Every society has confronted the question of how to resolve disputes. Many early societies chose a private system of revenge for dispute resolution but, as civilizations evolved, communities began designating individuals to resolve disputes impartially in accordance with established norms and customs.
In Ancient Greece, rulers and a group of respected elders in the community were empowered to hear disputes. The judicial powers of these institutions were gradually replaced by an assembly of 6,000 jurors that was divided into smaller panels to hear particular cases.
Juries played a key role in the development of the English judicial system. As more legal disputes were submitted to juries for resolution, however, concerns arose that both judges and juries were rendering biased decisions based on irrelevant and untrustworthy evidence. Trial procedures often were deemed haphazard, arbitrary and unfair. The concerns about the English judicial system affected the development of the U.S. judicial system.
The general blueprint for the U.S. judiciary is laid out in Article III of the U.S. Constitution, and many details of federal judicial power are spelled out in the Judiciary Act of 1789. State judicial systems are created similarly by state constitutional and statutory provisions.
One of the principal characteristics of the U.S. judicial system is that it has a specific role under the separation-of-powers doctrine. Under the doctrine, laws are passed by the legislature and enforced by the executive branch. The judiciary interprets and applies the law, adjudicates legal disputes and otherwise administers justice. This includes the authority to enforce—or void—statutes when disputes arise over their scope or constitutionality.
The power of the judiciary is balanced by the legislature's ability to pass new laws and propose constitutional amendments. Legislatures also may have the power to confirm, select or impeach judicial branch officials.
Examples of the areas in which legislative-judicial conflict may arise include:
- Judicial review
- Judicial interpretation
- Judicial confirmations, selections or impeachments
- Enrolled bill doctrine
- Legislative intent and histories
Judicial Review and Interpretation
- Federal: Congressional Research Service, Constitutionality of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005
- Michigan: Michigan Bar Association, "Judicial Review of Legislative Action," Law School for Legislators, 2009.
- NCSL: Mason’s Manual of Legislative Procedure, 2000 edition, Chapter 8, “Power of Courts with Reference to Legislative Procedure.”
- Michael Libonati, "State Constitutions and Legislative Process: The Road Not Taken," Boson University Law Review, Vol. 89:863, 1989
- Stephen Raher, Judicial Review of Legislative Procedure: Determining Who Determines the Rules of Proceedings, 2008
- Robert F. Williams, American State Constitutional Law
Enrolled Bill Doctrine
- Kentucky: Kurt, X. Metzmeier, "Clocks and Courts: Enrolled Bills and Extrinsive Evidence," University of Louisville School of Law Faculty Blog, April, 23, 2008
- North Dakota: North Dakota Attorney General, Attorney General's Opinion 91-11, July 1991
- Texas: Texas Legislative Council, Texas Legislative Council Drafting Manual, September 2008
- Texas: Texas Attorney General, Attorney General's Opinion JM-1086, August 1989
Legislative History and Intent
- California: Legislative Research, Inc., Research and Practice Guide: California Legislative History and Intent, Sixth Edition, 2005
- Colorado: Colorado Office of Legislative Legal Services, Researching Legislative History, 2009
- Minnesota: Minnesota State Legislature, Minnesota Legislative History Guide
- New York: New York State Library, Legislative Intent, January 16, 2013
- North Carolina: North Carolina Legislative Library, North Carolina Legislative History Step-by-Step, 2019
- North Carolina: State Library of North Carolina, North Carolina Legislative History Research: Steps for Searching, 2020
- Ohio: Legislative Service Commission, "A Guide to Legislative History in Ohio, Members Only, Volume 128 Issue 10, Jan. 26, 2010
- Virginia: Virginia Division of Legislative Services, "Legislative History," Legislative Reference Center
- Virginia: Library of Virginia, Legislative History in Virginia, Oct. 2019
- Washington: Washington Secretary of State, Legislative History
- Wisconsin: Legislative Reference Bureau, "Researching Legislative History in Wisconsin," Wisconsin Briefs, Brief 13-8, Nov. 2013
- Wyoming: Wyoming State Legislature, Legislative History of Wyoming Laws
- Federal: Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)
- Kentucky: Lafferty v. Huffman, 35 S.W. 123 (1893)
- Kentucky: D&W Auto Supply v. Department of Revenue, 602 S.W.2d 420 (Ky. 1980)
- Pennsylvania: Consumer Party of Pa. v. Commonwealth, 507 A.2d 323 (Pa. 1986)
- South Carolina: Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance, 235 SCRA 630