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STATE STATUTES RELATED TO INDIAN CHILD WELFARE

STATE STATUTES RELATED TO INDIAN CHILD WELFARE

The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 is a federal law that governs the removal and out-of-home placement of American Indian children. The law was enacted after recognition by the federal government that American Indian children were being removed from their homes and communities at a much higher rate than non-Native children. ICWA established standards for the placement of Indian children in foster and adoptive homes and enabled tribes and families to be involved in child welfare cases.

Please find below states statutes related to strengthening or enhancing ICWA in states.

Update August 5, 2014.
 

  Statutes  
Alabama           
Ala.Code 1975 § 12-15-314 (Dependency and Termination of Parental Rights- dispositions for dependent children- kinship)
 
Alaska
Alaska Stat. §§ 25.23.060, 173 (Adoption- consent to adoption, Indian child adoption reports)
 
Alaska Stat. § 25.24.150 (Divorce and Annulment- judgments for custody)
 
Alaska Stat. § 47.14.100 (Juvenile Programs and Institutions- Care of Children- duties of department- agreements with Alaska Native Villages)
 
Alaska Stat. § 47.70.020 et. seq. (Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children)
 
Arizona           
Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 8-105.01,  8-106, 8-515.05, 8-535  (Adoption and Termination of Parent-Child Relationship -racial preference, notification)
 
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 8-817 (Protective Services- initial screening)
 
Ariz. Rev. Stat. §§ 8-841, 8-872, 8-874 (Dependent Children- dependency petition, preliminary orders, permanent guardianship)
 
California            Cal.Fam.Code §§ 170, 175, 180, 185 (Indian children- definitions, eligible membership in more than one tribe, legislative findings, notification, tribal participation at hearings)
 
Cal. Fam. Code § 3041 (Custody of Children- custody hearing)
 
Cal. Fam. Code §§ 7660.5, 7907.3 (Parent and Child Relationship- adoption proceedings under ICWA, Interstate Compact on Placement of Children)
 
Cal. Fam. Code §§ 8606.5, 8616.5, 8619.5 (Adoption- consent, post adoption contract agreements, return of custody)
 
Cal.Welf. & Inst.Code §§ 224 to 224.3, 305.5, 306.6, 317, 361, 361.2, 361.31, 361.4, 366.26,  (Delinquents and Wards of Juvenile Court- legislative findings, definitions, eligible membership in more than one tribe, notice, Indian child inquiry, removal from parents, transfer to tribal court, tribal participation at hearings, appointment of counsel, grounds for removal, placement considerations, termination of parental rights)
 
Cal.Welf. & Inst.Code § 266.24 (Tribal Customary Adoption)
 
Cal.Welf. & Inst.Code §§ 11401, 165074 (Public Social Services- foster care eligibility, out of home placement)
 
Cal Prob. Code §§ 1449, 1459, 1459.5, 1460.2, 1475, 1500.1 (Guardianship- definitions, Indian child custody proceedings, eligible membership in more than one tribe, application of federal law, notification, appointment of counsel, nomination of guardian)
 
Cal.Health & Safety Code § 1505 (Licensing provisions- exemptions)
Colorado           
Colo. Rev. Stat. § 19-1-126 (Compliance with the federal Indian Child Welfare Act-inquiry, notification, determination, transfer to tribal court)
 
Colo. Rev. Stat. § 19-2-513 (Juvenile Justice System- entry into system)
 
Colo. Rev. Stat. § 19-3-212 (Dependency and Neglect-notification)
 
Colo. Rev. Stat. § 24-60-1801 to 1803 (Interstate Compact on Placement of Children)
 
Delaware
Del. Code Ann. tit. 31, § 381 (Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children)
 
Florida
Fla. Stat. § 39.0137 (Proceedings Related to Children- federal law applicability)
 
Fla. Stat. § 63.087 (Adoption-Proceeding to terminate parental rights)
 
Fla. Stat. § 409.408 (Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children)
 
Idaho Idaho Code § 32-1704 (De Facto Custodian Act- commencement of proceedings)
Indiana
Ind. Code tit. 31 § 28-6-1 (Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children)
 
Iowa
Iowa Code §§ 232B.1 to 232B.14 (Iowa Indian Child Welfare Act- purpose and policy of the state, definitions, determination of Indian status, Indian child custody proceedings-jurisdiction-notice- transfer, emergency removal-foster care placement, parental rights- voluntary termination or foster care placement, return of custody- protection of rights of parents or Indian children, Placement preferences, qualified expert witnesses, agreements with tribes for care and custody, payment of foster care expenses, records, compliance)
 
Iowa Code § 600.1(Adoption- federal law applicability)
 
Iowa Code § 600A.3 (Termination of Parental Rights- federal law applicability)
 
Kansas
Kan Stat. Ann. §§ 38-2202 to 2203 (Care of Children- definitions, jurisdiction, federal law applicability)
 
Louisiana
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 13:1840 (Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement- federal law applicability)
 
Maine
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 §§ 4008, 4062 (Child Protection- records, payments)
 
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 22 §§ 7805, 8101 (Facilities for Children and Adults- tribally licensed facilities, children’s homes definitions)
 
Michigan
Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 712B.1 to 41 (Michigan Family Preservation Act- definitions, best interest of Indian child, exclusive jurisdiction of the tribe, notice, reports, voluntary consent to guardianship, requirements for proceedings, preference of qualified expert witness, improper removal or retained custody, determination of indigency, placement in least restrictive setting and order of preference, investigation of involuntary petition of guardianship, voluntary placement executed by both parents, termination of placement when no longer necessary, authorization of state to enter into agreement with tribes, establishment of standards and procedures for departmental review, Secretary and tribal enrollment officer to be provided with copy of final decree, publication of annual census of Indian children in department care, petition to invalidation action, severability)
 
Minnesota
Minn. Stat. § 256.01- (Commissioner of Human Services-powers and duties)
 
Minn. Stat. § 257.0651 (Children Custody- federal law applicability)
 
Minn. Stat. § 257C (De Facto Custodian and Interested Third Parties- federal law applicability)
 
Minn. Stat. §§ 259.29, 259.52, 259.57, 259.58, 259.67 (Adoption- policy, father’s adoption registry, hearing, communication or contract agreement, adoption assistance program)
 
Minn. Stat. § 260.012 (Duty to ensure placement prevention and family reunification, reasonable efforts- active efforts apply to Indian children)
 
Minn. Stat. §§ 260.751 to 260.835(Minnesota Indian Family Preservation Act-definitions, notice to tribes, voluntary foster care placement, child placement proceedings, placement records, information availability, Indian children welfare grants, eligible services, legal responsibility of local social services agencies, payments, monitoring and evaluation, advisory council)
 
Minn. Stat. §§ 260.851, 260.93 (Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children)
 
Minn. Stat. §§ 260B.007, 260B.151, 260B.163, 2 (Delinquency- definitions, notice, hearing, federal law applicability)
 
Minn. Stat. §§ 260C.001, 260C.007, 260C.101, 260C.151, 260C.151, 260C.152, 260C.163, 260C.168, 260C.175, 260C.178, 260C.193, 260C.201, 260C.212, 260C.215, 260C.301, 260D.01    (Child Protection- intent, definitions, jurisdiction, notice, hearing, federal law applicability, taking child into custody, emergency removal hearing, dispositions, children in placement, termination of parental rights, voluntary foster care for treatment)
 
Mississippi
Miss. Code Ann. § 93-27-104 (Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act- applicability to Indian tribes)
 
Missouri
Mo. Rev. Stat. § 452.715 (Child Custody- applicability of federal law)
 
Montana
Mont. Code Ann. § 40-6-405 (Newborn Protection Act- temporary protective custody)
 
Mont. Code Ann. § 41-3-109 (Child Abuse and Neglect- Proceedings subject to Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
Mont. Code Ann. §§ 41-3-205, 301, 422, 423, 427, 432, 437, 444, 609 (Child Abuse and Neglect- confidentiality disclosure exceptions, emergency protective services, burden of proof, permanency plan, service, show cause hearing-order, temporary disposition findings, appointment of guardian- financial subsidies, criteria for termination)
 
Mont. Code Ann. § 42-2-604 (Adoption- Proceedings subject to Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
Mont. Code Ann. §§ 42-4-103, 203, 209, 42-5-101, 107 (Adoption- petition for termination of parental rights, duties of placing parent, information to be filed, post placement evaluation, petition for adoption, best interest of child)
 
Mont. Code. Ann. § 52-2-117 (Child Welfare Services- Indian child welfare specialist)
 
Nebraska
Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 43-101-104, 111, 111.01, 113, 130-132, 138, 143 (Adoption- children eligible for adoption, home study, hearing notice, consent exceptions, effect as to natural parents, court powers, records, request for information, release of information)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 43-245-247, 263 (Juvenile Code- terms, Nebraska ICWA applicability, jurisdiction, summons, rights of parties)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 43-701 (Placement of Children- license)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 43-906 (Children Committed to the Department- adoption consent)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. § 43-1103 ( Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 43-1301, 1308, 1311, 1314 (Foster Care Review Act- terms, state or local board duties, person or court in charge of child, notice)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 43-1501 to 1516 (Nebraska Indian Child Welfare Act- purpose, terms, jurisdiction of tribe, transfer of proceedings, rights of the tribe, tribal proceedings, termination of parental rights procedures voluntary proceedings, petitions to invalidate actions in violation of the law, records, return of custody procedures, adopted individual access to information, agreements with state agencies, improper removal from custody,  higher federal standard for protection, emergency removal or placement of child, applicability of act, adoptive placement information made available)
 
Neb. Rev. Stat. §§ 71-1906, 1906.01 (Foster Care Licensure- Native American foster homes intent and rules and regulations)
  
New Mexico
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 24-22-1.1, 2, 5 (Safe Haven for Infants- purpose, definitions, department responsibilities)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-1-8, 14 (Children’s Code General Provision’s Act- notice to Indian tribes, tribal court jurisdiction)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. § 32A-2-32 (Delinquency Act-confidentiality of records)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-3B-16, 19, 22 (Family in Need of Court-ordered Service- dispositional judgment, periodic review of dispositional judgment, confidentiality of records)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-4-6, 18, 21, 22, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33 (Abuse and Neglect Act- taking into custody penalty, custody hearing, predisposition studies, disposition judgment, periodic review of disposition judgment, termination of parental rights, termination procedure, permanent guardianship procedure)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. § 32A-5-4 (Adoption Act- application of the federal Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-5-7, 13, 15-17, 21, 26-28, 36 (Adoption Act- clerk of court duties, request for placement, termination of parental rights, termination procedures, persons whose consent or relinquishments are required, form of consent or relinquishment, petition, form of service waiver, response to petition, disposition)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 32A-11-1 to 7 (Interstate Compact on Placement of Children)
 
N.M.  Stat. Ann. §§ 40-10B-5, 6, 8 (Kinship Guardianship- petition, notice, hearing)
 
Nevada
Nev. Rev. Stat. § 432B.397 (Protection of Children from Abuse and Neglect- inquiry to determine whether child is Indian child; report to court; training regarding requirements of ICWA)
 
North Carolina
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 143B-139.5 (Department of Health and Human services- state/county share of costs)
 
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 48-1-108 (Adoption- adoptees subject to Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
N.C. Gen. Stat. § 48-3-605 (Adoption- Execution of consent)
 
North Dakota
N.D. Cent. Code § 14-14.1-03 (Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act- applicability to Indian tribes)
 
N.D. Cent. Code § 27-20-32.3 (Uniform Juvenile Court Act- active efforts for Indian child)
 
Oklahoma
Okla. Stat. tit. 10 §§ 40.1 to 40.9 (Indian Child Welfare Act- purpose, definitions, determination of Indian status, notification, emergency removal, placement preference, agreements with Indian tribes, records)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10 § 557 (Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10 §§ 7005-1.3, 1.5 (Children’s Code- inspection of records without court order, release of records to Indian tribes)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10A §§ 1-4-813, 1-6-103, 1-7-106 (Children’s Code- post adoption agreements, inspection of records without court order, rights and duties of persons/agencies receiving custody)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10 §§ 7503-1.2, 7505-1.5, 3.1, 7510.1-2, 1-3 (Adoption- extrajudicial consent, visitation agreement, petitions for adoption, subsidized adoption programs)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10A §§ 1-1-105, 1-4-204, 1-4-707, 1-4-710 (Adoption- court proceedings definitions, placement preferences, dispositional orders, guardianship)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10 §§ 7304-1.1, 7307-1.4 (Juvenile Code- Conditions of detention, inspection of records)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 10A §§ 2-3-101, 2-6-105 (Juvenile Code- definition, disclosure of records)
 
Okla. Stat. tit. 30 § 2-117 (Oklahoma Guardianship and Conservatorship Act- qualified relative)
 
Oregon
Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 109.309, 312, 350 (Adoption- petition, consent, decree)
 
Or. Rev. Stat. § 125.025 (Protective Proceedings-court authority)
 
Or. Rev. Stat. § 418.627 (Child Welfare Services- Placement consistent with ICWA)
 
Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 419A.116, 419B.090, 118, 150, 171, 185, 192, 340, 365, 366, 452, 476, 498, 500, 875, 878, 923 (Dependency- judicial review, duty of parents and guardians, venue, authorization for protective custody, report of person taking child into custody, removal hearing, placement preferences, petition for permanent guardianship, rights of limited participation in guardianship proceeding, report to be sent to parents or tribe, powers and duties of the court, petition for termination of parental rights, parties to proceedings, notification of Indian tribe, modification of order)
 
South Carolina
S.C. Code Ann. § 27-16-80 (The Catawba Indian Claims Settlement Act- tribal court jurisdiction)
 
South Dakota
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. § 25-5A-14, 36 (Voluntary Termination of Parental Relation- due regard to the Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. § 25-6-24 (Adoption- due regard to the Indian Child Welfare Act)
 
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §§ 26-7A-2, 15.1, 15.2, 43, 44 (Juvenile Court- application of Indian Child Welfare Act, notice, required information, summons)
 
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §§ 26-8A-29.1, 32, 33 (Protection of Children from Abuse and Neglect- regard to be afforded Indian Child Welfare Act, request for hearing)
 
Tennessee
Tenn. Code Ann. § 36-1-111 (Adoption- sworn statement of compliance with ICWA)
 
Utah
Utah Code Ann. §§ 62A4a-205.1, 206 ( Child Welfare Services, prohibition of discrimination based on race, procedural due process)
 
Utah Code Ann. §§ 78-3a-307, 315 (Abuse, Neglect, and Dependency Proceeding- placement, review of foster care removal)
 
Vermont
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 15A § 1-107 (Adoption- proceedings subject to ICWA)
 
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 15A §§ 2-406, 3-304, 3-703 (Adoption- consent, petition, disposition)
 
 Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 33 § 5120 (Juvenile Proceedings- proceeding subject to ICWA)
 
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 33 § 5255, 5307 (Juvenile Proceedings- children in custody, temporary care hearing)
 
Washington
Wash Rev. Code § 13.34.040 (Juvenile Court Act- application of ICWA)
 
Wash Rev. Code §§ 13.34.132, 250 (Juvenile Court Act- termination of parent child relationship, placement preferences for Indian children)
 
Wash Rev. Code § 13.36-30 (Guardianship- application of ICWA)
 
Wash Rev. Code §§ 13.70.010, 020, 100, 110, 150 (Substitute Care of Children- review board)
 
Wash Rev. Code § 26.10.034 (Non-parental Action for Child Custody-application of ICWA)
 
Wash Rev. Code §§ 26.33.040, 045, 150,  (Adoption- application of ICWA, race consideration in placement exceptions, petition)
 
Wash Rev. Code §§ 74.13.360, 368 (Child Welfare Services- performance based contracts, contracts with tribes)
 
Wisconsin
Wis. Stat. § 46.40 (Social Services- community aid funding)
 
Wis. Stat. §§ 48.01, 28, 255, 42, 48, 977, 981 (Children’s Code- intent, custody of Indian children, petition, termination of parental rights, authority of department, appointment of guardian, abused and neglected children)
 
Wis. Stat. § 822.04 (Child Custody- application to Indian tribes)
 
Wis. Stat. §§ 938.028, 255, 355 (Juvenile Justice Code- custody of Indian children, petition, dispositional orders)
 
Wyoming
Wyo. Stat. § 14-3-412 (Child Protection Act- petition)
 
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