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*indicates articles/research primarily about state polarization or relevant to state polarization

Abramowitz, Alan. The Polarized Public. New York, N.Y. Pearson Inc., 2012.

* Ahler, Douglas; Jack Citrin; and Gabriel Lenz. “Do Open Primaries Help Moderate Candidates? An Experimental Test on the 2012 California Primary.” Paper presented at the Western Political Science Association meetin, Los Angeles, Calif., 2013.

 Alvarez, R. Michael, and Betsy Sinclair. “Electoral Institutions and Legislative Behavior: The Effects of Primary Processes.” Political Research Quarterly 65 (2012): 544-557.

Ansolabehere, Stephen; Maxwell Palmer; and Benjamin Scheer. ; “Divided Government and Significant Legislation, A History of Congress from 1789-2010.” Working paper, Harvard University, 2014.

* Anzia, Sarah, and Molly Jackman. “Legislative Organization and the Second Face of Power: Evidence from U.S. State Legislatures.” Journal of Politics 75 (2013): 210-224.

* Barber, Michael. “Ideological Donors, Contribution Limits, and the Polarization of American Legislatures.” Journal of Politics (2015).

Barbera, Pablo, et al. “Tweeting from Left to Right: Is Online Political Communication More than an Echo Chamber?” Psychological Science 26 (2015): 1531-1542.

* Battista, James Coleman, and Jesse Richman. “Party Pressure in the U.S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 36 (2011): 397-422.

* Berman, David. “Legislative Climate.” In Karl Kurtz, Bruce Cain and Richard Niemi, eds., Institutional Change in American Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2007.

Binder, Sarah. “The Dysfunctional Congress.” Annual Review of Political Science 18 (2015): 85-101.

______. “How political polarization creates stalemate and undermines lawmaking.” Washington Post, The Monkey Cage blog, Jan. 13, 2014.

*Birkhead, Nathanel. The Role of Ideology in State Legislative Elections.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 40 (2015): 55-76.

Bonica, Adam. “Mapping the Ideological Marketplace.” American Journal of Political Science 58 (2014): 367-386.

Campbell, James E. Polarized: Making Sense of a Divided American. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016.

*Caughey, Devin, and Christopher Warshaw. “The Dynamics of State Policy Liberalism, 1936-2014.” American Journal of Political Science, (forthcoming 2016;on-line version currently posted).

*Carroll, Royce, and Jason Eichorst. “The Role of Party: The Legislative Consequences of Partisan Electoral Competition.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 38 (2013): 83-109.

* Clark, Jennifer Hayes. “Examining Parties as Procedural Cartels: Evidence from the States,” Legislative Studies Quarterly 37 (2012): 491-507. 

*Cox, Gary; Thad Kousser; and Mathew McCubbins. “Party Power of Preferences? Quasi-Experimental Evidence from American State Legislatures.” Journal of Politics 72 (2010): 799-811.

Fiorina, Morris, with Samuel Abrams. Disconnect: The Breakdown of Representation in American Politics. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2011.

*Garlick, Alex. “National Policies, Agendas and Polarization in American State Legislatures: 2011-2014.” APSA paper based on author’s dissertation prepared at Pennsylvania State University, 2015.

* Hinchcliffe, Kelsey, and Frances E. Lee. “Party Competition and Conflict in State Legislatures.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 16 (June 2016):172-197.

*Jenkins,Shannon. “Party Influence on Roll Call Voting: A View from the States.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 8 (2008): 239-262.

*Kardish, Chris. “Outsiders Add Money and Negativity to State and Local Elections.” Governing, October 2014.

* Kurtz, Karl. “These Unified States.” State Legislatures, May 2013.

*Lang, Corey, and Shanna Person-Merkowitz. “Partisan Sorting in the U.S. States, 1972-2012: New Evidence from a Dynamic Analysis.” Political Geography 48 (2014): 119-129.

*LaRaja, Ray, and Brian Schaffner. “Want to reduce polarization? Give parties more money.” Washington Post, The Monkey Cage blog, July 21, 2014.

* ______. Campaign Finance and Political Polarization: When Purists Prevail. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2015.

* Lax, Jeffrey, and Justin Phillips. “Dividing the Spoils of Power: How Are the Benefits of Majority Party Status Distributed in U.S. State Legislatures.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 9 (2009): 125-150.

 Lee, Francis E. “How Party Polarization Affects Governance.” Annual Review of Political Science 18 (2015): 261-281.

______. Insecure Majorities: Congress and the Perpetual Campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016.

*Magazinnik, Asya, and Sepehr Shahshahani. “Strategic Ambition, Missing Data and Ideal Point Estimation.” Paper presented at the American Political Science Association annual meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., 2016.

*Masket, Seth. No Middle Ground: How Informal Party Organizations Control Nominations and Polarize Legislatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009.

*Masket, Seth, and Boris Shor. “Primary Electorates vs. Party Elites: Who Are the Polarizers?” Paper presented at the State Politics and Policy Conference, Iowa City, Iowa, 2013.

*Masket, Seth; Jonathan Winburn; and Gerald Wright. “The Limits of the Gerrymander.” Paper presented at the American Political Science Association Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., 2006.

 McCarty, Nolan, et al. “Geography, Uncertainty and Polarization.” Paper prepared for the Conference on the Causes and Consequences of Policy Uncertainty. Princeton University, 2014. Updated Aug. 27, 2015.

*McGhee, Eric, et al.  “A Primary Cause of Partisanship? Nomination Systems and Legislator Ideology.” American Journal of Political Science (2013).

*Moncrief, Gary; Joel Thompson; and Karl Kurtz. “The Old Statehouse Ain’t What It Used To Be: Veteran State Legislators’ Perceptions of Change.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 21 (1996): 57-72.

Nivola, Pietro. “Thinking About Political Polarization.” Policy Brief # 139. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, January 2005.

*Norrander, Barbara, and Jay Wendland. “State Primary Laws and the Ideological Composition of Primary Electorates.” Paper presented at the State Politics and Policy Conference, Bloomington, Ind., 2014.

Persily, Nathan, ed. Solutions to Political Polarization in America. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Pew Research Center. “Political Polarization in the American Public.” Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, June 2014.

*Powell, Lynda. The Influence of Campaign Contribution in State Legislatures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012.

*______. “The Influence of Campaign Contributions on Legislative Policy.” The Forum: A Journal of Applied Research in Contemporary Politics 11 (2013): 339-355.

* ______. 2013. “Legislative Bipartisanship: Explaining Variation in Cross-Party Coalition Building Activity in the 99 State Legislative Chambers.” Paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association meeting, Chicago, Ill., 2013.

Prior, Markus. “Media and Political Polarization.” Annual Review of Political Science 16 (2013):101-127.

Quirk, Paul. “Polarized Populism: Masses, Elites, and Ideological Conflict.” In Raymond La Raja, ed., New Directions in American Politics. New York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2013.

Rogowski, Jon, and Stephanie Langella. “Primary Systems and Candidate Ideology.” American Politics Research (2015).

Rosenthal, Alan. The Best Job in Politics. Los Angeles, Calif.: Sage/ CQ Press, 2013.

Schier, Steven, and Todd Eberly. Polarized: The Rise of Ideology in American Politics. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.

* Shor, Boris. “Polarization in American State Legislatures.” In James Thurber and Antoine Yoshinaka, American Gridlock. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Updates data/analysis from an earlier article.

*Shor, Boris, and Nolan McCarty. “The Ideological Mapping of American Legislatures.” American Political Science Review 105 (2011): 530-542.

*Sinclair, Betsy. “Introduction: The California Top Two Primary.” California Journal of Politics and Policy, January 2015.

*Squire, Peverill, and G. Moncrief. State Legislatures Today. Lanham, Md.: Rowman &Littlefield, 2015.

Stonecash, Jeff. “The two key factors behind our polarized politics.” The Washington Post, The Monkey Cage blog, Jan. 24, 2014.

*Swift, Cliff, and Kathryn Vander. “Term Limits and Collaboration Across the Aisle: An Analysis of Bipartisan Cosponsorhip in Term Limited and Non-Term Limited State Legislatures.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 16 (June 2016): 198-220.

Thurber, James, and A. Yoshinaka, eds. American Gridlock: The Sources, Character and Impact of Political Polarization. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

*Vock, Daniel. “How Political Donors Are Changing Statehouse News Reporting.” Governing, November 2014.

*Voorheis, John, N. McCarty, and B. Shor. “Unequal Incomes, Ideology and Gridlock: How Rising Inequality Increases Political Polarization.” Ms, August 2015.

*Weiss, Suzanne. “Peak of Partisanship.” State Legislatures, July-August 2014.

*Wright, Gerald, and Nathaniel Birkhead. “The Macro Sort of the State Electorates.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (2014):426-439.

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

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