The NCSL Blog


By Lisa Soronen

In 2016 the U.S. Supreme Court was expected to overrule a nearly 40-year old precedent requiring public sector employees who don’t join the union to pay their “fair share” of collective bargaining costs.

Protesters in favor of a union shop.Credit: Albany Times-UnionJustice Antonin Scalia died shortly after the court heard oral argument in Friedrichs v. California Teachers Association. The court ultimately issued a 4-4 decision that, practically speaking, kept Abood v. Detroit Board of Education (1977) on the books.

With a ninth justice now on the bench, the Supreme Court has agreed to try again to decide whether to overturn Abood in Janus v. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. In Abood the Supreme Court held that the First Amendment does not prevent “agency shop” arrangements where public employees who do not join the union are still required to pay their “fair share” of union dues for collective-bargaining, contract administration and grievance-adjustment. The rationale for an agency fee is that the union may not discriminate between members and nonmembers in performing these functions.

In Harris v. Quinn (2014) the Supreme Court refused to extend Abood to Medicaid home health care providers because they aren’t “full-fledged” public employees. Justice Samuel Alito’s majority opinion, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, and ClarenceThomas, was very critical of Abood, discussing at length its “questionable analysis.” Justice Elena Kagan’s dissent, joined by Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer and Sonia Sotomayor, included a lengthy and vigorous defense of Abood.

In Harris, the justices’ views of Abood were made readily apparent. So all eyes and ears will be on whether Justice Neal Gorsuch will join the conservative wing of the court and vote to overturn Abood.

Even in a term as interesting as this one promises to be, Janus will be a big case. Agency fee is considered a foundational principle for public sector collective bargaining in the U.S. Overturning it will represent a major change in the law and could affect public sector unions.

Lisa Soronen is executive director of the State and Local Legal Center and a frequent contributor to the NCSL Blog on judicial issues.


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About the NCSL Blog

This blog offers updates on the National Conference of State Legislatures' research and training, the latest on federalism and the state legislative institution, and posts about state legislators and legislative staff. The blog is edited by NCSL staff and written primarily by NCSL's experts on public policy and the state legislative institution.