Significant court rulings during the past decade continue to reshape juvenile justice policy.
In 2005 the U.S. Supreme Court held in Roper v. Simmons that the Eighth Amendment’s ban against cruel and unusual punishment prohibits juveniles from being sentenced to death for crimes they committed before they reached age 18. Five years later the court abolished the sentence of life without the possibility of parole for youth convicted of nonhomicide crimes in Graham v. Florida.
Building on these two cases, the court in 2012 abolished mandatory life sentences without the possibility of parole in Miller v. Alabama. The court in Miller ruled that while sentences of life without parole were still permissible, they could only be imposed after judicial consideration of the individual circumstances and the court must consider the offender’s maturity level.
On January 25, 2016, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Montgomery v. Louisiana that its 2012 Miller decision which struck down mandatory life imprisonment terms without parole for juveniles must be applied retroactively. States are not required to re-litigate sentences in each case where juveniles received a mandatory sentence of life without parole, but a state must permit juvenile homicide offenders to be considered for parole.
Juvenile Life Without Parole
During the time of the Miller ruling, 28 states had mandatory juvenile life without parole sentences that were in conflict with the Supreme Court ruling. In the four years since Miller, 14 of those original 28 states have enacted laws to be in compliance with federal law.
The laws vary as to how many years a juvenile must serve before being eligible for parole review. On one side of the spectrum, Nebraska and Texas require 40 years to be served before parole review, with three states—Louisiana, Massachusetts and Pennsylvania—setting it at 35 years. Seven states—Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Michigan, North Carolina, Utah, Washington and Wyoming—require that 20 to 30 years be served, Nevada has set it between 15 and 20 years, and California and West Virginia set it at 15 years. In Iowa, South Dakota and Vermont, an amount is not specified, with judges given discretion in setting the term. Twenty four states and the District of Columbia, seen in the map below, have laws that completely abolish juvenile life without parole.