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Pedestrian Crossing 50 State Summary

Pedestrian Crossing: 50 State Summary

5/30/2014

kid crossing street.In 2012, pedestrian deaths rose to their highest level since 2006, increasing by 6.4 percent from 2011 to a total of 4,743 pedestrian fatalities. Injuries rose by 10 percent during the same time period. Furthermore, pedestrian deaths now make up 14 percent of the total traffic deaths in the U.S., up from 11 percent in 2011. This is partly the result of decreasing motorist deaths and increasing amounts of Americans walking for transportation and recreation.

To combat the rise in pedestrian injuries and fatalities and create more walkable communities, state legislatures have been toughening laws regarding the circumstances when a motorist must stop or yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crosswalk. An uncontrolled crosswalk typically means that a traffic control device is either not in place or operation to dictate pedestrian movement. 

Nine states and the District of Columbia require motorists to stop when approaching a pedestrian in an uncontrolled crosswalk. Minnesota mandates that a motorist stop when a pedestrian is in any portion of the roadway. Six states and D.C. require a motorist to stop when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway or within one lane of the lane that the motorist is traveling upon, and two states require a motorist to stop when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway or approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to constitute a danger.

With the exceptions of Hawaii, Georgia, Oregon, South Dakota, Virginia, Washington and the District of Columbia, most states regulate pedestrian crossing at controlled and uncontrolled crosswalks differently. Controlled crosswalks are typically “marked” crosswalks. However, an uncontrolled crosswalk may either be marked or unmarked. New Jersey is a notable exception in that motorists must stop for a pedestrian within a marked crosswalk, but must only yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing within any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection.  

The majority of states, however, only require motorists to yield to, rather than stop for, pedestrians crossing at uncontrolled crosswalks. Nineteen states require a motorist to yield when a pedestrian is upon any portion of the roadway. Louisiana mandates motorist yielding when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway. Nebraska requires yielding when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway or within one lane of the motorist. Massachusetts mandates yielding when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway or within 10 feet of the motorist; and 20 states mandate motorists yield when a pedestrian is upon the same half of the roadway or approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to constitute a danger. In addition, in at least five states and the District of Columbia, bicyclists have the same or similar rights as pedestrians.

Lastly, alcohol is a major factor in pedestrian fatalities; 36 percent of pedestrians killed in 2012 had a BAC above the legal driving limit, although this number is down from 44 percent in the early 1980’s. Accordingly, at least 27 states mandate drivers use necessary precaution if they observe an obviously intoxicated or incapacitated pedestrian.

Must Stop

  • In any portion of the roadway
    • Minnesota
  • Upon roadway / within one lane the vehicle is traveling
    • DC, Georgia, Maryland, Nebraska, New Jersey (only marked crosswalks), Oregon, Washington
  • Upon the same half of the roadway / approaching fromthe other side to constitute danger
    • Hawaii, Illinois

Must Yield

  • In any portion of the roadway
    • Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Jersey (unmarked crosswalks), New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming
  • Same half
    • Louisiana
  • Same half / approaching from opposite side of the roadway
    • Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, West Virginia
  • Same half / one lane
    • Nebraska
  • Same half / 10 feet
    • Massachusetts

State Legislation

Please type in a state in the box below to be taken directly to the state's legislative information.

Alabama: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to constitute a danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Alaska: Commercial vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians on a sidewalk, in a vehicular way or area, or within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to constitute a danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving commercial vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians in a business or residence district may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device. Pedestrians must cross a roadway at a right angle or by the shortest route to the opposite side of the roadway.

Arizona: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to constitute a danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Arkansas: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Vehicles approaching a yield sign must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians legally crossing the roadway. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

California: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within any marked or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Drivers approaching a pedestrian in a marked or unmarked crosswalk must reduce their speed and take other action necessary to ensure the pedestrian’s safety. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians may not unnecessarily stop or delay traffic while in a crosswalk. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Colorado: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in a danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb on foot, bicycle, or electronic bicycle and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Connecticut: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a marked or unmarked crosswalk when a pedestrian steps off the curb and enters the crosswalk or is within the same half of the roadway as the vehicle. Vehicles crossing a sidewalk must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians or other traffic upon the sidewalk. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked or unmarked crosswalk. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Delaware: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger; this applies to vehicles turning at controlled intersections as well. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

D.C.: Vehicles must stop and remained stopped to allow pedestrians to cross the roadway when a pedestrian crossing within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection is upon the lane, or within one lane approaching the lane, which the vehicle is traveling or turning onto. Persons crossing a crosswalk or riding along a sidewalk while operating a bicycle or personal mobility device have the same rights as pedestrians, provided that bicycles are allowed on the sidewalk and that such persons yield the right-of-way to pedestrians on the sidewalk or crosswalk. At controlled intersections, pedestrians who have begun crossing when given the “WALK” signal have the right-of-way to continue to the opposite sidewalk or safety island.

Florida: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk when a pedestrian enters the crosswalk, is in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle, or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. When signage so indicates at an uncontrolled intersection, vehicles must stop and allow pedestrians to cross a roadway when a pedestrian enters the crosswalk, is in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle, or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device. Pedestrians may not cross a roadway at any other place than by route at right angles to the curb of by the shortest route to the opposite curb except for in marked crosswalks.

Georgia: Vehicles must stop and allow pedestrians to cross the roadway within a crosswalk when a pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when a pedestrian is approaching and is within one lane of the half of the roadway on which the vehicle is traveling or onto which it is turning. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection unless the pedestrian has already safely entered the roadway. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Hawaii: Vehicles must stop and allow pedestrians to cross the roadway within a crosswalk when a pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger; vehicles shall not proceed until the pedestrian has passed the vehicle and the driver can safely proceed. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Idaho- Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a crosswalk. Vehicles crossing a sidewalk must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian and all other sidewalk traffic. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. A pedestrian must cross the highway at right angles to the curb or by the shortest route to the opposite curb except where indicated otherwise. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Illinois: Vehicles must stop and yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Vehicles must yield the right of way to pedestrians at plainly marked crosswalks and at intersections where stop signs or flashing red signals are in place. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device. Pedestrians with disabilities may cross a roadway outside a marked crosswalk where the intersection is physically inaccessible to them, provided that such pedestrians yield the right-of-way to all vehicles on the roadway.

Indiana: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is closely approaching. Vehicles approaching a yield sign must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian legally crossing the roadway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Iowa: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. When traffic control devices are in operation at any place that is not an intersection, pedestrians may only cross in a marked crosswalk. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection.

Kansas: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Kentucky: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Louisiana: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway which the vehicle is traveling or turning onto. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Maine: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk. Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians on sidewalks. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Maryland: Vehicles must stop and allow pedestrians to cross the roadway within a crosswalk when a pedestrian is upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when a pedestrian is approaching from an adjacent lane on the other half of the roadway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Massachusetts: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a marked crosswalk that are upon the half of the roadway upon which the vehicle is traveling, or when a pedestrian is approaching within ten feet of where the vehicle is traveling. Vehicles may not enter a marked crosswalk when a pedestrian is crossing until there is sufficient space to accommodate the vehicle beyond the crosswalk. Pedestrians must cross a roadway within a marked crosswalk when there is an officer directing traffic, a traffic control signal, or a marked crosswalk within 300 feet of the pedestrian. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians crossing a roadway in an urban area outside of a marked crosswalk must yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway. It is unlawful for any person to actuate a pedestrian control signal or to enter a marked crosswalk unless a crossing of the roadway is intended.

Michigan: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk at an intersection.

Minnesota: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. In doing so, vehicles must remain stopped until the pedestrian has passed the lane which the vehicle is stopped. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Mississippi: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection.

Missouri­: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing a roadway outside of a marked crosswalk in a business district or a street designated by ordinance. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Pedestrians must cross a roadway at a right angle or by the shortest route to the opposite side of the roadway. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Montana: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. When stopped at a crosswalk, vehicles may make a right hand turn if the pedestrian is in the opposite half of the roadway and not in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Nebraska: Vehicles must stop and yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a crosswalk in the lane upon which the vehicle is proceeding or in the immediately adjacent lane. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to stop. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Nevada: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

New Hampshire: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

New Jersey: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing within any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Vehicles must stop and remained stopped to allow pedestrians to cross an intersection within a marked crosswalk when a pedestrian is upon, or within one lane, of the roadway which the vehicle is traveling or turning onto. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to stop or yield. On roadways where traffic is not controlled, pedestrians must cross a roadway within a crosswalk or at right angles to the roadway in the absence of a crosswalk. Pedestrians may not cross a highway with roadways separated by a medial barrier except when authorized by provision.

New Mexico- Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing a roadway within a crosswalk.  Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

New York: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a crosswalk upon which the vehicle is traveling. Vehicles emerging from any alleyway, building, private road, or driveway must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian approaching on a sidewalk extending across such alleyway, building, private road, or driveway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. At controlled intersections, pedestrians may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

North Carolina: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within any marked crosswalk, unmarked crosswalk, or near an intersection. Vehicles emerging from any alleyway, building, private road, or driveway must yield the right of way to any pedestrian or person riding a bicycle approaching on a sidewalk extending across such alleyway, building, private road, or driveway. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

North Dakota: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Vehicles may not enter an intersection or marked crosswalk unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection to accommodate the vehicle without obstructing other vehicles or pedestrians. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Ohio: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle, trackless trolley, or streetcar that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles, trackless trolleys, and streetcars when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Oklahoma: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Oregon: Vehicles must stop and remain stopped when pedestrians crossing the roadway within a crosswalk are in the lane which the vehicle is traveling or turning, adjacent to the lane which the vehicle is traveling or turning, or less than six feet from the lane which the vehicle is turning. The previous regulation does not apply to roadways with a safety island if the vehicle is proceeding upon the opposite half of the roadway. Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian on a sidewalk. A pedestrian is considered to be crossing an intersection when any part of extension of the pedestrian moves onto the roadway in a crosswalk with the intent to proceed. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection.

Pennsylvania: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within any marked crosswalk or unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Vehicles may not enter an intersection or marked crosswalk unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection to accommodate the vehicle without obstructing other vehicles or pedestrians. Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian in the crosswalk when approaching a stop or yield sign. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians in an urban district may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Rhode Island: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian in the crosswalk when approaching a stop or yield sign. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

South Carolina: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

South Dakota: Vehicles upon a highway within a business or residence district must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the highway within any clearly marked crosswalk or any regular pedestrian crossing. Vehicles approaching a yield sign must yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian legally crossing the roadway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a pedestrian crossing, marked crosswalk, or intersection in a business or residence district. Persons crossing a crosswalk or riding along a sidewalk while operating a bicycle have the same rights as pedestrians provided that bicycles must stop before entering a crosswalk or highway.

Tennessee: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Vehicles in marked school zones must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a marked crosswalk or at an intersection with no marked crosswalk and remain stopped until the pedestrian has crossed the roadway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Texas: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Vehicles emerging from any alley, building, private road, or driveway must yield the right of way to any pedestrian approaching on a sidewalk extending across such alley, building, private road, or driveway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Utah: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Vehicles approaching a school zone must come to a complete stop at the marked school crosswalk when a person in occupying the crosswalk or when warning lights are in operation. Vehicles may not enter an intersection or marked crosswalk unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection to accommodate the vehicle without obstructing other vehicles or pedestrians. Vehicles approaching a stop or yield sign must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within an adjacent crosswalk.  Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. At controlled intersections, pedestrians may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Vermont: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the roadway within a crosswalk. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

Virginia- Vehicles must yield to right-of-way to pedestrians crossing the highway at any clearly marked crosswalk, regular pedestrian crosswalk, or any intersection with a speed limit less than thirty five miles per hour. Vehicles entering, crossing, or turning at intersections must change course, slow down, or stop to allow pedestrians to cross the intersection safely and expeditiously. At all times pedestrians crossing intersections have the right-of-way over vehicles making turns onto highways being crossed by pedestrians. Pedestrians may not enter or cross an intersection in disregard of approaching traffic. Pedestrians may not carelessly or maliciously interfere with the orderly passage of vehicles when crossing highways. Pedestrians must cross at marked crosswalks or intersections whenever possible.

Washington: Vehicles must stop and remain stopped to allow a pedestrian or bicycle to cross the roadway within a marked or unmarked crosswalk when the pedestrian or bicycle is upon the lane, or within one lane approaching the lane on which the vehicle is traveling or turning onto. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to stop. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device. Pedestrians may not cross a roadway at an unmarked crosswalk when prohibited by an official sign.

West Virginia: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within a crosswalk that are in the same half of the roadway as the vehicle or when a pedestrian is approaching closely enough from the opposite side of the roadway to be in danger. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk.

Wisconsin: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian, person operating a bicycle, or person operating a personal assistive mobility device who is crossing the highway within a marked or unmarked crosswalk. Vehicles may not begin a turn at a controlled intersection or crosswalk when a pedestrian, person operating a bicycle, or person operating a personal assistive mobility device crossing on a green or “WALK” signal would be endangered or interfered with. Pedestrians, bicyclists, and operators of a personal assistive mobility device may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close the vehicle is unable to yield. Pedestrians, bicyclists, and operators of a personal assistive mobility device must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked or unmarked crosswalk.

Wyoming: Vehicles must yield the right-of-way to pedestrians within or entering a crosswalk at either edge of the roadway. Pedestrians may not suddenly leave the curb and enter a crosswalk into the path of a moving vehicle that is so close to constitute an immediate hazard. Pedestrians must yield the right-of-way to vehicles when crossing outside of a marked crosswalk or an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. Where traffic control devices are in operation, pedestrians may only cross between two adjacent intersections in a marked crosswalk and may only cross an intersection diagonally if authorized by a traffic control device.

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