Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Targets and Market-based Policies

12/17/2019

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Last updated: 1/10/2020

Introduction

States have implemented a variety of policies aimed at mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At least 15 states and Puerto Rico have enacted legislation establishing GHG emissions reduction requirements, with more requiring state agencies to report or inventory GHG emissions. Other states, such as New Mexico, North Carolina and Pennsylvania, have recently committed to statewide GHG reduction goals through executive action, but do not currently have binding statutory targets. 

Several states have also implemented carbon pricing policies either independently or through regional agreements. California is employing a multi-sector GHG cap-and-trade program, and several Northeast and Middle Atlantic states are participating in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the first binding cap-and-trade program aimed at reducing GHG emissions from the power sector. Many of these same states also participate in the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI), which is committed to developing a cap-and-invest program aimed and reducing transportation sector emissions. 

Many states have multiple policies in place, as shown in the map below. Several states have binding statutory requirements to reduce statewide emissions and complete a statewide inventory measuring emissions. Several Northeastern states participate in both the RGGI and TCI, addressing the two highest-emitting sectors of the U.S. economy: power and transportation. Additionally, multiple states have implemented statutory GHG reduction and reporting requirements, as well as a carbon pricing policy.  While not addressed in this document, 29 states have renewable or clean electricity standards, which require that a percentage of electricity sold by utilities comes from renewable sources. Several states have recently increased their standards to require 100% renewable or zero-emissions electricity by midcentury.

States with Comprehensive Greenhouse Gas Reduction Policies

Longer descriptiont than title AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MO MS MT NE NV NH* NY NJ NM NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY DC AS GU MP PR VI

Legend

 

Statutory Reduction and Reporting Requirements + Market-based Policy.

 

Statutory Reduction Requirements + Market-based Policy.

 

Statutory Reporting Requirements + Market-based Policy.

 

Statutory Reduction and Reporting Requirements + Pending Market-based Policy.

 

Statutory Reduction and Reporting Requirements with no Market-based Policy.

 

Participants in RGGI and TCI with no Statutory Reduction or Reporting Requirements

 

States with no Reduction/ Reporting Requirements or Market-based Policy

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