State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals

8/13/2021

Solar and wind turvines against night sky.

Introduction

Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) require that a specified percentage of the electricity utilities sell comes from renewable resources. States have created these standards to diversify their energy resources, promote domestic energy production and encourage economic development.

Renewable energy policies help drive the nation’s $64 billion market for wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. These policies can play an integral role in state efforts to diversify their energy mix, promote economic development and reduce emissions. Roughly half of the growth in U.S. renewable energy generation since the beginning of the 2000s can be attributed to state renewable energy requirements.  

It’s worth noting that several states have expanded their policies to incorporate additional resources in recent years. There is now a distinction between a “Renewable Portfolio Standard” (RPS) and what some states have labeled as a “Clean Energy Standard” (CES). The difference between a RPS and a CES comes down to how a particular state defines what is a “renewable” versus a “clean” source of energy. Clean energy typically refers to sources of energy that have zero carbon emissions. 

Some of those “clean” sources may not be considered “renewable.” For instance, under some CES policies, nuclear energy is considered a “clean” energy source because it is carbon-free; it is not widely considered “renewable,” however.  Conversely, biomass, which is an eligible resource under many state RPS policies, is considered “renewable” despite producing carbon emissions.

In most cases, a CES policy will include an RPS as part of the requirement. For example, California enacted its CES in 2018, which requires the state’s utilities to generate 100% clean electricity by 2045. As part of the CES, the state RPS was increased to require 60% of electricity must come from renewable sources by 2030. Following that date and benchmark, the remaining 40% of the CES can be met by any qualifying clean energy resource. Most often, these are defined as any resource that is carbon-free or carbon-neutral.

Iowa was the first state to establish an RPS; since then, more than half of states have established renewable energy targets. Thirty states, Washington, D.C., and two territories have active renewable or clean energy requirements, while an additional three states and one territory have set voluntary renewable energy goals. RPS legislation has seen two opposing trends in recent years. On one hand, many states with RPS targets are expanding or renewing those goals. Since 2018, 15 states, two territories, and Washington, D.C., have passed legislation to increase or expand their renewable or clean energy targets. On the other hand, seven states and one territory have  allowed their RPS targets to expire; an additional four states have RPS targets that expire in 2021. 

State Amendments to RPS/CES Legislation Since 2018

State Amendments to RPS/CES Legislation Since 2018
State New RPS/CES Target By Years
California 100% 2045
Colorado 100% 2050
Connecticut 44% 2030
Delaware 40% 2035
Maine 100% 2050
Maryland 50% 2030
Massachusetts 35% 2030
Minnesota 26.5% 2025
Nevada 100% 2050
New Jersey 50% 2030
New Mexico 100% 2045
New York 70% 2030
Oregon 100% 2040
Virginia 100% 2045/2050
Washington 100% 2045
Washington D.C. 100% 2032
Guam 100% 2045
Puerto Rico 100% 2050
     

Most jurisdictions with a current or recently updated RPS have set targets of at least 40%. However, recent RPS legislation has seen a push toward 100% clean or renewable energy requirements. To date, 10 states, Washington, D.C., Puerto Rico, and Guam have set 100% clean or renewable portfolio requirements with deadlines ranging between 2030 and 2050. An additional three states, plus the U.S. Virgin Islands, have goals of 50% or greater. 

State renewable portfolio standard policies vary widely on several elements including RPS targets, the entities they include, the resources eligible to meet requirements and cost caps. In many states, standards are measured by the percentage of retail electric sales. Iowa and Texas, however, require specific amounts of renewable energy capacity rather than percentages and Kansas requires a percentage of peak demand. 

Eligible resources under an RPS vary state-by-state but often include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal and some hydroelectric facilities—depending on the size and vintage. States determine eligible resources based on their existing energy generation mix and the potential for renewable energy development in their states. 

For instance, qualifying renewable energy resources in Colorado include, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, certain hydroelectric resources and emissions neutral coal-mine methane. Comparatively, eligible resources under Hawaii’s RPS include solar, wind, biomass and geothermal, in addition to energy produced from falling water, ocean water, waves and water currents. Additional eligible resources in several states include landfill gas, animal wastes, combined heat and power, and even energy efficiency.

RPS requirements can apply only to investor-owned utilities (IOUs), although many states also include municipalities and electric cooperatives (Munis and Co-ops), sometimes with a lower target. Utilities that are subject to these mandates must obtain renewable energy credits or certificates (RECs)—which represent the environmental benefits of one megawatt-hour of renewable energy generation. RECs are created when renewable energy is sent out to the grid and are used to verify that utilities are meeting their targets. 

According to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 20 states and Washington, D.C., have cost caps in their RPS policies to limit increases to a certain percentage of ratepayers’ bills. One state caps RPS gross procurement costs.

To promote a diversified resource mix and encourage deployment of certain technologies, states have established carve-outs and renewable energy credit multipliers within their RPSs for specific energy technologies, such as offshore wind or rooftop solar. Carve-outs require a certain percentage of the overall renewable energy requirement to be met with a specific technology, while credit multipliers award additional renewable energy credits for electricity produced by certain technologies. At least 21 states and Washington, D.C., have credit multipliers, carve-outs, or both for certain energy technologies in their RPS policies. 

Renewable Portfolio Standards or Voluntary Targets

States and territories with Renewable Portfolio Standards States and territories with a voluntary renewable energy standard or target States and territories with expired RPS/CES requirements or goals States and territories with no standard or target

Table: Renewable Portfolio Standards or Voluntary Targets

Arizona

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2006.
  • Requirement: 15% by 2025.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: Distributed Generation: 30% of annual requirement in 2012 and thereafter. The state has several credit multipliers for different technologies.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Ariz. Admin. Code §14-2-1801 et seq.

California

Colorado

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2004.
  • Requirement: 30% by 2020 (IOUs); 10% or 20% for municipalities and electric cooperatives depending on size; 100% clean energy by 2050 for utilities serving 500,000 or more customers. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 2%.
  • Details: For distributed generation, 3% of IOU retail sales by 2020, 1% of cooperative retail sales by 2020 (for those providing service to 10,000 or more meters) or 0.75% of cooperative retail sales by 2020 (for those providing service to less than 10,000 meters). The state has several credit multipliers for different technologies. Additionally, in 2019, Colorado enacted legislation requiring utilities serving 500,000 or more customers to supply 100% of retail sales with clean energy sources by 2050 so long as meeting such requirements is technically and economically feasible and in the public interest
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Colo. Rev. Stat. §40-2-124Senate Bill 252 (2013); Senate Bill 263 (2019). 

Connecticut

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 1998.
  • Requirement: 44% by 2030.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, local government, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 6%.
  • Details: Class I renewable energy sources (including distributed generation): 20% by 2020. Class I or II (biomass, waste-to-energy and certain hydropower projects): 3% by 2010. Class III (combined heat and power, waste heat recovery and conservation): 4% by 2010.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Conn. Gen. Stat. §16-245a et seq.Conn. Gen. Stat. §16-1; Senate Bill 9 (2018). 

Delaware

  • Title: Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2005.
  • Requirement: In 2021 the state extended its RPS to include long-term targets of 28% by 2030 and 40% by 2035. The changes retained the state's previous target for 2025 of 25%. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, local government, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: None. Previously had a cost cap of approximately 3% that was eliminated through legislation enacted in 2021. 
  • Details: Photovoltaics: 3.5% in 2025, 5% in 2030 and 10% in 2035. 
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Del. Code Ann. 26 §351 et seq.; Senate Bill 33 (2021). 

Hawaii

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2001.
  • Requirement: 30% by 2020; 40% by 2030; 70% by 2040; 100% by 2045.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: None.  
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Hawaii Rev. Stat. §269-91 et seq.House Bill 623 (2015).

Illinois

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2001 (voluntary target); 2007 (standard).
  • Requirement: 25% by 2025-2026.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 1%.
  • Details: Distributed Generation: 1% of annual requirement beginning in 2015 for IOUs. Wind: 75% of annual requirement for IOUs, 60% of annual requirement for alternative retail electric suppliers. Photovoltaics: 6% of annual requirement beginning in 2015-2016.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 §688 (2001); Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 §3855/1-75 (2007); Senate Bill 2814 (2016).

Indiana

  • Title: Clean Energy Portfolio Goal.
  • Established: 2011.
  • Requirement: 10% by 2025.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: 30% of the goal may be met with clean coal technology, nuclear energy, combined heat and power systems, natural gas that displaces electricity from coal and other alternative fuels.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Ind. Code §8-1-37.

Iowa

  • Title: Alternative Energy Law.
  • Established: 1983.
  • Requirement: 105 MW of generating capacity for IOUs.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Iowa Code §476.41 et seq.

Kansas

  • Title: Renewable Energy Goal.
  • Established: 2009 (standard); 2015 (goal).
  • Requirement: 15% by 2015-2019; 20% by 2020.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: Caps gross RPS procurement costs.
  • Details: 20% requirement for peak demand capacity.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Kan Stat. Ann. §66-1256 et seq.Goal: Senate Bill 91.

Maine

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Standard. 
  • Established: 1999.
  • Requirement: 80% by 2030; statewide target of 100% renewables by 2050. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 15%.
  • Details: Maine updated its RPS requirements in 2019 to include an additional 40% requirement for certain renewable sources (Class IA) in addition to a 10% requirement by 2022 and each year thereafter for Class I (new) sources and 30% requirement for Class II resources. The state also has separate goals for wind energy: 2,000 MW of installed capacity by 2015; 3,000 MW of installed capacity by 2020, including offshore and coastal; and 8,000 MW of installed capacity by 2030, including 5,000 MW from offshore and coastal. The state has a credit multiplier for community-based renewable energy.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 35-A §3210 et seq.Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 35-A §3401 et seq. (wind energy); Senate File 457 (2019). 

Maryland

  • Title: Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2004.
  • Requirement: 30.5% in 2020; 50% in 2030.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, local government, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 7%.
  • Details: In 2019, Maryland enacted legislation increasing its near-term RPS targets and carveouts for solar and offshore wind. It also extended its RPS targets out to 2030The bill increased the solar carveout from 2.5% to 6% in 2020, with an increasing annual percentage carveout up to 14.5% in 2030. It also increased offshore wind from a 2.5% maximum in 2017 to a 10% maximum in 2025, including an increasing megawatt requirement for Round 2 offshore wind projects in later compliance years.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Md. Public Utilities Code Ann. §7-701 et seq.; Senate Bill 516 (2019).

Massachusetts

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 1997.
  • Requirement: Class I: 35% by 2030 and an additional 1% each year after. Class II: 6.7% by 2020.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 16%.
  • Details: Photovoltaic: 1,600 MW required by 2020. Class I resources are new sources. Class II (resources in operation by 1997) requirement includes 2.69% renewable energy and 3.5% waste-to-energy.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 25A §11F; House Bill 4857 (2018). 

Michigan

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2008; 2016.
  • Requirement: 15% by 2021 (standard), 35% by 2025 (goal, including energy efficiency and demand reduction).
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 2.5%.
  • Details: The state has several credit multipliers for different technologies.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Mich. Comp. Laws §460.1001 et seq.; Senate Bill 438 (2016).

Minnesota

  • Title: Renewables Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: 26.5% by 2025 (IOUs), 25% by 2025 (other utilities).
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: Xcel Energy has a separate requirement of 31.5% by 2020; 25% must be from wind or solar. Solar: 1.5% by 2020 (other IOUs); Statewide goal of 10% by 2030.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Minn. Stat. §216B.1691

Missouri

  • Title: Renewable Electricity Standard.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: 15% by 2021 (IOUs).
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 1%.
  • Details: Solar-Electric: 2% carve-out.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Mo. Rev. Stat. §393.1020 et seq.

Montana

  • Title: Renewable Resource Standard.
  • Established: 2005.
  • Requirement: 15% by 2015.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 0.1%.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Mont. Code Ann. §69-3-2001 et seq.

Nevada

  • Title: Energy Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 1997.
  • Requirement: 50% by 2030; non-binding 100% carbon-free by 2050.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: In 2019 Nevada increased its RPS from 25% by 2025 to 50% by 2030 and removed its solar carve-out (6% for 2016-2025). The state has a credit multiplier for photovoltaics and on peak energy savings.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Nev. Rev. Stat. §704.7801 et seq.; Senate Bill 358 (2019). 

New Hampshire

  • Title: Electric Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: 25.2% by 2025.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 7%.
  • Details: Solar: 0.7% new solar in 2020 and after. Requires at least 15% of requirement to be met with new renewables.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §362-F.

New Jersey

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 1991.
  • Requirement: 50% by 2030.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 10%.
  • Details: 50% Class I renewables by 2030. 2.5% Class II renewables each year. 5.1% solar-electric by 2021, then gradually reduced to 1.1% by 2031. Offshore wind: 3,500 MW.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N.J. Rev. Stat. §48:3-49 et seq.; Assembly Bill 3723 (2018). 

New Mexico

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2002.
  • Requirement: 40% by 2025; 80% renewables by 2040; 100% of electricity supplied by zero-carbon resources by 2045.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: Solar: 20% by 2020 (IOUs). Wind: 30% by 2020 (IOUs). Other renewables including geothermal, biomass and certain hydro facilities: 5% by 2020 (IOUs). Distributed Generation: 3% by 2020 (IOUs). The state has a credit multiplier for solar energy that was operational before 2012.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N.M. Stat. Ann. §62-15-1 et seq.N.M. Stat. Ann. §62-16-1 et seq.; Senate Bill 489 (2019).  

New York

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard; Reforming the Energy Vision (REV).
  • Established: 2004.
  • Requirement: 70% renewables by 2030; 100% zero-emissions electricity requirement by 2040.  
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: In 2019, New York increased its RPS from 50% to 70% by 2030. Offshore wind: goal of 2,400 MW by 2030.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: NY PSC Order Case 03-E-01882015 New York State Energy Plan; Senate Bill 6599 (2019). 

North Carolina

  • Title: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs); 10% by 2018 (munis and coops).
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 1.5%.
  • Details: Solar: 0.2% by 2018. Swine Waste: 0.2% by 2018. Poultry Waste: 900,000 MWh by 2015. The state offers credit multipliers for biomass facilities located in cleanfields renewable energy demonstration parks.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N.C. Gen. Stat. §62-133.8.

North Dakota

  • Title: Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: 10% by 2015.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N.D. Cent. Code §49-02-24 et seq.

Ohio

  • Title: Alternative Energy Resource Standard.
  • Established: 2008.
  • Requirement: 8.5% by 2026. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 2%.
  • Details: In 2019, Ohio reduced its RPS requirement and eliminated its solar-carveout. The state reduced its RPS from 12.5% to 8.5% by 2026, including reductions in annual incremental targets. Ohio previously enacted a two-year freeze (Senate Bill 310 (2014))  on the state's RPS standard while a panel studied the costs and benefits of the requirement. The freeze was not extended in 2016. 
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §4928.64 et seq.; House Bill 6 (2019). 

Oklahoma

  • Title: Renewable Energy Goal.
  • Established: 2010.
  • Requirement: 15% by 2015.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Okla. Stat. tit. 17 §801.1 et seq.

Oregon

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2007.
  • Requirement: In July 2021, Oregon passed legislation to complement its RPS. The state’s “Clean Energy Targets” legislation requires retail electricity providers to reduce emissions by the following levels below baseline: 80% by 2030; 90% by 2035; and 100% by 2040 (see below for further explanation
  • Applicable Sectors: investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 4%.
  • Details: The distinction between the new Clean Energy Targets and Oregon’s RPS is important, but the two pieces of legislation work in tandem to affect the same result. Oregon’s RPS requires electricity providers to generate electricity from qualifying sources, such as wind, solar or hydroelectric power. Whereas the Clean Energy Targets requires electricity providers to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions, without a focus on the source of the energy. While renewable energy generation is expected to be the primary contributor to meeting the state’s Clean Energy Targets, the legislation also focuses on energy efficiency, demand responses resources, transmission, community-based renewable energy, and emissions reporting.
  • The state’s RPS requirements include the following carve-outs: Photovoltaics: 20 MW by 2020 (IOUs). The state has a credit multiplier for photovoltaics installed before 2016. The state's two investor-owned utilities must phase out coal generation by 2035. By 2025 at least 8% of aggregate electrical capacity must come from small-scale community renewable energy projects with a capacity of 20 megawatts (MW) or less.

  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Or. Rev. Stat. §469a; Senate Bill 1547 (2016).

Pennsylvania

  • Title: Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2004.
  • Requirement: 18% by 2020-2021.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 8%.
  • Details: Tier I: 8% by 2020-2021 (includes photovoltaic). Tier II (includes waste coal, distributed generation, large-scale hydropower and municipal solid waste, among other technologies): 10% by 2020-2021. Photovoltaic: 0.5% by 2020-2021.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Pa. Cons. Stat. tit. 66 §2814.

Rhode Island

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2004.
  • Requirement: 14.5% by 2019, with increases of 1.5% each year until 38.5% by 2035.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 13%.
  • Details: The state has a separate long-term contracting standard for renewable energy, which requires electric distribution companies to establish long-term contracts with new renewable energy facilities.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: R.I. Gen. Laws §39-26-1 et seq.R.I. Gen. Laws §39-26.1 et seq. (contracting standard); House Bill 7413a (2016).

South Carolina

  • Title: Voluntary Renewables Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2014.
  • Requirement: 2% by 2021.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: Systems less than 1 MW: 1% of aggregate generation capacity, including at least 0.25% of total generation from systems less than 20kW. 1 – 10 MW facilities: 1% of aggregate generation capacity.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: House Bill 1189.

South Dakota

Texas

  • Title: Renewable Generation Requirement.
  • Established: 1999.
  • Requirement: 5,880 MW by 2015. 10,000 MW by 2025 (goal; achieved).
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 3%.
  • Details: Non-wind: 500 MW (goal).
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Tex. Utilities Code Ann. §39.904.

Utah

Vermont

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2005 (voluntary target); 2015 (standard).
  • Requirement: 55% by 2017; 75% by 2032.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 6%.
  • Details: Distributed Generation: 10% by 2032. Energy Transformation: 12% by 2032 (includes weatherization, thermal energy efficiency and heat pumps).
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 30 §8001 et seq.Standard: House Bill 40.

Virginia

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard
  • Established: 2020.
  • Requirement: 100% renewables by 2045 for Phase II utilities and 2050 for Phase I utilities. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility.
  • Cost Cap: None. 
  • Details: In 2020, the state enacted a mandatory 100% renewables target for Phase I and Phase II utilities. The state had previously implemented a voluntary renewables goal of 15% by 2025. Under the new requirements, Phase I utilities are required to achieve a renewables target of 14% by 2025, 30% by 2030, 65% by 2040, and 100% by 2050. Phase II utilities have an accelerated renewables requirement of 26% by 2025, 41% by 2030, and 100% by 2045. The law further requires utilities to procure a certain amount of generation from solar and onshore wind sources that are located within the state by a specific date. 
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Va. Code §56-585.2; Senate Bill 851 (2020). 

Washington

  • Title: Renewable Energy Standard.
  • Established: 2006.
  • Requirement: 15% renewable by 2020; 100% greenhouse gas neutral by 2030; 100% renewable or zero-emitting by 2045. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 4%.
  • Details: Standard is applicable to all utilities that serve more than 25,000 customers. Requirement also includes all cost-effective conservation. The state has a credit multiplier for distributed generation.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Wash. Rev. Code §19.285Wash. Admin. Code §480-109Wash Admin. Code §194-37; Senate Bill 5116 (2019). 

West Virginia

  • Title: Alternative and Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard- REPEALED.
  • Established: 2009; Repealed 2015.
  • Requirement: 10% from 2015-2019, 15% from 2020-2024, 25% by 2025.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utilities. 
  • Cost Cap: None. 
  • Details: Goal is applicable to IOUs that serve more than 30,000 residential customers. Goal includes alternative energy sources, including coal technology, coal bed methane, natural gas, combined cycle technologies, waste coal and pumped storage hydroelectric projects.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: W. Va. Code §24-2F; Repeal: House Bill 2001.

Wisconsin

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 1998.
  • Requirement: 10% by 2015.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: None.
  • Details: Standard varies by utility. 2011-2014: utilities may not decrease its renewable energy percentage below 2010 percentages. 2015: utilities must increase renewable energy percentages by at least 6% above their 2001-2003 average. Utilities may not decrease their renewable energy percentage after 2015.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Wisc. Stat. §196.378.

Washington, D.C.

  • Title: Renewable Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2005.
  • Requirement: 20% by 2020, 100% by 2032.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, retail supplier.
  • Cost Cap: Approximately 38%.
  • Details: Solar: 2.5% by 2023; 5% by 2032; 10% by 2041.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: D.C. Code §34-1431 et seq.Bill 650 (2016); Bill 904 (2018). 

Guam

  • Title: Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal.
  • Established: 2008; 2019
  • Requirement: 100% by 2045. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Data unavailable. 
  • Details: Goal initially was for 25% of net electricity sales to come from renewables by 2035. In 2019, Guam updated its RPS goals to 50% by 2035 and 100% by 2045. 
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: Guam Public Law §29-62; Guam Public Law §35-46

Northern Mariana Islands

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2007; goal reduced in 2014.
  • Requirement: 20% by 2016.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Data unavailable.
  • Details: Requirement applies to net electricity sales. Requirement allows for non-compliance if it is not cost-effective.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: N. M. I. Public Law §15-23House Bill 165 (2014).

Puerto Rico

  • Title: Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard.
  • Established: 2010.
  • Requirement: 40% by 2025; 60% by 2040; 100% by 2050. 
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Data unavailable.
  • Details: In 2019, Puerto Rico increased its RPS and set additional long-term targets. The near-term target increased from 20% by 2035 to 40% by 2025. 
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: PR S 1519 (2010); PR H 2610 (2010); PR S 1121 (2019). 

U.S. Virgin Islands

  • Title: Renewables Portfolio Targets.
  • Established: 2009.
  • Requirement: 20% by 2015;  25% by 2020; 30% by 2025; up to 51% after 2025.
  • Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utility, municipal utilities, cooperative utilities.
  • Cost Cap: Data unavailable.
  • Details: Standard applies to peak demand generating capacity. Standard will increase until a majority of capacity is from renewable or alternative energy.
  • Enabling Statute, Code or Order: VI B 9 (2009). 

Sources:

  • Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, Renewable Portfolio Standards. (Raleigh, N.C. State University, 2017).
  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, U.S. Renewables Portfolio Standards 2019 Annual Status Update (cost cap information). 
  • National Conference of State Legislatures.