VOPP: Table 18: States With All-Mail Elections

4/21/2020

This table is part of NCSL’s Voting Outside the Polling Place report.

For all-mail elections, all registered voters are sent a ballot in the mail. The voter marks the ballot, puts it in a secrecy envelope or sleeve and then into a separate mailing envelope, signs an affidavit on the exterior of the mailing envelope and returns the package via mail or by dropping it off.

Ballots are mailed out well ahead of Election Day, and thus voters have an “election period,” not just a single day, to vote. All-mail elections can be thought of as absentee voting for everyone. This system is also referred to as “vote by mail.”

  • Five states—Colorado, Hawaii, Oregon, Utah and Washington—allow all elections to be conducted by mail.
  • Three states—California, Nebraska and North Dakota—permit counties to opt into conducting elections by mail.
  • Ten states allow specific small elections to be conducted by mail.
  • Six states permit all-mail elections for certain small jurisdictions.

The four tables below show which states allow which types of all-mail elections.

Table 18a: States That Conduct All Elections by Mail

State Statute
Colorado CRS §1-5-401
Hawaii Hawaii Stat. §11-101
Oregon ORS §254.465
Utah Utah Code Ann. §20A-3a-302
Washington Rev. Code of Wash. 29A.40.010

 

Table 18b: States That Allow Counties to Choose to Conduct Elections by Mail

State Statute
California

Cal. Elect. Code §§4005-4008

Cal. Elect. Code §3005

Cal. Elect. Code §4000
Nebraska

Neb. Rev. Stat. §32-960

Neb. Rev. Stat. §32-952

Certain ballot measure elections can also be conducted by mail.
North Dakota ND Cent. Code §16.1-11.1-01 et seq.

 

Table 18c: States That Allow Certain Small Elections to Be Conducted by Mail

State Statute
Alaska Alaska Stat.§15.20.800
Arizona Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. §16-409, §16-558
California

Cal. Elect. Code §§4005-4008

Cal. Elect. Code §3005

Cal. Elect. Code §4000
Florida Fla. Stat. §101.6102
Kansas Kan. Stat. Ann. §25-432
Maryland Md. Election Code §9-501
Missouri Mo. Rev. Stat. §115.652 et seq.
Montana MCA 13-19-101 et seq.
New Mexico

N.M. Stat. §1-24-3

N. M. Stat. Ann. § 1-6-22.1
Wyoming Wyo. Stat. 22-29-115

 

Table 18d: States That Allow Elections in Certain Small Jurisdictions to Be Conducted by Mail

State Statute
California

Cal. Elect. Cde §§4005-4008

Cal. Elect. Code §3005

Cal. Elect. Code §4000
Idaho Idaho Code §34-308
Minnesota Minn. Stat. §204B.45
Nevada Nev. Rev. Stat. §293.213
New Jersey NJRS §19.62-1
New Mexico

N.M. Stat. §1-24-3

N. M. Stat. Ann. § 1-6-22.1