26 States Consider Health Compacts to Challenge Federal PPACA
Related Health Law Resources
Some state lawmakers opposed to the PPACA focused on a Supreme Court's solution, but a growing number also looked beyond the court’s decision. They have supported legislation to create interstate health compacts, aimed at giving a group of states primary responsibility for regulating health care goods and services within their boundaries (except military.) Most of the measures also include this provision: “Each Member State… may suspend by legislation the operation of all federal laws, rules, regulations, and orders regarding Health Care that are inconsistent with the laws” adopted by the member state as part of a compact. The creation of any interstate compact requires formal congressional approval - a separate step, not yet tested as applicable to health reform.
As of June 30, 2013 a total of 26 states have considered interstate compact legislation and seven states have enacted and signed statutes.1 The latest laws are in:
South Carolina - S 836, passed Senate and House, signed by the governor as Act 221, 6/21/2012. Enacts state participation in the Interstate Healthcare Compact; providing that state compact members must take action to obtain congressional consent to the compact; providing that the legislature is vested with the responsibility to regulate healthcare delivered in their state; provides for healthcare funding; also establishes the S.C. interstate advisory Health Care Commission.
Utah which enacted S 208, signed March 19, 2012. One day later, Indiana enacted H 1269, signed as Chapter 150. In 2011, four compacts were signed into law: Georgia H 461 on April 20; Oklahoma S 722 on May 18. Missouri's H 423 passed both chambers and became law without the governor's signature on July 14. An Interstate health compact bill passed the Texas legislature and was signed by the governor on July 19, 2011.
.In 2013, Utah enacted Chapter 101, which included a provision to repeal their compact by July 2014, unless an analysis was completed with details of the compact plan affecting Utah.
If the federal reform law is upheld as constitutional by the Supreme Court, sponsors of compact laws, supported by the Health Care Compact Alliance and the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), hope their states canl gain congressional approval, and can use federal funds to define their own approach, or retain existing policies.
Drafters at the Health Care Compact Alliance say it is simply "an agreement between two or more states that is consented to by Congress—that 'restores' authority and responsibility for health care regulation to the member states" and provides the funds to the states to fulfill that responsibility. States that agree to form a compact must pass identical compact language and enact separate statutes defining, or in some cases making it a crime to interfere with, health freedoms.
Vetoes: Arizona's legislature enacted S 1088 and S 1592, but Governor Brewer vetoed both in April, 2011. Her veto message stated it would result in additional fiscal challenges for the health care system and violate the state's separation of powers. Montana's H 526 passed, but was vetoed on May 12, 2011.
For 2012, Eight additional states had filed bills: Alabama, Florida, Kansas, Minnesota, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Utah (signed 3/19/12) and Virginia.
Similar bills in Colorado, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee and Washington did not pass before adjournment in 2011.
The U.S. Constitution (Article 1, Section 10) grants states the right to enter into agreements with other states for their common benefit. Historically, these compacts have been used to address common problems among states, such as border disputes, creating governmental commissions and establishing common guidelines for agencies in the member states. Any compact that increases the political power of the member states must be approved by Congress. Interstate compacts addressing criminal justice matters may be granted an exemption from Congressional approval under limited circumstances.
1 The proposed Interstate Health Compacts have no legal relation to two separate types of compacts that are authorized by the PPACA. These include basic health programs for lower-income using regional "health compacts" (in Section 1331) and "health care choice compacts" authorizing two or more states to offer state-regulated health insurance policies across state lines beginning in 2016 (in Section 1333).
Type of state legislation
States with filed legislation (Bold indicates signed laws = 7)
Interstate Health Care Compacts
+ 10 (2012) = 26
Filed in 2011: AZ, CO, GA, IN, LA, MI, MO, MT, NM, ND, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, WA
New for 2012: AL, FL, IN, KS, MN, NH, SD, UT, VA, WV
New for 2013: AZ, OH, TN, (UT=future repeal)