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Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Privacy Laws

State Statutes Relating to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Privacy

As of Dec. 20, 2013


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology can be thought of as a next-generation bar code. A simple RFID tag consists of a microchip and antenna, which when stimulated by a remote reader, sends back information via radio waves.  The use of RFID has raised privacy concerns in some states, particularly with regard to linking personal information with RFID tags.  

(See also 2009 legislation, 2008 legislation2007 legislation, 2006 legislation, 2005 legislation.)

 

State

Year Enacted

Statutory Citation and Bill Number

Prohibits Mandatory  Implantation of a RFID Microchip

Prohibits Unauthorized "Skimming" of RFID in ID Cards

Relates to Use of RFID in Driver's Licenses or Vehicles

Creates Study Commission or Task Force

Other

 Alabama  2012

 Code of Ala. §§13A-8-111, 13A-8-113 (2012 Act 432)

  X      
 Arkansas  2009

 Ark. Code § 27-16-1206 (2009 H.B. 1308)

    X    

 California

 2008

Cal. Civil Code § 52.7 (2008 S.B. 31)

 X

 

 

 

Prohibits remotely reading a person's identification document using radio frequency
identification (RFID) without that person's knowledge and prior consent.

 California

 2007

 2009

Cal. Civil Code §§ 1798.79, 1798.795 (2005 S.B. 362, 2009 S.B. 544)

 

 X

 

 

 

 California

 2005

Cal. Fin. Code § 13082(a)(2)
(2005 A.B. 1489)

 

 

 

 

Relates to automated teller machines.  Requires any technology used, such as RFID, that enables a visually impaired person to access an ATM, to provide the same degree of privacy available to all individuals.

 Illinois    720 ILCS 5/16-0.1, 720 ILCS 5/16-30   X      

 Michigan

 2008

Mich. Comp. Laws § 28.304
(2008 H.B. 5535)

 

 

X

 

 

 Minnesota  2010

 Minn. Stat. § 171.07, (2010 S.B. 345, Chapter 316)

   

X

   
 Nevada  2009

Nev. Rev. Stat. § 205.46515 (2009 S.B. 125)

  X    
Prohibits capturing, storing, or reading information from a person's RFID document for the purpose of knowingly or intentionally committing fraud, identity theft or any other unlawful act, without that person's prior knowledge and consent.  An RFID document is a document containing data that are issued to an individual for the primary purpose of establishing identity.

 New Hampshire

 2006

2006 H.B. 203 

 

 

 

 

X (Final Report, Nov. 24, 2008.)

 

 New Hampshire

 2006

N.H. Rev. Stat. § 236:130 (2006 H.B. 1738)

 

 

 

 

Prohibits the use of surveillance devices on New Hampshire highways unless authorized by statute or under certain circumstances.

 North Dakota

 2007

N.D. Cent. Code, § 12.1-15-06 
(2007 S.B. 2415)

X

 

 

 

 

 Oklahoma

 2008

Okla. Stat. § 63-1-1430 (2008 S.B. 47)

X

 

 

 

 

 Rhode
 Island
 2009

R.I. Gen. Laws § 42-153-1 to 42-153-4
(2009 H.B. 609, Ch. 09-380, 2009 S.B. 211, Ch. 09-371)

        Prohibits the use of RFID for the purpose of tracking the movement or identity of any student on school grounds, at school functions, or while being transported to or from school grounds or school functions. Prohibits the state or municipalities from using RFID for tracking of students. Protects personally identifiable information of persons who use toll payment devices that contain RFID chips.

 Texas

 2007

Tex. Trans. Code § 521.032 (c) (2007 S.B. 11 F)

 

 

X

 

 

 Vermont

 2008

23 V.S.A. §7,
23 V.S.A. §8
(2007-08 S.B. 358)

 

 

X

 

Prohibits compiling or maintaining a database of electronically readable information derived from an identification card.

 Virginia  2009

Code of Virginia § 46.2-323.01 
(2009 S.B. 1046)

    X    

 Washington

 2007

Rev. Code Wash. § 46.20.202 (c)
(2007 H..B. 1289)

    X    

 Washington

 2008

Rev. Code Wash. § 9A.58.020 (2008 H.B. 1031)

 

X

 

 

 

 Washington

 2008

Rev. Code Wash. §§ 42.56.230(5), 42.56.330(8) (2008 H.B. 2729)

 

 

X

 

 
 Washington  2009

Rev. Code Wash §§ 19.300.010, 19.300.020, 19.300.030
(2009. H.B. 1011 - Ch. No. 66)

  X     Prohibits the scanning of an RFID card by anyone except the business or agency that issued the tag with the following exceptions: When scanning is part of a sales transaction initiated by the tag holder; when data are remotely read or stored in the course of an act of good-faith security research, experimentation or scientific inquiry; when the use of RFID is for triage or medial care in the case of a public disaster; when a court orders electronic monitoring; when it is used for incarcerated individuals; and when police need to  read a lost identification document.

 Wisconsin

 2006

Wis. Stats. § 146.25 (2006 A.B. 290)

X

 

 

 

 

 

Contact:  Pam Greenberg, NCSL Denver Office, pam.greenberg@ncsl.org

 

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