $500 toward installing a Level 1 or Level 2 chargers.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EV Rebate: Xcel Energy offers rebates and incentives for certain EV models, including the Nissan Leaf as well as TOU rate options for qualified residential customers charging EVs.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EVSE Rebate: Otter Tail Power Company offers customers who have installed Level 2 chargers are eligible for a TOU rate. Those customers enrolled in a TOU rate are also eligible for a $400 rebate for installing a Level 2 charger.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EVSE Rebate: Runestone Electric Association offers TOU rates to customers for charging their EV and a rebate of up to $500 for EVSE.
EVSE Incentive: Entergy customers are eligible for a $250 incentive for purchasing Level 2 chargers.
Emissions Inspection Exemption: Vehicles powered by fuels other than gasoline, including hydrogen and electricity, are exempt from emissions inspection requirements under Mo. Rev. Stat. 643.315.
EVSE Incentives: Ameren Missouri’s Charge Ahead program offers competitive incentives to eligible nonresidential customers to install Level 2 chargers or DC fast charger stations at qualifying workplaces, multiunit dwellings, and public areas. Applications for incentives will be accepted until Sept. 30, 2022, or until funding is exhausted, whichever is earlier. Nonresidential customers are also eligible for incentives to install EVSE along highway corridors. Each station site must have two DC fast chargers and two Level 2 chargers. Applications for incentives will be accepted until Dec. 31, 2023, or until funding is exhausted, whichever is earlier.
Transit Bus Replacement Grants: The Montana Department of Environmental Quality offers grants for the replacement of qualified medium- and heavy-duty diesel transit buses with new clean transit buses including all-electric and diesel hybrid transit buses among others. This program is funded through the state’s share of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust fund.
AFV Conversion Tax Credit: Under Montana Code 15-30-2320, businesses and individuals are eligible for an income tax credit for up to 50% of the equipment and labor costs of converting vehicles to operate using alternative fuels, including hydrogen and electricity, among other alternative fuels.
AFV and Fueling Infrastructure Loans: The Nebraska Energy Office administers the Dollar and Energy Saving Loan Program, providing low-cost loans for a variety of alternative fuel projects, including the replacement of conventional vehicles with AFVs, the purchase of new AFVs, the conversion of conventional vehicles to operate on alternative fuels, and the construction or purchase of fueling stations or equipment. The AFV loans apply to EVs and electric fueling infrastructure. The maximum loan amount is $500,000 per borrower, and the interest rate is 5% or less.
EV and EVSE Rebate: Omaha Public Power District offers residential customers rebates of $2,500 for purchasing a new EV and qualified Level 2 charger and $500 toward the purchase of a qualified Level 2 charger. The EV and EVSE must have been purchased after July 1, 2020.
EV and EVSE Rebate: Nebraska Public Power District offers residential and commercial customers a $4,000 rebate for purchasing a new EV and a $500 rebate for installing an eligible Level 2 charger. Residential customers are also eligible for an additional $200 rebate for the pre-wiring work necessary to install EVSE.
EV and EVSE Rebate: Southern Public Power District offers residential customers incentives for purchasing EVs and EVSE, including $4,500 for purchasing an EV and EVSE, $500 for a qualified charger, and $100 for pre-wiring.
EVSE Grant: Senate Bill 299 (enacted 2019) makes public school districts eligible for grants covering 75% of the cost for installing EVSE on school property or purchasing electric school buses.
AFV Emissions Inspection Exemption: AFVs are exempt from emissions testing requirements under Nev. Rev. Stats. 445B.770 and 445B.825. Hybrid EVs are exempt from emissions inspection testing for the first five model years.
EV Charging TOU Rate and EVSE Incentive: Nevada Energy (NV Energy) offers a TOU rate to residential and customers in the northern and southern service territories who charge EVs during off-peak hours. The utility also provides rebates for purchasing and installing Level 2 chargers and DC fast-charging stations. Eligible projects include installing chargers for fleets, workplaces and multiunit dwellings. Rebate amounts vary depending on the type of project and charging infrastructure involved. The utility also implements an incentive program for public schools to replace older diesel buses with electric vehicles and install the necessary charging infrastructure.
EV and EVSE Rebates and TOU Charging Rate Incentive: New Hampshire Electric Co-op (NHEC) offers rebates of $1,000 for purchasing or leasing a new or used BEV, and $600 for the purchase or lease of a new or used PHEV. NHEC also offers a combined rebate and TOU rate to residential customers installing EVSE and charging at home. Customers are eligible to receive a rebate of up to $300 per Level 2 charger installed up to two chargers per account. The utility also offers commercial and municipal customers incentives for installing Level 2 chargers covering up to 50% of installed costs up to $2,500 per charger and $5,000 per property.
ZEV Sales Tax Exemption: ZEVs sold, rented or leased in New Jersey are exempt from the state sales and use tax. The sales tax exemption does not apply to hybrid electric vehicles. N.J. Stat. § 54:32B-8.55.
EVSE Grants: The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection provides grants through the It Pay$ to Plug In program. Reimbursement grants are offered on a first-come, first-served basis to cover the total cost, including installation, of eligible EVSE at workplaces, government and educational facilities, nonprofit organizations, parking facilities and multiunit dwellings.
EV Rebate: The New Jersey Board of Public Utilities offers state residents a rebate covering $25 per mile of all-electric range, up to $5,000, for purchasing or leasing a new EV with an MSRP of $55,000 or less. EVs must be purchased or leased after Jan. 17, 2020. The PHEV and BEV rebates expire in Dec. 31, 2022, and June 30, 2030, respectively.
Toll Discount Program: New Jersey Turnpike Authority's (Authority) Green Pass Discount Plan provides a 10% discount on off-peak New Jersey Turnpike and Garden State Parkway toll rates for drivers of vehicles with a fuel economy of 45 MPG or higher and meet the California Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standard. Vehicles must register with New Jersey E-ZPass.
AFV Loans for State Fleets: Pursuant to N.M. Stat. § 13-1B-1 et seq., the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department’s Alternative Fuel Acquisition Revolving Loan Program provides loans to state agencies, political subdivisions and educational institutions to acquire AFVs. Funds must be used for the purchase of vehicles that operate on alternative fuels, including electricity.
Grid Modernization Grant Program: Pursuant to House Bill 233 (enacted 2020), the state will develop a grant program to fund grid modernization technologies, including electric vehicle charging systems.
EV Rebate Program: The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) provides rebates of up to $2,000 for purchasing or leasing a new EV.
EVSE Rebate: NYSERDA’s Charge Ready NY program offers rebates to public and private entities for purchasing and installing Level 2 chargers at public parking facilities, workplaces, and multiunit dwellings. Rebates cover up to $4,000 per port.
Heavy-Duty Advanced Vehicle Purchase Voucher: NYSERDA offers vouchers for purchasing heavy-duty trucks and school buses running on alternative fuels, including 80% of the costs up to $150,000 for a battery electric school bus, shuttle or transit bus, 95% of the costs up to $185,000 for a battery electric truck, 90% of the cost up to $120,000 for a plug-in hybrid electric truck, and 90% of the cost up to $55,000 for a hybrid electric truck.
Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit: Under New York Tax Law 187-b, an income tax credit is available for 50% of the cost of alternative fueling infrastructure, up to $5,000. Qualifying infrastructure includes EVSE. Unused tax credits may be carried over into future tax years. The credit expires Dec. 31, 2022.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: EVs powered exclusively by electricity are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections.
HOV Lane Exemption: Through the Clean Pass Program, eligible EVs may use the Long Island Expressway HOV lanes, regardless of the number of occupants in the vehicle. This exemption expires Sept. 30, 2025.
EVSE Residential Rebate and EVSE Operator Incentive Programs: Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) Long Island offers a $500 rebate to residential customers who install a smart, Level 2 charger between Jan. 1, 2020, and Dec. 31, 2020. Funds are awarded on a first-come, first-served basis, and are limited to one rebate per year, per residential account. PSEG Long Island also offers an annual incentive to DC fast charger operators. Award amounts depend on eligibility year, DC fast charging power rating and the configuration of the charging equipment. The program accepts applications until Dec. 31, 2025.
EVSE Smart Charging and TOU Incentives: Under Con Edison’s voluntary TOU rate, residential customers will pay a reduced price for electricity used during the designated off-peak period. Customers who register an EV with Con Edison and are participating in the voluntary TOU rate are guaranteed to pay no more than the standard electric rate. Con Edison EV customers can receive up to $500 annually for installing a connected car device provided by Con Edison that tracks driving and charging habits, and by charging during off-peak hours. The utility also offers an incentive to DC fast charging operators and a reduced electric rate to certain businesses, including those who install publicly accessible quick charging EVSE.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: EVs and FCEVs are exempt from emissions inspection requirements. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-183.2.
HOV Lane Exemption: Qualified EVs and fuel cell electric vehicles may use North Carolina HOV lanes, regardless of the number of occupants. This exemption expires Sept. 30, 2025. N.C. Gen. Stat. § 20-146.2.
EVSE Rebate and TOU Rate: Cape Hatteras Electric Co-Op offers a rebate of $100 to residential customers who install a Level 2 charger. It also offers a TOU rate to residential customers with an EV.
TOU Rate: Randolph Electric Membership Corporation (EMC)’s Electric Vehicle Utility Program (REVUP) program offers residents who own an EV a Plug N2 Savings TOU rate.
Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit: The state provides a tax credit covering up to 45% of the cost to install commercial alternative fueling infrastructure, including EVSE. Okla. Stat. tit. 68, § 2357.22.
Heavy-Duty Vehicle Replacement or Repower: The state is using a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust fund to support projects that repower or replace heavy-duty vehicles with those that run on alternative fuels, including electricity. This application period closed Sept. 30, 2020.
EVSE Rebate: Public Service Company of Oklahoma residential customers are eligible for rebates up to $250 for Level 2 ENERGY STAR chargers. Rebates are available for chargers purchased between Aug. 1, 2019, through Oct. 31, 2021 while funding is available.
EV Rebate: Oregon’s Clean Vehicle Rebate Program provides rebates up to $2,500 for purchasing or leasing EVs. Rebates vary depending on battery capacity. Oregon residents who meet low- or moderate-income requirements are eligible for increased rebates up to $5,000.
EVSE Installation Rebate: Central Lincoln offers residential and commercial customers a one-time rebate of for purchasing a Level 2 charger. To qualify, the EVSE must have been purchased on or after July 1, 2018.
EVSE Rebates: Eugene Water & Electric Board offers rebates for installing Level 2 chargers up to $500 for residential customers and $1,000 for commercial customers.
Transportation Electrification Grants: Pacific Power provides grants for up to 100% of the costs to study, plan and deploy transportation electrification technologies and projects.
EV Charging TOU Rate: Portland General Electric offers a TOU rate incentive for customers with an EV.
EV Registration Incentive: Emerald People’s Utility District customers are eligible for a $100 incentive for registering their new or used EV with the Oregon Department of Motor Vehicles.
EVSE Incentive Program: The state used a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Settlement funds to support its Electrify Rode Island program, providing incentives for publicly accessible EVSE. Funding is still available for DC fast charging projects and Level 2 charging projects at multiunit dwellings.
EV Emissions Inspection Exemption: Vehicles powered exclusively by electricity are exempt from state emissions inspections, but are still required to pass a safety inspection.
EV Utility Cost Recovery: A public electric utility may seek cost recovery for programs and resources related to distributed energy resources and load management technologies, including EV charging. S.C. Code § 58-39-130.
Diesel Emission Reduction Grants: The state uses a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust funds to support its Clean Diesel Grant program. The latest round of funding supported converting school buses to be more efficient and have lower emissions. This included conversion to or replacement with a zero-emitting vehicle. Access information about future funding announcements.
Vehicle Emissions Reduction and EVSE Project Funding: The state is using its portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust funds to support clean transportation efforts including replacing or repowering medium- and heavy-duty vehicles with more efficient models. A future solicitation will be focused on supporting projects to deploy light-duty EVSE. Find information about current funding opportunities.
EVSE Rebate: Knoxville Utility Board’s residential customers are eligible for a $400 rebate covering the costs to purchase and install a Level 2 charger.
Light-Duty AFV Rebates: The Light-Duty Motor Vehicle Purchase or Lease Incentive Program provides rebates up to $5,000 for leasing or purchasing a new EV. Vehicles purchased after Sept. 1, 2019 are eligible.
Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): The TERP program offers incentives for projects that reduce emissions, including clean transportation projects. Find information about current funding opportunities.
Heavy-Duty Vehicle Repower and Replacement: The state used its portion of the Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust funds to support clean transportation projects focused on replacing or repowering heavy-duty vehicles. Access information about current funding opportunities.
EVSE Rebate: United Cooperative Services (UCS) offers residential customers a rebate of up to $500 to install Level 2 chargers.
EVSE Rebate: Southwestern Electric Power Company offers residential customers a $250 rebate to install ENERGY STAR certified Level 2 chargers. Rebates are available on a first-come, first-served basis.
EVSE Incentive: Entergy customers are eligible to receive a $250 incentive for purchasing a Level 2 charger.
EVSE Incentive: Austin Energy customers are eligible for a rebate covering 50% of the cost to purchase and install a qualified Level 2 charger, up to $1,200. The utility also offers a rebate for installing Level 1, Level 2, and DC fast-charging stations at the workplace and multiunit housing locations.
EV Charging Rate Program: CPS Energy offers a rate option for qualified customers for charging EVs. The flat rate option is $60 annually for each EV.
EV Emissions Inspections Exemption: EVs are exempt from motor vehicle emissions inspection requirements.
AFV Decal and HOV Lane Exemption: EVs equipped with a Clean Vehicle Pass are permitted to use HOV lanes, regardless of the number of passengers.
AFV Conversion Rebate for Businesses: The Alternative Fuel Grant Program provides grants of up to $2,500 to support the conversion of traditional vehicles to vehicles capable of running on alternative fuels, including electricity.
Workplace EVSE Funding Assistance: Government entities and private and nonprofit businesses are eligible for a grant covering 50% of the cost to purchase and install Level 2 or DC fast charging infrastructure.
EVSE Rebates and TOU Rates: Rocky Mountain Power provides rebates for residential and commercial customers covering costs of purchasing and installing EVSE. It also offers a TOU rate to residential customers that own EVs. Residential customers that participate for one year are eligible for a $200 incentive.
EV Incentive: The Vermont Agency of Transportation offers financial incentives up to $4,000 to low- and moderate-income residents for purchasing or leasing a new EV on a first-come, first-served basis. Income-qualifying residents are also eligible for funds covering 25% of the costs to purchase a fuel-efficient vehicle up to $5,000.
EV Infrastructure Financing: EVSE projects are eligible for low-interest financing through the State Infrastructure Bank. Loans of $100,000 with an interest rate of 1% are available for publicly accessible charging station projects.
EVSE Grants: The state used a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust funds to support governments, businesses, nonprofit organizations, homeowner associations, electric utilities and EVSE providers in installing eligible EVSE.
EV Rebate: Green Mountain Power provides rebates of $1,500 for purchasing new BEVs, $1,000 for purchasing new PHEVs, and $750 for purchasing used EVs. Customers in qualifying low-and-moderate-incomes households are eligible for an additional $1,000 rebate. Residential customers are eligible for a free Level 2 charger when they purchase a new or used EV.
EV Financing, EVSE Rebate and TOU Rate: Burlington Electric Department (BED) works to provide a low-or no-interest loan of up to $1,200 for the purchase of a new all-electric EV. It also offers a $400 rebate to purchase and install a Level 2 charger for customers who also enroll in its EV TOU rate.
EV Rebate: Vermont Public Power Supply Authority member customers are eligible for rebates for purchasing and leasing EVs. Customers purchasing or leasing a new BEV or PHEV are eligible for a rebate of $1,000 or $500 respectively. Income-qualifying customers are eligible for an additional $400 rebate.
EV Rebate: Stowe Electric offers customers rebates for purchasing EVs. New PHEVs are eligible for a $750 rebate and new BEVs are eligible for a $1,000 rebate. Used PHEVs are eligible for a $300 rebate and used BEVs are eligible for a $400 rebate. Income-qualifying customers are eligible for an additional $250 rebate for either vehicle.
EV and EVSE Credit: Vermont Electric Co-op (VEC) offers a $250 bill credit to members who purchase a new or used PHEV and a $500 bill credit to members who purchase a new or used BEV. Members who lease a PHEV or BEV are eligible for an annual bill credit of $50 or $100 respectively. Residential customers are also eligible for a $250 bill credit for purchasing a Level 2 charger.
Alternative Fuel Emissions Testing Exemption: Vehicles powered exclusively by clean alternative fuels, including electricity are exempt from the Virginia emissions inspection program.
HOV Lane Exemption: EVs with a Clean Special Fuel license plates are exempt from HOV lane requirements. The Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles provides information about qualifying vehicles. The annual fee for Clean Special Fuel license plates is $25.
EV TOU Rate: Appalachian Power Company offers a TOU rate to residential customers that own an EV and charge during off-peak hours. Eligible customers must have a meter that is capable of separately identifying EV usage.
EVSE Incentive: Dominion Energy offers a Smart Charging Pilot program providing incentives for purchasing and installing EVSE at multifamily, workplace, fast charging and transit locations.
EVSE Grants: The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) awards grants to support EVSE deployment projects along the state’s highway corridors. Find information about current funding opportunities.
Green Public Transit Grant Program: WSDOT’s Green Transportation Grant program provides funding to transit authorities to electrify fleets and install electric vehicle infrastructure among other green transportation projects.
EV and EVSE Sales and Use Tax Exemption: EVs and EVSE are eligible for a sales and use tax exemption. Vehicles and EVSE must have been purchased after Aug. 1, 2019.
Commercial Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit: Businesses are eligible to receive tax credits for purchasing new alternative fuel commercial vehicles and installing alternative fueling infrastructure.
AFV Emissions Inspection Exemption: AFVs powered exclusively by electricity and other alternative fuels are exempt from state emissions control inspections. PHEVs that obtain a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy rating of at least 50 miles per gallon during city driving are also exempt from these inspections. Rev. Code Wash. 46.16A.060.
Nonresidential EVSE Grants: Pacific Power offers non-residential customers grants on a quarterly basis covering up to 100% the costs of purchasing and installing EVSE.
Clean Transportation Programs: The state is using a portion of its Volkswagen Environmental Mitigation Trust funds to support various clean transportation efforts, including a grant program aimed at increasing EVSE deployment. Access additional information about current and future funding opportunities.
EVSE Rebate: Alliant Energy offers a rebate up to $500 to residential customers who purchase and install a Level 2 charger. The utility also offers a rebate to commercial and industrial customers who purchase and install Level 2 chargers for use by their employees or the public.
EV TOU Rate and EVSE Financing: Madison Gas and Electric provides financing for residential customers purchasing and installing Level 2 EVSE. It also offers a TOU rate for customers charging an EV.
Free EVSE: Barron Electric Cooperative (BEC) offers residential customers a free Level 2 charger when they purchase an EV. Applicants must meet certain requirements.
EVSE Rebate: Chippewa Valley Electric Cooperative (CVEC) offers customers a $400 incentive to purchase and install new EVSE.
EVSE Rebate: Clark Electric Cooperative (CEC) offers customers a $800 incentive to purchase and install new EVSE. Required documentation must be submitted to CEC within three months of the EVSE purchase date.
EVSE Rebate and TOU rate: East Central Energy offers residential customers a $1,000 rebate to purchase and install a Level 2 charger. The customer must also be on one of its TOU rates.
EVSE Rebate: Price Electric Cooperative offers a $400 rebate to residential customers who purchase and install an EVSE.
EVSE Rebate: Riverland Energy Cooperative offers residential customers a $400 rebate to purchase and install EVSE.
EVSE Rebate: Pierce Pepin Cooperative Services (PPCS) offers residential customers a $400 rebate to purchase and install EVSE.
EVSE Rebate: Yellowstone-Teton Clean Cities offers a rebate of $5,000 toward the purchase of publicly accessible EVSE. Eligible entities include businesses and municipalities in the communities surrounding Grand Teton National Park and Yellowstone National Park.
District of Columbia
AFV conversion and Infrastructure Tax Credit: The District of Columbia offers a tax credit of up to 50% of the costs to purchase or install alternative fuel infrastructure up to $1,000 per station located at a private residence and $10,000 per station located at a non-residential property that is also accessible to the public. The District also offers a tax credit for converting a conventional vehicle running on petroleum fuels to an AFV running on alternative fuels. The credit is for up to 50% of labor and equipment costs up to $19,000 per vehicle.
EV Title Excise Tax Exemption: Pursuant to D.C. Code § 50-2201.03(j) EVs are exempt from the excise tax imposed on an original certificate of title.
AFV and EV Exemption for Commercial Fleet: Pursuant to D.C. Code § 50–714, certified clean fuel vehicles, including those powered by alternative fuels or electricity and operated by fleet are exempt from time-of-day and day-of-week commercial vehicle restrictions, except for HOV land restrictions. Only those fleet vehicles meeting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s requirements for Inherently Low Emission Vehicles (ILEV) are exempt from HOV lane restrictions.
Reduced Registration Fee: A new motor vehicle with a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated average city fuel economy of at least 40 miles per gallon is eligible for a reduced vehicle registration fee of $36. This reduced fee applies to first-time registration only.
The U.S. follows China and Europe with the world’s third-largest electric vehicle market. Roughly 320,000 new EVs were sold in the U.S. in 2019 and data compiled by Argonne National Lab shows the EV market share and model availability both have increased in recent years. As the number of EVs on our nation’s roads grows so does the need for affordable, convenient charging stations. State and federal policymakers along with utilities and private industry are working rapidly to expand charging station infrastructure. There are more than 27,000 public charging station locations in the U.S. today.
As of November 2020, at least 45 states and the District of Columbia offer incentives to support deployment of EVs or alternative fuel vehicles and supporting infrastructure, either through state legislation or private utility incentives within the state. Legislative incentives include measures that provide high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane exemptions, financial incentives for purchasing electric vehicles or electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), vehicle inspections or emissions test exemptions, parking incentives and utility rate reductions. Utilities also offer incentives, rebates, and grants for transportation electrification. One of the most common incentives is price reductions for charging EVs during off-peak hours. For example, several electric utilities offer lower off-peak price per kilowatt-hour. Other utilities incentivize purchasing EVs and equipment through rebates.
Several states have implemented financial incentives, including tax credits, rebates and registration fee reductions designed to promote EV adoption. For example, Colorado offers a $4,000 tax credit through 2021 on the purchase of light-duty EVs, and Connecticut allows for a reduced biennial vehicle registration fee of $38 for EVs. Additional incentives include electric charging infrastructure tax credits, research project grants, alternative fuel technology loans, and lead by example initiatives like zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) requirements for government fleets.
Comprehensive state regulatory policies that often include adoption of California’s Advanced Clean Car Program also help drive EV adoption. To date, 11 states—California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont—have adopted California’s low-emission vehicle (LEV) and zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) standards requiring manufacturers to sell a certain number of ZEVs per year. Washington, which had previously been a LEV-only state, enacted legislation in 2020 authorizing state regulators to adopt the ZEV standards.
Other multistate agreements offer support for the deployment of electric vehicles. Building off of a 2014 ZEV action plan committing to 3.3 million ZEVs on the road by 2025, nine states developed a ZEV action plan for 2018-2021 focused on increasing consumer awareness and incentives, building out infrastructure and vehicle dealership training, among other initiatives. Fifteen states also recently signed a multistate agreement focused on increasing ZEVs in the medium- and heavy-duty sector. Signatories include the 11 ZEV states joined by Hawaii, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Washington and the District of Columbia. The agreement commits participating jurisdictions to achieving ZEV sales targets for new medium- and heavy-duty vehicles of 30% by 2030 and 100% by 2050.
Federal incentives also support developing and deploying alternatives to conventional vehicles. For example, there is a $7,500 federal tax credit for purchasing a new EV that applies in addition to available state incentives. However, the credit expires once 200,000 qualified vehicles have been sold by each automotive manufacturer. Tesla and General Motors have each reached the 200,000 cap and their vehicles are no longer eligible for the incentive. Other incentives include federal grants to convert older vehicles to new technologies, research grants and alternative fuel technology loans.
While most states offer some sort of incentive to support EV adoption, 28 states have laws requiring a special registration fee for BEVs and 14 states impose a fee specifically on PHEVs that operate on a combination of electricity and gasoline. The fees range from $50 each year in Colorado and Hawaii to $212.78 for a plug-in electric vehicle in Georgia. Alabama, Arkansas, Ohio and Wyoming all enacted bills in 2019 setting or increasing fees to $200 annually for electric vehicles. For more information on hybrid and electric vehicle fees, visit NCSL's Special Fees on Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicles webpage.