Childhood is an opportunity to lay a strong foundation for a lifetime of health. Children in poor health generally do less well in school, complete fewer years of school, have poorer adult health and earn less as adults. Efforts to improve children’s health can lead to significant savings by preventing the need for expensive health care in the long term. Every year, policymakers consider a range of children’s health issues, such as for genetic screening, vaccinations, injury prevention, nutrition, access to care and many more. Given the significant investment in Medicaid and Children Health Insurance Program, policymakers also want to ensure that state resources are used wisely and are used to achieve optimal health and development for children.