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Dram Shop Liability State Statutes

Dram Shop Civil Liability and Criminal Penalty State Statutes

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Updated June 14, 2013

Thirty states have statutory provisions that allow licensed establishments such as restaurants, bars, and liquor stores to be held liable for selling or serving alcohol to individuals who cause injuries or death as a result of their intoxication.

Twenty-two of the 30 states statutorily limit the liability to cases where the establishment sold or served alcohol to an obviously intoxicated individual or a person under the legal drinking age. The 22 states are Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Statutes in Louisiana exempt licensed establishments from liability except in the cases where they serve a person under the legal drinking age. Nevada and South Dakota exempt licensed establishments from liability.

NOTE:  Please note the summaries should be used for general informational purposes and are not intended as a legal reference. NCSL is unable to provide assistance, give advice or answer questions regarding individual cases. If you have questions regarding dram shop liability, please contact an attorney in your state or your state attorney general.

AL | AK | AZ | AR | CA | CO | CTDE | DC | FL | GA | GU | HI | ID | IL | INIA | KSKY | LA | ME | MD | MA | MIMN | MS | MO
MT | NE | NV | NH | NJ | NMNY | NC | ND | CNMIOH | OK | OR | PA | PRRI | SC | SD | TN | TX | UT | VA | VI | WA | WVWI | WY

 

STATES
dram shop civil liability: dram shop criminal penalty and related statutes:
Alabama
Ala. Code §6-5-71
(a) Every wife, child, parent, or other person who shall be injured in person, property, or means of support by any intoxicated person or in consequence of the intoxication of any person shall have a right of action against any person who shall, by selling, giving, or otherwise disposing of to another, contrary to the provisions of law, any liquors or beverages, cause the intoxication of such person for all damages actually sustained, as well as exemplary damages.
 
(b) Upon the death of any party, the action or right of action will survive to or against his executor or administrator.
 
(c) The party injured, or his legal representative, may commence a joint or separate action against the person intoxicated or the person who furnished the liquor, and all such claims shall be by civil action in any court having jurisdiction thereof.
Ala. Code §6-11-27
(a) A principal, employer, or other master shall not be liable for punitive damages for intentional wrongful conduct or conduct involving malice based upon acts or omissions of an agent, employee, or servant of said principal, employer, or master unless the principal, employer, or master either: (i) knew or should have known of the unfitness of the agent, employee, or servant, and employed him or continued to employ him, or used his services without proper instruction with a disregard of the rights or safety of others; or (ii) authorized the wrongful conduct; or (iii) ratified the wrongful conduct; or unless the acts of the agent, servant or employee were calculated to or did benefit the principal, employer or other master, except where the plaintiff knowingly participated with the agent, servant, or employee to commit fraud or wrongful conduct with full knowledge of the import of his act.
 
(b) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prevent recovery of punitive damages against a retail vendor of alcoholic beverages arising out of the acts of its agents, servants, or employees acting within the line and scope of their employment.
Alaska
Alaska Stat. §04.21.020
(a) Except as provided under (b) and (d) of this section, a person who provides alcoholic beverages to another person may not be held civilly liable for injuries resulting from the intoxication of that person unless the person who provides the alcoholic beverages holds a license authorized under AS 04.11.080 - 04.11.220 or is an agent or employee of such a licensee and
(1) the alcoholic beverages are provided to a person under the age of 21 years in violation of AS 04.16.051, unless the licensee, agent, or employee secures in good faith from the person a signed statement, liquor identification card, or driver's license meeting the requirements of AS 04.21.050 (a) and (b), that indicates that the person is 21 years of age or older; or
(2) the alcoholic beverages are provided to a drunken person in violation of AS 04.16.030.
 
(b) A person who sells or barters an alcoholic beverage to another person in violation of AS 04.11.010 is strictly liable (1) to the recipient or another person for civil damages if, while under the influence of the alcoholic beverage, the person receiving the alcoholic beverage engages in conduct that results in civil damages and the recipient's being under the influence of the alcoholic beverage substantially contributes to the civil damages; and (2) for the cost to the state or a political subdivision of the state to criminally prosecute a person who receives an alcoholic beverage from a person who violates AS 04.11.010 if the prosecution results from the violation of AS 04.11.010 described in this subsection.
 
(c) In an action under (b) or (d) of this section, it is not a defense that the person receiving the alcoholic beverage voluntarily consumed the alcoholic beverage or that the person receiving the alcoholic beverage was voluntarily under the influence of the alcoholic beverage.
 
(d) A person who knowingly furnishes or delivers an alcoholic beverage to a person under 21 years of age in violation of AS 04.16.051 is civilly liable to the recipient or another person for civil damages if, while under the influence of the alcoholic beverage, the person receiving the alcoholic beverage engages in conduct that results in civil damages and the recipient's being under the influence of the alcoholic beverage substantially contributes to the civil damages.
 
(e) In this section, "civil damages" includes damages for personal injury, death, or injury to property of a person, including the state or a political subdivision of the state.
Alaska Stat. §04.16.030
(a) A licensee, an agent, or employee may not with criminal negligence
(1) sell, give, or barter alcoholic beverages to a drunken person;
(2) allow another person to sell, give, or barter an alcoholic beverage to a drunken person within licensed premises;
(3) allow a drunken person to enter and remain within licensed premises or to consume an alcoholic beverage within licensed premises;
(4) permit a drunken person to sell or serve alcoholic beverages.
 
(b) A person receiving compensation for transporting alcoholic beverages may not knowingly deliver alcoholic beverages to a drunken person.
Alaska Stat. §04.21.035
Notwithstanding any other provision of AS 32.06, a partner of a limited liability partnership or a foreign limited liability partnership holding a license under this title is not relieved of the obligation or the liability otherwise imposed upon a holder of a liquor license under this title solely because the license is held by a limited liability partnership or a foreign limited liability partnership.
Alaska Stat. §04.21.080
(a) In this title,
(1) a person acts with "criminal negligence" with respect to a result or to a circumstance described by a provision of law defining an offense when the person fails to perceive a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the result will occur or that the circumstance exists; the risk must be of such a nature and degree that the failure to perceive it constitutes a gross deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would observe in the situation;
(2) a person acts "knowingly" with respect to conduct or to a circumstance described by a provision of law defining an offense when the person is aware that the person's conduct is of that nature or that the circumstance exists; when knowledge of the existence of a particular fact is an element of an offense, that knowledge is established if a person is aware of a substantial probability of its existence, unless the person actually believes it does not exist; a person who is unaware of conduct or a circumstance of which the person would have been aware had the person not been intoxicated acts knowingly with respect to that conduct or circumstance;
(3) a person acts "recklessly" with respect to a result or to a circumstance described by a provision of law defining an offense when the person is aware of and consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the result will occur or that the circumstance exists; the risk must be of such a nature and degree that disregard of it constitutes a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a reasonable person would observe in the situation; a person who is unaware of a risk of which the person would have been aware had the person not been intoxicated acts recklessly with respect to that risk.
Arizona
Ariz. Rev. Stat. §4-301 et seq.
A person other than a licensee or an employee of a licensee acting during the employee's working hours or in connection with such employment is not liable in damages to any person who is injured, or to the survivors of any person killed, or for damage to property, which is alleged to have been caused in whole or in part by reason of the furnishing or serving of spirituous liquor to a person of the legal drinking age.
 
Ariz. Rev. Stat. §4-311
A. A licensee is liable for property damage and personal injuries or is liable to a person who may bring an action for wrongful death pursuant to §12-612, or both, if a court or jury finds all of the following:
1. The licensee sold spirituous liquor either to a purchaser who was obviously intoxicated, or to a purchaser under the legal drinking age without requesting identification containing proof of age or with knowledge that the person was under the legal drinking age.
2. The purchaser consumed the spirituous liquor sold by the licensee.
3. The consumption of spirituous liquor was a proximate cause of the injury, death or property damage.
 
B. No licensee is chargeable with knowledge of previous acts by which a person becomes intoxicated at other locations unknown to the licensee unless the person was obviously intoxicated. If the licensee operates under a restaurant license, the finder of fact shall not consider any information obtained as a result of a restaurant audit conducted pursuant to §4-213 unless the court finds the information relevant.
 
C. For the purposes of subsection A, paragraph 2 of this section, if it is found that an underage person purchased spirituous liquor from a licensee and such underage person incurs or causes injuries or property damage as a result of the consumption of spirituous liquor within a reasonable period of time following the sale of the spirituous liquor, it shall create a rebuttable presumption that the underage person consumed the spirituous liquor sold to such person by the licensee.
 
D. For the purposes of this section, "obviously intoxicated" means inebriated to such an extent that a person's physical faculties are substantially impaired and the impairment is shown by significantly uncoordinated physical action or significant physical dysfunction that would have been obvious to a reasonable person.
Ariz. Rev. Stat. §4-312
A. A licensee is not liable in damages to any consumer or purchaser of spirituous liquor over the legal drinking age who is injured or whose property is damaged, or to survivors of such a person, if the injury or damage is alleged to have been caused in whole or in part by reason of the sale, furnishing or serving of spirituous liquor to that person. A licensee is not liable in damages to any other adult person who is injured or whose property is damaged, or to the survivors of such a person, who was present with the person who consumed the spirituous liquor at the time the spirituous liquor was consumed and who knew of the impaired condition of the person, if the injury or damage is alleged to have been caused in whole or in part by reason of the sale, furnishing or serving of spirituous liquor.
 
Limits on liability in Ariz. Rev. Stat. §4-312(B) declared unconstitutional by state court (see Young Through Young v. DFW Corp., 184 Ariz. 187, 908 P.2d 1, (Ariz., 1995)).
Arkansas
Ark. Stat. Ann. §16-126-103
In cases where it has been proven that an alcoholic beverage retailer knowingly sold alcoholic beverages to a minor or sold under circumstances where such retailer reasonably should have known such purchaser was a minor, a civil jury may determine whether or not such knowing sale constituted the proximate cause of any injury to such minor, or to a third person, caused by such minor.
 
Ark. Stat. Ann. §16-26-104
In cases where it has been proven that an alcoholic beverage retailer knowingly sold alcoholic beverages to a person who was clearly intoxicated at the time of such sale or sold under circumstances where the retailer reasonably should have known the person was clearly intoxicated at the time of the sale, a civil jury may determine whether or not the sale constitutes a proximate cause of any subsequent injury to other persons. For purposes of this section, a person is considered clearly intoxicated when the person is so obviously intoxicated to the extent that, at the time of such sale, he presents a clear danger to others. It shall be an affirmative defense to civil liability under this section that an alcoholic beverage retailer had a reasonable belief that the person was not clearly intoxicated at the time of such sale or that the person would not be operating a motor vehicle while in the impaired state.
Ark. Stat. Ann. §16-126-105
Except in the knowing sale of alcohol to a minor or to a clearly intoxicated person, the General Assembly hereby finds and declares that the consumption of any alcoholic beverage, rather than the furnishing of any alcoholic beverage, is the proximate cause of injuries or property damage inflicted upon persons or property by a legally intoxicated person.
California
Cal. Business & Professions Code §25602
(b) No person who sells, furnishes, gives, or causes to be sold, furnished, or given away, any alcoholic beverage pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section shall be civilly liable to any injured person or the estate of such person for injuries inflicted on that person as a result of intoxication by the consumer of such alcoholic beverage.
 
(c) The Legislature hereby declares that this section shall be interpreted so that the holdings in cases such as Vesely v. Sager (5 Cal. 3d 153), Bernhard v. Harrah’s Club (16 Cal. 3d 313) and Coulter v. Superior Court (____ Cal. 3d ____) be abrogated in favor of prior judicial interpretation finding the consumption of alcoholic beverages rather than the serving of alcoholic beverages as the proximate cause of injuries inflicted upon another by an intoxicated person.
Cal. Business & Professions Code §25602
(a) Every person who sells, furnishes, gives, or causes to be sold, furnished, or given away, any alcoholic beverage to any habitual or common drunkard or to any obviously intoxicated person is guilty of a misdemeanor.
Cal. Business & Professions Code §25602.1
Notwithstanding subdivision (b) of §25602, a cause of action may be brought by or on behalf of any person who has suffered injury or death against any person licensed, or required to be licensed, pursuant to §23300, or any person authorized by the federal government to sell alcoholic beverages on a military base or other federal enclave, who sells, furnishes, gives or causes to be sold, furnished or given away any alcoholic beverage, and any other person who sells, or causes to be sold, any alcoholic beverage, to any obviously intoxicated minor where the furnishing, sale or giving of that beverage to the minor is the proximate cause of the personal injury or death sustained by that person.
Colorado
Colo. Rev. Stat. §12-47-801
(1) The general assembly hereby finds, determines, and declares that this section shall be interpreted so that any common law cause of action against a vendor of alcohol beverages is abolished and that in certain cases the consumption of alcohol beverages rather than the sale, service, or provision thereof is the proximate cause of injuries or damages inflicted upon another by an intoxicated person except as otherwise provided in this section.
 
(2) As used in this section, "licensee" means a person licensed under the provisions of this article or article 46 or 48 of this title and the agents or servants of such person.
 
(3) (a) No licensee is civilly liable to any injured individual or his or her estate for any injury to such individual or damage to any property suffered because of the intoxication of any person due to the sale or service of any alcohol beverage to such person, except when:
(I) It is proven that the licensee willfully and knowingly sold or served any alcohol beverage to such person who was under the age of 21 years or who was visibly intoxicated; and
(II) The civil action is commenced within one year after such sale or service.
(b) No civil action may be brought pursuant to this subsection (3) by the person to whom the alcohol beverage was sold or served or by his or her estate, legal guardian, or dependent.
(c) In any civil action brought pursuant to this subsection (3), the total liability in any such action shall not exceed $150,000.
 
(4.5) An instructor or entity that complies with §18-13-122 (3) (c), C.R.S., shall not be liable for civil damages resulting from the intoxication of a minor due to the minor's unauthorized consumption of alcohol beverages during instruction in culinary arts, food service, or restaurant management pursuant to section 18-13-122 (3) (c), C.R.S.
 
(5) (a) The limitations on damages set forth in paragraph (c) of subsection (3) and paragraph (c) of subsection (4) of this section shall be adjusted for inflation as of Jan. 1, 1998, and Jan. 1, 2008. The adjustments made on Jan. 1, 1998, and Jan. 1, 2008, shall be based on the cumulative annual adjustment for inflation for each year since the effective date of the damages limitations in paragraph (c) of subsection (3) and paragraph (c) of subsection (4) of this section. The adjustments made pursuant to this paragraph (a) shall be rounded upward or downward to the nearest $10 increment.
(b) As used in this subsection (5), "inflation" means the annual percentage change in the United States department of labor, bureau of labor statistics, consumer price index for Denver-Boulder, all items, all urban consumers, or its successor index.
(c) The secretary of state shall certify the adjusted limitation on damages within 14 days after the appropriate information is available, and:
(I) The adjusted limitation on damages as of Jan. 1, 1998, shall be the limitation applicable to all claims for relief that accrue on or after Jan. 1, 1998, and before Jan. 1, 2008; and
(II) The adjusted limitation on damages as of Jan. 1, 2008, shall be the limitation applicable to all claims for relief that accrue on and after Jan. 1, 2008.
Colo. Rev. Stat. §12-47-901
(1) Except as provided in §18-13-122, C.R.S., it is unlawful for any person:
(a) To sell, serve, give away, dispose of, exchange, or deliver, or permit the sale, serving, giving, or procuring of, any alcohol beverage to a visibly intoxicated person or to a known habitual drunkard.
Colo. Rev. Stat. §13-21-103
Every husband, wife, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person who is injured in person, or property, or means of support by any intoxicated person, or in consequence of the intoxication of any person, has a right of action, in his name, against any person who, by selling or giving away intoxicating liquors to any habitual drunkard, causes the intoxication, in whole or in part, of such habitual drunkard; and all damages recovered by a minor under this section shall be paid either to the minor or to his parent, guardian, or next friend, as the court directs. The unlawful sale or giving away of intoxicating liquors works a forfeiture of all rights of the lessee or tenant under any lease or contract of rent upon the premises. No liability shall accrue against any such person as provided unless the husband, wife, child, parent, guardian, or employer first, by written or printed notice, has notified such person, or his agents or employees, not to sell or give away any intoxicating liquors to any habitual drunkard.
Connecticut
Conn. Gen. Stat. §30-102
If any person, by such person or such person’s agent, sells any alcoholic liquor to an intoxicated person, and such purchaser, in consequence of such intoxication, thereafter injures the person or property of another, such seller shall pay just damages to the person injured, up to the amount of $250,000, or to persons injured in consequence of such intoxication up to an aggregate amount of $250,000, to be recovered in an action under this section, provided the aggrieved person or persons shall give written notice to such seller of such person’s or persons’ intention to bring an action under this section. Such notice shall be given (1) within 120 days of the occurrence of such injury to person or property, or (2) in the case of the death or incapacity of any aggrieved person, within 180 days of the occurrence of such injury to person or property. Such notice shall specify the time, the date and the person to whom such sale was made, the name and address of the person injured or whose property was damaged, and the time, date and place where the injury to person or property occurred. No action under the provisions of this section shall be brought but within one year from the date of the act or omission complained of. Such injured person shall have no cause of action against such seller for negligence in the sale of alcoholic liquor to a person 21 years of age or older.
 
Delaware
  Del. Code Ann. tit. 4, §706
Any licensee, or employee of a licensee, or person in charge of a licensed premises shall refuse to sell or serve alcoholic liquors to any individual if such individual is intoxicated or appears to be intoxicated. Such licensee, employee of a licensee or person in charge of the licensed premises shall not be liable to any individual for damages claimed to arise from the refusal to sell alcoholic liquors if such refusal is based upon this section.
District of Columbia
  D.C. Code Ann. §25-781
(a) The sale or delivery of alcoholic beverages to the following persons is prohibited:
(2) An intoxicated person, or any person who appears to be intoxicated; or
(3) A person of notoriously intemperate habits.
 
(b) A retail licensee shall not permit at the licensed establishment the consumption of an alcoholic beverage by any of the following persons:
(2) An intoxicated person, or any person who appears to be intoxicated; or
(3) A person of notoriously intemperate habits.
 
(d) A licensee shall not be liable to any person for damages claimed to arise from refusal to sell an alcoholic beverage or refusal to permit the consumption of an alcoholic beverage in its establishment under the authority of this section.
 
(e) A person alleged to have violated this section may be issued a citation under §23-1110(b)(1). The person shall not be eligible to forfeit collateral.
 
(f) Upon finding that a licensee has violated subsections (a), (b), or (c) of this section in the preceding two years:
(1) Upon the 1st violation, the Board shall fine the licensee not less than $2,000, and not more than $3,000, and suspend the licensee for five consecutive days; provided, that the five-day suspension may be stayed by the Board for one year;
(2) Upon the second violation, the Board shall fine the licensee not less than $3,000, and not more than $5,000, and suspend the licensee for 10 consecutive days; provided, that the Board may stay up to six days of the 10-day suspension for one year;
(3) Upon the third violation, the Board shall fine the licensee not less than $5,000, and not more than $10,000, and suspend the licensee for 15 consecutive days, or revoke the license; provided, that the Board may stay up to five days of the 15-day suspension for one year;
(4) Upon the fourth violation, the Board may revoke the license; and
(5) The Board may revoke the license of a licensed establishment that has five or more violations of this section within a five-year period.
Florida
Fla. Stat. §768.125
A person who sells or furnishes alcoholic beverages to a person of lawful drinking age shall not thereby become liable for injury or damage caused by or resulting from the intoxication of such person, except that a person who willfully and unlawfully sells or furnishes alcoholic beverages to a person who is not of lawful drinking age or who knowingly serves a person habitually addicted to the use of any or all alcoholic beverages may become liable for injury or damage caused by or resulting from the intoxication of such minor or person.
 
Fla. Stat. §768.736
Sections 768.725 and 768.73 do not apply to any defendant who, at the time of the act or omission for which punitive damages are sought, was under the influence of any alcoholic beverage or drug to the extent that the defendant’s normal faculties were impaired, or who had a blood or breath alcohol level of 0.08 percent or higher.
Georgia
Ga. Code §51-1-18
(a) The custodial parent or parents shall have a right of action against any person who shall sell or furnish alcoholic beverages to that parent's underage child for the child's use without the permission of the child's parent.
 
Ga. Code §51-1-40
(a) The General Assembly finds and declares that the consumption of alcoholic beverages, rather than the sale or furnishing or serving of such beverages, is the proximate cause of any injury, including death and property damage, inflicted by an intoxicated person upon himself or upon another person, except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) of this Code section.
 
(b) A person who sells, furnishes, or serves alcoholic beverages to a person of lawful drinking age shall not thereby become liable for injury, death, or damage caused by or resulting from the intoxication of such person, including injury or death to other persons; provided, however, a person who willfully, knowingly, and unlawfully sells, furnishes, or serves alcoholic beverages to a person who is not of lawful drinking age, knowing that such person will soon be driving a motor vehicle, or who knowingly sells, furnishes, or serves alcoholic beverages to a person who is in a state of noticeable intoxication, knowing that such person will soon be driving a motor vehicle, may become liable for injury or damage caused by or resulting from the intoxication of such minor or person when the sale, furnishing, or serving is the proximate cause of such injury or damage. Nothing contained in this Code section shall authorize the consumer of any alcoholic beverage to recover from the provider of such alcoholic beverage for injuries or damages suffered by the consumer.
 
(c) In determining whether the sale, furnishing, or serving of alcoholic beverages to a person not of legal drinking age is done willfully, knowingly, and unlawfully as provided in subsection (b) of this Code section, evidence that the person selling, furnishing, or serving alcoholic beverages had been furnished with and acted in reliance on identification as defined in subsection (d) of Code §3-3-23 showing that the person to whom the alcoholic beverages were sold, furnished, or served was 21 years of age or older shall constitute rebuttable proof that the alcoholic beverages were not sold, furnished, or served willfully, knowingly, and unlawfully.
 
(d) No person who owns, leases, or otherwise lawfully occupies a premises, except a premises licensed for the sale of alcoholic beverages, shall be liable to any person who consumes alcoholic beverages on the premises in the absence of and without the consent of the owner, lessee, or lawful occupant or to any other person, or to the estate or survivors of either, for any injury or death suffered on or off the premises, including damage to property, caused by the intoxication of the person who consumed the alcoholic beverages.
Guam
Not specified in statute
Hawaii
Not specified in statute
Idaho
Idaho Code §23-808
(1) The legislature finds that it is not the furnishing of alcoholic beverages that is the proximate cause of injuries inflicted by intoxicated persons and it is the intent of the legislature, therefore, to limit dram shop and social host liability; provided, that the legislature finds that the furnishing of alcoholic beverages may constitute a proximate cause of injuries inflicted by intoxicated persons under the circumstances set forth in subsection (3) of this section.
 
(2) No claim or cause of action may be brought by or on behalf of any person who has suffered injury, death or other damage caused by an intoxicated person against any person who sold or otherwise furnished alcoholic beverages to the intoxicated person, except as provided in subsection (3) of this section.
 
(3) A person who has suffered injury, death or any other damage caused by an intoxicated person, may bring a claim or cause of action against any person who sold or otherwise furnished alcoholic beverages to the intoxicated person, only if:
(a) The intoxicated person was younger than the legal age for the consumption of alcoholic beverages at the time the alcoholic beverages were sold or furnished and the person who sold or furnished the alcoholic beverages knew or ought reasonably to have known at the time the alcoholic beverages were sold or furnished that the intoxicated person was younger than the legal age for consumption of the alcoholic beverages; or
(b) The intoxicated person was obviously intoxicated at the time the alcoholic beverages were sold or furnished, and the person who sold or furnished the alcoholic beverages knew or ought reasonably to have known that the intoxicated person was obviously intoxicated.
 
(4) (a) No claim or cause of action pursuant to subsection (3) of this section shall lie on behalf of the intoxicated person nor on behalf of the intoxicated person's estate or representatives.
(b) No claim or cause of action pursuant to subsection (3) of this section shall lie on behalf of a person who is a passenger in an automobile driven by an intoxicated person nor on behalf of the passenger's estate or representatives.
 
(5) No claim or cause of action may be brought under this section against a person who sold or otherwise furnished alcoholic beverages to an intoxicated person unless the person bringing the claim or cause of action notified the person who sold or otherwise furnished alcoholic beverages to the intoxicated person within 180 days from the date the claim or cause of action arose by certified mail that the claim or cause of action would be brought.
 
(6) For the purposes of this section, the term "alcoholic beverage" shall include alcoholic liquor as defined in §23-105, Idaho Code, beer as defined in §23-1001, Idaho Code, and wine as defined in §23-1303, Idaho Code.
 
Illinois
Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 235, §5/5-21
(a) Every person who is injured within this state, in person or property, by any intoxicated person has a right of action in his or her own name, severally or jointly, against any person, licensed under the laws of this state or of any other state to sell alcoholic liquor, who, by selling or giving alcoholic liquor, within or without the territorial limits of this state, causes the intoxication of such person. Any person at least 21 years of age who pays for a hotel or motel room or facility knowing that the room or facility is to be used by any person under 21 years of age for the unlawful consumption of alcoholic liquors and such consumption causes the intoxication of the person under 21 years of age, shall be liable to any person who is injured in person or property by the intoxicated person under 21 years of age. Any person owning, renting, leasing or permitting the occupation of any building or premises with knowledge that alcoholic liquors are to be sold therein, or who having leased the same for other purposes, shall knowingly permit therein the sale of any alcoholic liquors that have caused the intoxication of any person, shall be liable, severally or jointly, with the person selling or giving the liquors. However, if such building or premises belong to a minor or other person under guardianship the guardian of such person shall be held liable instead of the ward. A married woman has the same right to bring the action and to control it and the amount recovered as an unmarried woman. All damages recovered by a minor under this Act shall be paid either to the minor, or to his or her parent, guardian or next friend as the court shall direct. The unlawful sale or gift of alcoholic liquor works a forfeiture of all rights of the lessee or tenant under any lease or contract of rent upon the premises where the unlawful sale or gift takes place. All actions for damages under this Act may be by any appropriate action in the circuit court. An action shall lie for injuries to either means of support or loss of society, but not both, caused by an intoxicated person or in consequence of the intoxication of any person resulting as hereinabove set out. "Loss of society" means the mutual benefits that each family member receives from the other's continued existence, including love, affection, care, attention, companionship, comfort, guidance, and protection. "Family" includes spouse, children, parents, brothers, and sisters. The action, if the person from whom support or society was furnished is living, shall be brought by any person injured in means of support or society in his or her name for his or her benefit and the benefit of all other persons injured in means of support or society. However, any person claiming to be injured in means of support or society and not included in any action brought hereunder may join by motion made within the times herein provided for bringing such action or the personal representative of the deceased person from whom such support or society was furnished may so join. In every such action the jury shall determine the amount of damages to be recovered without regard to and with no special instructions as to the dollar limits on recovery imposed by this section. The amount recovered in every such action is for the exclusive benefit of the person injured in loss of support or society and shall be distributed to such persons in the proportions determined by the verdict rendered or judgment entered in the action. If the right of action is settled by agreement with the personal representative of a deceased person from whom support or society was furnished, the court having jurisdiction of the estate of the deceased person shall distribute the amount of the settlement to the person injured in loss of support or society in the proportion, as determined by the court, that the percentage of dependency of each such person upon the deceased person bears to the sum of the percentages of dependency of all such persons upon the deceased person. For all causes of action involving persons injured, killed, or incurring property damage before September 12, 1985, in no event shall the judgment or recovery under this Act for injury to the person or to the property of any person as hereinabove set out exceed $15,000, and recovery under this Act for loss of means of support resulting from the death or injury of any person, as hereinabove set out, shall not exceed $20,000. For all causes of action involving persons injured, killed, or incurring property damage after Sept. 12, 1985 but before July 1, 1998, in no event shall the judgment or recovery for injury to the person or property of any person exceed $30,000 for each person incurring damages, and recovery under this Act for loss of means of support resulting from the death or injury of any person shall not exceed $40,000. For all causes of action involving persons injured, killed, or incurring property damage on or after July 1, 1998, in no event shall the judgment or recovery for injury to the person or property of any person exceed $45,000 for each person incurring damages, and recovery under this Act for either loss of means of support or loss of society resulting from the death or injury of any person shall not exceed $55,000. Beginning in 1999, every January 20, these liability limits shall automatically be increased or decreased, as applicable, by a percentage equal to the percentage change in the consumer price index-u during the preceding 12-month calendar year. "Consumer price index-u" means the index published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor that measures the average change in prices of goods and services purchased by all urban consumers, United States city average, all items, 1982-84 = 100. The new amount resulting from each annual adjustment shall be determined by the Comptroller and made available via the Comptroller's official website by Jan. 31 of every year and to the chief judge of each judicial circuit. The liability limits at the time at which damages subject to such limits are awarded by final judgment or settlement shall be utilized by the courts. Nothing in this section bars any person from making separate claims which, in the aggregate, exceed any one limit where such person incurs more than one type of compensable damage, including personal injury, property damage, and loss to means of support or society. However, all persons claiming loss to means of support or society shall be limited to an aggregate recovery not to exceed the single limitation set forth herein for the death or injury of each person from whom support or society is claimed.
 
Nothing in this Act shall be construed to confer a cause of action for injuries to the person or property of the intoxicated person himself, nor shall anything in this Act be construed to confer a cause of action for loss of means of support or society on the intoxicated person himself or on any person claiming to be supported by such intoxicated person or claiming the society of such person. In conformance with the rule of statutory construction enunciated in the general Illinois saving provision in Section 4 of "An Act to revise the law in relation to the construction of the statutes", approved March 5, 1874, as amended, no amendment of this Section purporting to abolish or having the effect of abolishing a cause of action shall be applied to invalidate a cause of action accruing before its effective date, irrespective of whether the amendment was passed before or after the effective date of this amendatory Act of 1986.
 
Each action hereunder shall be barred unless commenced within one year next after the cause of action accrued.
 
However, a licensed distributor or brewer whose only connection with the furnishing of alcoholic liquor which is alleged to have caused intoxication was the furnishing or maintaining of any apparatus for the dispensing or cooling of beer is not liable under this section, and if such licensee is named as a defendant, a proper motion to dismiss shall be granted.
 
(b) Any person licensed under any state or local law to sell alcoholic liquor, whether or not a citizen or resident of this state, who in person or through an agent causes the intoxication, by the sale or gift of alcoholic liquor, of any person who, while intoxicated, causes injury to any person or property in the state of Illinois thereby submits such licensed person, and, if an individual, his or her personal representative, to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state for a cause of action arising under subsection (a) above.
 
Service of process upon any person who is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state, as provided in this subsection, may be made by personally serving the summons upon the defendant outside this state, as provided in the Code of Civil Procedure, as now or hereafter amended, with the same force and effect as though summons had been personally served within this state.
 
Only causes of action arising under subsection (a) above may be asserted against a defendant in an action in which jurisdiction over him or her is based upon this subsection.
 
Nothing herein contained limits or affects the right to serve any process in any other manner now or hereafter provided by law.
 
Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 740, §58/1 et seq.
(a) Any person at least 18 years of age who willfully supplies alcoholic liquor or illegal drugs to a person under 18 years of age and causes the impairment of such person shall be liable for death or injuries to persons or property caused by the impairment of such person.
 
(b) A person, or the surviving spouse and next of kin of any person, who is injured, in person or property, by an impaired person under the age of 18, and a person under age 18 who is injured in person or property by an impairment that was caused by alcoholic liquor or illegal drugs that were willfully supplied by a person over 18 years of age, has a right of action in his or her own name, jointly and severally, for damages (including reasonable attorney's fees and expenses) against any person: (i) who, by willfully selling, giving, or delivering alcoholic liquor or illegal drugs, causes or contributes to the impairment of the person under the age of 18; or (ii) who, by willfully permitting consumption of alcoholic liquor or illegal drugs on non-residential premises owned or controlled by the person over the age of 18, causes or contributes to the impairment of the person under the age of 18.
Indiana
Ind. Code §7.1-5-10-15.5
(a) As used in this section, "furnish" includes barter, deliver, sell, exchange, provide, or give away.
 
(b) A person who furnishes an alcoholic beverage to a person is not liable in a civil action for damages caused by the impairment or intoxication of the person who was furnished the alcoholic beverage unless:
(1) the person furnishing the alcoholic beverage had actual knowledge that the person to whom the alcoholic beverage was furnished was visibly intoxicated at the time the alcoholic beverage was furnished; and
(2) the intoxication of the person to whom the alcoholic beverage was furnished was a proximate cause of the death, injury, or damage alleged in the complaint.
 
(c) If a person who is at least 21 years of age suffers injury or death proximately caused by the person's voluntary intoxication, the: (1) person; (2) person's dependents; (3) person's personal representative; or (4) person's heirs; may not assert a claim for damages for personal injury or death against a person who furnished an alcoholic beverage that contributed to the person's intoxication, unless subsections (b)(1) and (b)(2) apply.
Ind. Code §7.1-5-10-14
It is unlawful for a permittee to sell, barter, exchange, give, provide, or furnish an alcoholic beverage to a person whom he knows to be a habitual drunkard.
Ind. Code §7.1-5-10-15
(a) It is unlawful for a person to sell, barter, deliver, or give away an alcoholic beverage to another person who is in a state of intoxication if the person knows that the other person is intoxicated.
 
(b) In any civil proceeding in which damages are sought from a permittee or a permittee's agent for the refusal to serve a person an alcoholic beverage, it is a complete defense if the permittee or agent reasonably believed that the person was intoxicated or was otherwise not entitled to be served an alcoholic beverage.
 
(c) After charges have been filed against a person for a violation of subsection (a), the prosecuting attorney shall notify the commission of the charges filed.
Iowa
Iowa Code §123.49
1. A person shall not sell, dispense, or give to an intoxicated person, or one simulating intoxication, any alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer.
a. A person other than a person required to hold a license or permit under this chapter who dispenses or gives an alcoholic beverage, wine, or beer in violation of this subsection is not civilly liable to an injured person or the estate of a person for injuries inflicted on that person as a result of intoxication by the consumer of the alcoholic beverage, wine, or beer.
b. The general assembly declares that this subsection shall be interpreted so that the holding of Clark v. Mincks, 364 N.W.2d. 226 (Iowa 1985) is abrogated in favor of prior judicial interpretation finding the consumption of alcoholic beverages, wine, or beer rather than the serving of alcoholic beverages, wine, or beer as the proximate cause of injury inflicted upon another by an intoxicated person.
 
Iowa Code §123.92
1. a. Any person who is injured in person or property or means of support by an intoxicated person or resulting from the intoxication of a person, has a right of action for all damages actually sustained, severally or jointly, against any licensee or permittee, whether or not the license or permit was issued by the division or by the licensing authority of any other state, who sold and served any beer, wine, or intoxicating liquor to the intoxicated person when the licensee or permittee knew or should have known the person was intoxicated, or who sold to and served the person to a point where the licensee or permittee knew or should have known the person would become intoxicated.
b. If the injury was caused by an intoxicated person, a permittee or licensee may establish as an affirmative defense that the intoxication did not contribute to the injurious action of the person.
Kansas
Not specified in statute
Kentucky
Ky. Rev. Stat. §413.241
2013 Chapter 121
(1) The General Assembly finds and declares that the consumption of intoxicating beverages, rather than the serving, furnishing, or sale of such beverages, is the proximate cause of any injury, including death and property damage, inflicted by an intoxicated person upon himself or another person.
 
(2) Any other law to the contrary notwithstanding, no person holding a permit under KRS Chapter 241 to 244, nor any agent, servant, or employee of the person, who sells or serves intoxicating beverages to a person over the age for the lawful purchase thereof, shall be liable to that person or to any other person or to the estate, successors, or survivors of either for any injury suffered off the premises including but not limited to wrongful death and property damage, because of the intoxication of the person to whom the intoxicating beverages were sold or served, unless a reasonable person under the same or similar circumstances should know that the person served is already intoxicated at the time of serving.
 
(3) The intoxicated person shall be primarily liable with respect to injuries suffered by third persons.
 
(4) The limitation of liability provided by this section shall not apply to any person who causes or contributes to the consumption of alcoholic beverages by force or by falsely representing that a beverage contains no alcohol.
 
(5) This section shall not apply to civil actions filed prior to July 15, 1988.
 
Louisiana
La. Rev. Stat. Ann. §9:2800.1
A. The legislature finds and declares that the consumption of intoxicating beverages, rather than the sale or serving or furnishing of such beverages, is the proximate cause of any injury, including death and property damage, inflicted by an intoxicated person upon himself or upon another person.
 
B. Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, no person holding a permit under either Chapter 1 or Chapter 2 of Title 26 of the Louisiana Revised Statutes of 1950, nor any agent, servant, or employee of such a person, who sells or serves intoxicating beverages of either high or low alcoholic content to a person over the age for the lawful purchase thereof, shall be liable to such person or to any other person or to the estate, successors, or survivors of either for any injury suffered off the premises, including wrongful death and property damage, because of the intoxication of the person to whom the intoxicating beverages were sold or served.
 
D. The insurer of the intoxicated person shall be primarily liable with respect to injuries suffered by third persons.
 
E. The limitation of liability provided by this section shall not apply to any person who causes or contributes to the consumption of alcoholic beverages by force or by falsely representing that a beverage contains no alcohol.
 
Maine
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 28-A, §2501 et seq.
1. Negligent service to a minor.  A server who negligently serves liquor to a minor is liable for damages proximately caused by that minor's consumption of the liquor.
 
2. Negligent service to a visibly intoxicated individual.  A server who negligently serves liquor to a visibly intoxicated individual is liable for damages proximately caused by that individual's consumption of the liquor.
 
3. Negligent conduct.  Service of liquor to a minor or to an intoxicated individual is negligent if the server knows or if a reasonable and prudent person in similar circumstances would know that the individual being served is a minor or is visibly intoxicated.
 
4. Server's knowledge of individual's consumption. A server is not chargeable with knowledge of an individual's consumption of liquor or other drugs off the server's premises, unless the individual's appearance and behavior, or other facts known to the server, would put a reasonable and prudent person on notice of such consumption.
 
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 28-A, §2507
1. Reckless service to a minor.  A server who recklessly provides liquor to a minor is liable for damages proximately caused by that minor's consumption of the liquor.
 
2. Reckless service to a visibly intoxicated individual.  A server who recklessly serves liquor to a visibly intoxicated individual is liable for damages proximately caused by that individual's consumption of the liquor.
 
3. Reckless conduct.  Service of liquor is reckless if a server intentionally serves liquor to an individual when the server knows that the individual being served is a minor or is visibly intoxicated and the server consciously disregards an obvious and substantial risk that serving liquor to that individual will cause physical harm to the drinker or to others. For purposes of this Act, the disregard of the risk, when viewed in light of the nature and purpose of the server's conduct and the circumstances known to the server, must involve a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a reasonable and prudent person would observe in the same situation.
 
4. Evidence of reckless conduct.  Specific serving practices that are admissible as evidence of reckless conduct include, but are not limited to, the following:
A. Active encouragement of intoxicated individuals to consume substantial amounts of liquor;
B. Service of liquor to an individual who is under 18 years of age when the server has actual or constructive knowledge of the individual's age; and
C. Service of liquor to an individual that is so continuous and excessive that it creates a substantial risk of death by alcohol poisoning.
Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. tit. 28-A, §2508
1. Damages.  Damages may be awarded for property damage, bodily injury or death proximately caused by the consumption of the liquor served by the server.
 
2. Damages under wrongful death and survival laws.  Except as otherwise provided in this Act, damages may be recovered under Title 18-A, §§2-804 and 3-817, as in other tort actions, subject to the damage limit of §2509.
Maryland
Not specified in statute
Massachusetts
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 231, §85T
In any action for personal injuries, property damage or consequential damages caused by or arising out of the negligent serving of alcohol to an intoxicated person by a licensee properly licensed under chapter 138 or by a person or entity serving alcohol as an incident of its business but for which no license is required, no such intoxicated person who causes injuries to himself, may maintain an action against the said licensee or person or entity in the absence of wilful, wanton, or reckless conduct on the part of the licensee or such person or entity.
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 138, §69
No alcoholic beverage shall be sold or delivered on any premises licensed under this chapter to an intoxicated person.
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 231, §60J
Every action for negligence in the distribution, sale or serving of alcoholic beverages to a minor or to an intoxicated person shall be commenced in the superior court department and shall proceed according to the Massachusetts Rules of Civil Procedure unless otherwise provided for by this section.
 
The plaintiff shall file, together with his complaint, or at such later time not to exceed 90 days thereafter, an affidavit setting forth sufficient facts to raise a legitimate question of liability appropriate for judicial inquiry.
Michigan
Mich. Comp. Law §436.1801 et seq.
(2) A retail licensee shall not directly, individually, or by a clerk, agent, or servant sell, furnish, or give alcoholic liquor to a minor except as otherwise provided in this act. A retail licensee shall not directly or indirectly, individually or by a clerk, agent, or servant sell, furnish, or give alcoholic liquor to a person who is visibly intoxicated.
 
(3) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an individual who suffers damage or who is personally injured by a minor or visibly intoxicated person by reason of the unlawful selling, giving, or furnishing of alcoholic liquor to the minor or visibly intoxicated person, if the unlawful sale is proven to be a proximate cause of the damage, injury, or death, or the spouse, child, parent, or guardian of that individual, shall have a right of action in his or her name against the person who by selling, giving, or furnishing the alcoholic liquor has caused or contributed to the intoxication of the person or who has caused or contributed to the damage, injury, or death. In an action pursuant to this section, the plaintiff shall have the right to recover actual damages in a sum of not less than $50 in each case in which the court or jury determines that intoxication was a proximate cause of the damage, injury, or death.
 
(4) An action under this section shall be instituted within two years after the injury or death. A plaintiff seeking damages under this section shall give written notice to all defendants within 120 days after entering an attorney-client relationship for the purpose of pursuing a claim under this section. Failure to give written notice within the time specified shall be grounds for dismissal of a claim as to any defendants that did not receive that notice unless sufficient information for determining that a retail licensee might be liable under this section was not known and could not reasonably have been known within the 120 days. In the event of the death of either party, the right of action under this section shall survive to or against his or her personal representative. In each action by a husband, wife, child, or parent, the general reputation of the relation of husband and wife or parent and child shall be prima facie evidence of the relation, and the amount recovered by either the husband, wife, parent, or child shall be his or her sole and separate property. The damages, together with the costs of the action, shall be recovered in an action under this section. If the parents of the individual who suffered damage or who was personally injured are entitled to damages under this section, the father and mother may sue separately, but recovery by 1 is a bar to action by the other.
 
(5) An action under this section against a retail licensee shall not be commenced unless the minor or the alleged intoxicated person is a named defendant in the action and is retained in the action until the litigation is concluded by trial or settlement.
 
(6) Any licensee subject to the provisions of subsection (3) regarding the unlawful selling, furnishing, or giving of alcoholic liquor to a visibly intoxicated person shall have the right to full indemnification from the alleged visibly intoxicated person for all damages awarded against the licensee.
 
(7) All defenses of the alleged visibly intoxicated person or the minor shall be available to the licensee. In an action alleging the unlawful sale of alcoholic liquor to a minor, proof that the defendant retail licensee or the defendant's agent or employee demanded and was shown a Michigan driver license or official state personal identification card, appearing to be genuine and showing that the minor was at least 21 years of age, shall be a defense to the action.
 
(8) There shall be a rebuttable presumption that a retail licensee, other than the retail licensee who last sold, gave, or furnished alcoholic liquor to the minor or the visibly intoxicated person, has not committed any act giving rise to a cause of action under subsection (3).
 
(9) The alleged visibly intoxicated person shall not have a cause of action pursuant to this section and a person shall not have a cause of action pursuant to this section for the loss of financial support, services, gifts, parental training, guidance, love, society, or companionship of the alleged visibly intoxicated person.
 
(10) This section provides the exclusive remedy for money damages against a licensee arising out of the selling, giving, or furnishing of alcoholic liquor to a minor or intoxicated person.
 
(11) Except as otherwise provided for under this section and section 815, a civil action under subsection (3) against a retail licensee shall be subject to the revised judicature act of 1961, 1961 PA 236, MCL 600.101 to 600.9947.
Mich. Comp. Law §436.1707
(1) A vendor shall not sell, serve, or furnish any alcoholic liquor to any person in an intoxicated condition.
 
(2) A licensee shall not allow a person who is in an intoxicated condition to consume alcoholic liquor on the licensed premises.
 
(3) A licensee, or the clerk, servant, agent, or employee of a licensee, shall not be in an intoxicated condition on the licensed premises.
 
(4) A licensee shall not allow an intoxicated person to frequent or loiter on the licensed premises except where the intoxicated person has been refused service of further alcoholic liquor and continues to remain on the premises for the purpose of eating food, seeking medical attention, arranging transportation that does not involve driving himself or herself, or any other circumstances where requiring the person to vacate the premises immediately would be considered dangerous to that person or to the public.
 
(5) A licensee shall not allow a minor to consume alcoholic liquor or to possess alcoholic liquor for personal consumption on the licensed premises.
Minnesota
Minn. Stat. §340A.801 et seq.
Subdivision 1. Right of action. A spouse, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person injured in person, property, or means of support, or who incurs other pecuniary loss by an intoxicated person or by the intoxication of another person, has a right of action in the person's own name for all damages sustained against a person who caused the intoxication of that person by illegally selling alcoholic beverages. All damages recovered by a minor under this section must be paid either to the minor or to the minor's parent, guardian, or next friend as the court directs.
 
Subd. 2. Actions. All suits for damages under this section must be by civil action in a court of this state having jurisdiction.
 
Subd. 3. Comparative negligence. Actions under this section are governed by §604.01.
 
Subd. 3a. Defense. The defense described in §340A.503(6) applies to actions under this section.
 
Subd. 4. Subrogation claims denied. There shall be no recovery by any insurance company against any liquor vendor under subrogation clauses of the uninsured, underinsured, collision, or other first party coverages of a motor vehicle insurance policy as a result of payments made by the company to persons who have claims that arise in whole or part under this section. The provisions of §65B.53(3) do not apply to actions under this section.
 
Subd. 5. [Repealed, 1987 c 152 art 2 s 5]
 
Subd. 6. Common law claims. Nothing in this chapter precludes common law tort claims against any person 21 years old or older who knowingly provides or furnishes alcoholic beverages to a person under the age of 21 years.
 
Mississippi
Miss. Code Ann. §67-3-73
(1) The Mississippi Legislature finds and declares that the consumption of intoxicating beverages, rather than the sale or serving or furnishing of such beverages, is the proximate cause of any injury, including death and property damage, inflicted by an intoxicated person upon himself or upon another person.
 
(2) Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, no holder of an alcoholic beverage, beer or light wine permit, or any agent or employee of such holder, who lawfully sells or serves intoxicating beverages to a person who may lawfully purchase such intoxicating beverages, shall be liable to such person or to any other person or to the estate, or survivors of either, for any injury suffered off the licensed premises, including wrongful death and property damage, because of the intoxication of the person to whom the intoxicating beverages were sold or served.
 
(4) The limitation of liability provided by this section shall not apply to any person who causes or contributes to the consumption of alcoholic beverages by force or by falsely representing that a beverage contains no alcohol, or to any holder of an alcoholic beverage, beer or light wine permit, or any agent or employee of such holder when it is shown that the person making a purchase of an alcoholic beverage was at the time of such purchase visibly intoxicated.
 
Missouri
Mo. Rev. Stat. §537.053
1. Since the repeal of the Missouri Dram Shop Act in 1934 (Laws of 1933-34, extra session, page 77), it has been and continues to be the policy of this state to follow the common law of England, as declared in §1.010, to prohibit dram shop liability and to follow the common law rule that furnishing alcoholic beverages is not the proximate cause of injuries inflicted by intoxicated persons.
 
2. Notwithstanding subsection 1 of this section, a cause of action may be brought by or on behalf of any person who has suffered personal injury or death against any person licensed to sell intoxicating liquor by the drink for consumption on the premises when it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that the seller knew or should have known that intoxicating liquor was served to a person under the age of 21 years or knowingly served intoxicating liquor to a visibly intoxicated person.
 
3. For purposes of this section, a person is "visibly intoxicated" when inebriated to such an extent that the impairment is shown by significantly uncoordinated physical action or significant physical dysfunction. A person's blood alcohol content does not constitute prima facie evidence to establish that a person is visibly intoxicated within the meaning of this section, but may be admissible as relevant evidence of the person's intoxication.
 
4. Nothing in this section shall be interpreted to provide a right of recovery to a person who suffers injury or death proximately caused by the person's voluntary intoxication unless the person is under the age of 21 years. No person over the age of 21 years or their dependents, personal representative, and heirs may assert a claim for damages for personal injury or death against a seller of intoxicating liquor by the drink for consumption on the premises arising out of the person's voluntary intoxication.
 
5. In an action brought pursuant to subsection 2 of this section alleging the sale of intoxicating liquor by the drink for consumption on the premises to a person under the age of 21 years, proof that the seller or the seller's agent or employee demanded and was shown a driver's license or official state or federal personal identification card, appearing to be genuine and showing that the minor was at least 21 years of age, shall be relevant in determining the relative fault of the seller or seller's agent or employee in the action.
 
6. No employer may discharge his or her employee for refusing service to a visibly intoxicated person.
Mo. Rev. Stat. §311.310
1. Any licensee under this chapter, or his employee, who shall sell, vend, give away or otherwise supply any intoxicating liquor in any quantity whatsoever to any person under the age of 21 years, or to any person intoxicated or appearing to be in a state of intoxication, or to a habitual drunkard, and any person whomsoever except his parent or guardian who shall procure for, sell, give away or otherwise supply intoxicating liquor to any person under the age of 21 years, or to any intoxicated person or any person appearing to be in a state of intoxication, or to a habitual drunkard, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, except that this section shall not apply to the supplying of intoxicating liquor to a person under the age of 21 years for medical purposes only, or to the administering of such intoxicating liquor to any person by a duly licensed physician. No person shall be denied a license or renewal of a license issued under this chapter solely due to a conviction for unlawful sale or supply to a minor when serving in the capacity as an employee of a licensed establishment.
Montana
Mont. Code Ann. §27-1-710
(1) The purpose of this section is to set statutory criteria governing the liability of a person or entity that furnishes an alcoholic beverage for injury or damage arising from an event involving the person who consumed the beverage.
 
(2) Except as provided in §16-6-305, a person or entity furnishing an alcoholic beverage may not be found liable for injury or damage arising from an event involving the consumer wholly or partially on the basis of a provision or a violation of a provision of Title 16.
 
(3) Furnishing a person with an alcoholic beverage is not a cause of, or grounds for finding the furnishing person or entity liable for, injury or damage wholly or partly arising from an event involving the person who consumed the beverage unless:
(a) the consumer was under the legal drinking age and the furnishing person knew that the consumer was underage or did not make a reasonable attempt to determine the consumer's age;
(b) the consumer was visibly intoxicated; or
(c) the furnishing person forced or coerced the consumption or told the consumer that the beverage contained no alcohol.
 
(4) A jury or trier of fact may consider the consumption of an alcoholic beverage in addition to the sale, service, or provision of the alcoholic beverage in determining the cause of injuries or damages inflicted upon another by the consumer.
 
(5) A civil action may not be brought pursuant to subsection (3) by the consumer or by the consumer's estate, legal guardian, or dependent unless:
(a) the consumer was under the legal age and the furnishing person knew or should have known that the consumer was under age; or
(b) the furnishing person forced or coerced the consumption or told the consumer that the beverage contained no alcohol while knowing that it did contain alcohol.
 
(6) A civil action may not be commenced under this section against a person who furnished alcohol unless the person bringing the civil action provides notice of an intent to file the action to the person who furnished the alcohol by certified mail within 180 days from the date of sale or service. The civil action must be commenced pursuant to this section within two years after the sale or service.
 
(7) In any civil action brought pursuant to this section, the total liability for noneconomic damages may not exceed $250,000.
 
(8) In any civil action brought pursuant to this section, the total liability for punitive damages may not exceed $250,000.
 
(9) Evidence of intentional or criminal activity by a person causing injury in connection with any event or injury commenced pursuant to this part is admissible in any action brought pursuant to this section.
 
Nebraska
Neb. Rev. Stat. §53-401 et seq.
Any person who sustains injury or property damage, or the estate of any person killed, as a proximate result of the negligence of an intoxicated minor shall have, in addition to any other cause of action available in tort, a cause of action against:
(3) Any retailer who sold alcoholic liquor to the minor. The absolute defenses found in §53-180.07 shall be available to a retailer in any cause of action brought under this section.
 
Nevada
Nev. Rev. Stat. §41.1305
1. A person who serves, sells or otherwise furnishes an alcoholic beverage to another person who is 21 years of age or older is not liable in a civil action for any damages caused by the person to whom the alcoholic beverage was served, sold or furnished as a result of the consumption of the alcoholic beverage.
 
New Hampshire
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §507-F:1 et seq.
I. A defendant who negligently serves alcoholic beverages to a minor or to an intoxicated person is liable for resulting damages, subject to the provisions of this chapter.
 
II. Service of alcoholic beverages to a minor or to an intoxicated person is negligent if the defendant knows or if a reasonably prudent person in like circumstances would know that the person being served is a minor or is intoxicated.
 
III. Proof of service of alcoholic beverages to a minor without request for proof of age as required by RSA 179:8 shall be admissible as evidence of negligence.
 
IV. Service of alcoholic beverages by a defendant to an adult person who subsequently serves a minor off the premises or who is legally permitted to serve a minor does not constitute service to the minor unless a reasonably prudent person in like circumstances would know that such subsequent service is reasonably likely to occur and is illegal.
 
V. A defendant does not have a duty to investigate whether a person being served alcoholic beverages intends to serve the alcoholic beverages to other persons off the premises.
 
VI. A defendant is not chargeable with knowledge of a person's consumption of alcoholic beverages or other drugs off the defendant's premises, when the person misrepresents such consumption or the amount of such consumption, unless the defendant's service to such person qualifies as reckless under RSA 507-F:5.
 
VII. A defendant is not under a duty to recognize signs of a person's intoxication other than those normally associated with the consumption of alcoholic beverages except for intoxication resulting in whole or in part from other drugs consumed on defendant's premises with defendant's actual or constructive knowledge.
 
N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §507-F:5
I. A person who becomes intoxicated may bring an action against a defendant for serving alcoholic beverages only when the server of such beverages is reckless. The service of alcoholic beverages is reckless when a defendant intentionally serves alcoholic beverages to a person when the server knows, or a reasonable person in his position should have known, that such service creates an unreasonable risk of physical harm to the drinker or to others that is substantially greater than that which is necessary to make his conduct negligent.
 
II. A defendant who recklessly provides alcoholic beverages to another is liable for resulting damages.
 
III. Specific serving practices that are admissible as evidence of reckless conduct include, but are not limited to, the following:
(a) Active encouragement of intoxicated persons to consume substantial amounts of alcoholic beverages.
(b) Service of alcoholic beverages to a person, 16 years of age or under, when the server knows or should reasonably know the patron's age.
(c) Service of alcoholic beverages to a patron that is so continuous and excessive that it creates a substantial risk of death by alcohol poisoning.
(d) The active assistance by a defendant of a patron into a motor vehicle when the patron is so intoxicated that such assistance is required, and the defendant knows or should know that the intoxicated person intends to operate the motor vehicle.
New Jersey
N.J. Rev. Stat. §2A:22A-1 et seq.
This act shall be the exclusive civil remedy for personal injury or property damage resulting from the negligent service of alcoholic beverages by a licensed alcoholic beverage server.  Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit the criminal, quasi-criminal, or regulatory penalties which may be imposed upon a licensed alcoholic beverage server by any other statute, rule or regulation.
 
N.J. Rev. Stat. §2A:22A-4
a. A person who sustains personal injury or property damage as a result of the negligent service of alcoholic beverages by a licensed alcoholic beverage server may recover damages from a licensed alcoholic beverage server only if:
(1) The server is deemed negligent pursuant to subsection b. of this section; and
(2) The injury or damage was proximately caused by the negligent service of alcoholic beverages; and
(3) The injury or damage was a foreseeable consequence of the negligent service of alcoholic beverages.
 
b. A licensed alcoholic beverage server shall be deemed to have been negligent only when the server served a visibly intoxicated person, or served a minor, under circumstances where the server knew, or reasonably should have known, that the person served was a minor.
New Mexico
N.M. Stat. Ann. §41-11-1
A. No civil liability shall be predicated upon the breach of §60-7A-16 NMSA 1978 by a licensee, except in the case of the licensee who:
(1) sold or served alcohol to a person who was intoxicated;
(2) it was reasonably apparent to the licensee that the person buying or apparently receiving service of alcoholic beverages was intoxicated; and
(3) the licensee knew from the circumstances that the person buying or receiving service of alcoholic beverages was intoxicated.
 
B. No person who was sold or served alcoholic beverages while intoxicated shall be entitled to collect any damages or obtain any other relief against the licensee who sold or served the alcoholic beverages unless the licensee is determined to have acted with gross negligence and reckless disregard for the safety of the person who purchased or was served the alcoholic beverages.
 
C. No licensee is chargeable with knowledge of previous acts by which a person becomes intoxicated at other locations unknown to the licensee.
 
D. As used in this section:
(1) "licensee" means a person licensed under the provisions of the Liquor Control Act and the agents or servants of the licensee; and
(2) "intoxicated" means the impairment of a person's mental and physical faculties as a result of alcoholic beverage use so as to substantially diminish that person's ability to think and act in a manner in which an ordinary [ordinarily] prudent person, in full possession of his faculties, would think and act under like circumstances.
 
F. A licensee may be civilly liable for the negligent violation of §§60-7B-1 and 60-7B-1.1 NMSA 1978. The fact-finder shall consider all the circumstances of the sale in determining whether there is negligence such as the representation used to obtain the alcoholic beverage. It shall not be negligence per se to violate §§60-7B-1 and 60-7B-1.1 NMSA 1978.
 
G. A licensee shall not be held civilly liable pursuant to the provisions of Subsection F of this section except when:
(1) it is demonstrated by the preponderance of the evidence that the licensee knew, or that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would have known, that the person who received the alcoholic beverages was a minor; and
(2) licensee's violation of §§60-7B-1 or 60-7B-1.1 NMSA 1978 was a proximate cause of the plaintiff 's injury, death or property damage.
 
H. No person may seek relief in a civil claim against a licensee or a social host for injury or death or damage to property which was proximately caused by the sale, service or provision of alcoholic beverages except as provided in this section.
 
I. Liability arising under this section shall not exceed $50,000 for bodily injury to or death of one person in each transaction or occurrence or, subject to that limitation for one person, $100,000 for bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in each transaction or occurrence, and $20,000 for property damage in each transaction or occurrence.
N.M. Stat. Ann. §60-7A-16
It is a violation of the Liquor Control Act [60-3A-1 NMSA 1978] for a person to sell or serve alcoholic beverages to or to procure or aid in the procurement of alcoholic beverages for an intoxicated person if the person selling, serving, procuring or aiding in procurement, knows or has reason to know that he is selling, serving, procuring or aiding in procurement of alcoholic beverages for a person that is intoxicated.
N.M. Stat. Ann. §60-7B-1
A. It is a violation of the Liquor Control Act [60-3A-1 NMSA 1978] for a person, including a person licensed pursuant to the provisions of the Liquor Control Act, or an employee, agent or lessee of that person, if he knows or has reason to know that he is violating the provisions of this section, to:
(1) sell, serve or give alcoholic beverages to a minor or permit a minor to consume alcoholic beverages on the licensed premises
(2) buy alcoholic beverages for or procure the sale or service of alcoholic beverages to a minor;
(3) deliver alcoholic beverages to a minor; or
(4) aid or assist a minor to buy, procure or be served with alcoholic beverages.
 
F. In addition to the penalties provided in §60-6C-1 NMSA 1978, a violation of the provisions of Subsection A of this section is a fourth degree felony and the offender shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of §31-18-15 NMSA 1978.
New York
N.Y. General Obligations Law §11-100
1. Any person who shall be injured in person, property, means of support or otherwise, by reason of the intoxication or impairment of ability of any person under the age of 21 years, whether resulting in his death or not, shall have a right of action to recover actual damages against any person who knowingly causes such intoxication or impairment of ability by unlawfully furnishing to or unlawfully assisting in procuring alcoholic beverages for such person with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that such person was under the age of 21 years.
 
2. In case of the death of either party, the action or right of action established by the provisions of this section shall survive to or against his or her executor or administrator, and the amount so recovered by either a husband, wife or child shall be his or her sole and separate property.
 
3. Such action may be brought in any court of competent jurisdiction.
 
4. In any case where parents shall be entitled to such damages, either of such parents may bring an action therefor; but that recovery by either one of such parties shall constitute a bar to suit brought by the other.
 
N.Y. General Obligations Law §11-101
1. Any person who shall be injured in person, property, means of support, or otherwise by any intoxicated person, or by reason of the intoxication of any person, whether resulting in his death or not, shall have a right of action against any person who shall, by unlawful selling to or unlawfully assisting in procuring liquor for such intoxicated person, have caused or contributed to such intoxication; and in any such action such person shall have a right to recover actual and exemplary damages.
 
2. In case of the death of either party, the action or right of action given by this section shall survive to or against his or her executor or administrator, and the amount so recovered by either a husband, wife or child shall be his or her sole and separate property.
 
3. Such action may be brought in any court of competent jurisdiction.
 
4. In any case where parents shall be entitled to such damages, either the father or mother may sue alone therefor, but recovery by one of such parties shall be a bar to suit brought by the other.
North Carolina
N.C. Gen. Stat. §18B-120 et seq.
An aggrieved party has a claim for relief for damages against a permittee or local Alcoholic Beverage Control Board if:
(1) The permittee or his agent or employee or the local board or its agent or employee negligently sold or furnished an alcoholic beverage to an underage person; and
(2) The consumption of the alcoholic beverage that was sold or furnished to an underage person caused or contributed to, in whole or in part, an underage driver's being subject to an impairing substance within the meaning of G.S. 20-138.1 at the time of the injury; and
(3) The injury that resulted was proximately caused by the underage driver's negligent operation of a vehicle while so impaired.
 
N.C. Gen. Stat. §18B-123
The total amount of damages that may be awarded to all aggrieved parties pursuant to any claims for relief under this Article is limited to no more than $500,000 per occurrence. When all claims arising out of an occurrence exceed $500,000, each claim shall abate in the proportion it bears to the total of all claims.
North Dakota
N.D. Cent. Code §5-01-06.1
Every spouse, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person who is injured by any obviously intoxicated person has a claim for relief for fault under §32-03.2-02 against any person who knowingly disposes, sells, barters, or gives away alcoholic beverages to a person under 21 years of age, an incompetent, or an obviously intoxicated person, and if death ensues, the survivors of the decedent are entitled to damages defined in §32-21-02. No claim for relief pursuant to this section may be had on behalf of the intoxicated person nor on behalf of the intoxicated person's estate or personal representatives, nor may a claim for relief be had on behalf of an adult passenger in an automobile driven by an intoxicated person or on behalf of the passenger's estate or personal representatives.
 
N. Mariana Islands Statutes unavailable
Ohio
Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §4399.02 et seq.
The owner of a building or premises, and the person renting or leasing them, if the owner or person knows that intoxicating liquors are to be sold in the building or premises in violation of law is severally or jointly liable with the person selling the intoxicating liquors for all damages sustained, as well as exemplary damages.
 
Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §4399.18
Notwithstanding division (A) of §2307.60 of the Revised Code and except as otherwise provided in this section, no person, and no executor or administrator of the person, who suffers personal injury, death, or property damage as a result of the actions of an intoxicated person has a cause of action against any liquor permit holder or an employee of a liquor permit holder who sold beer or intoxicating liquor to the intoxicated person unless the personal injury, death, or property damage occurred on the permit holder's premises or in a parking lot under the control of the permit holder and was proximately caused by the negligence of the permit holder or an employee of the permit holder. A person has a cause of action against a permit holder or an employee of a permit holder for personal injury, death, or property damage caused by the negligent actions of an intoxicated person occurring off the premises or away from a parking lot under the permit holder's control only when both of the following can be shown by a preponderance of the evidence:
(A) The permit holder or an employee of the permit holder knowingly sold an intoxicating beverage to at least one of the following:
(1) A noticeably intoxicated person in violation of division (B) of §4301.22 of the Revised Code;
(2) A person in violation of §4301.69 of the Revised Code.
(B) The person's intoxication proximately caused the personal injury, death, or property damage.
 
Notwithstanding §§4399.02 and 4399.05 of the Revised Code, no person, and no executor or administrator of the person, who suffers personal injury, death, or property damage as a result of the actions of an intoxicated person has a cause of action against the owner of a building or premises who rents or leases the building or premises to a liquor permit holder against whom a cause of action may be brought under this section, except when the owner and the permit holder are the same person.
Oklahoma
Not specified in statute
Oregon
Or. Rev. Stat. §471-565
(1) A patron or guest who voluntarily consumes alcoholic beverages served by a person licensed by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission, a person holding a permit issued by the commission or a social host does not have a cause of action, based on statute or common law, against the person serving the alcoholic beverages, even though the alcoholic beverages are served to the patron or guest while the patron or guest is visibly intoxicated. The provisions of this subsection apply only to claims for relief based on injury, death or damages caused by intoxication and do not apply to claims for relief based on injury, death or damages caused by negligent or intentional acts other than the service of alcoholic beverages to a visibly intoxicated patron or guest.
 
(2) A person licensed by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission, person holding a permit issued by the commission or social host is not liable for damages caused by intoxicated patrons or guests unless the plaintiff proves by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The licensee, permittee or social host served or provided alcoholic beverages to the patron or guest while the patron or guest was visibly intoxicated; and
(b) The plaintiff did not substantially contribute to the intoxication of the patron or guest by: (A) Providing or furnishing alcoholic beverages to the patron or guest; (B) Encouraging the patron or guest to consume or purchase alcoholic beverages or in any other manner; or (C) Facilitating the consumption of alcoholic beverages by the patron or guest in any manner.
 
(3) Except as provided in subsection (4) of this section, an action for damages caused by intoxicated patrons or guests off the premises of a person licensed by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission, a person holding a permit issued by the commission or a social host may be brought only if the person asserting the claim has given the licensee, permittee or social host the notice required by subsection (5) of this section within the following time periods:
(a) If a claim is made for damages arising out of wrongful death, notice must be given within one year after the date of death, or within one year after the date that the person asserting the claim discovers or reasonably should have discovered the existence of a claim under this section, whichever is later.
(b) If a claim is made for damages for injuries other than wrongful death, notice must be given within 180 days after the injury occurs, or within 180 days after the person asserting the claim discovers or reasonably should have discovered the existence of a claim under this section, whichever is later.
 
(4) The time provided for the giving of notice under subsection (3) of this section does not include any period during which:
(a) The claimant is under 18 years of age;
(b) The claimant is unable to give notice by reason of the injury or by reason of being financially incapable, as defined in ORS 125.005, or is incapacitated, as defined in ORS 125.005; or
(c) The claimant is unable to determine that the licensee, permittee or social host is liable because the patron or guest who caused the damages asserts a right against self-incrimination and cannot be compelled to reveal the identity of the licensee, permittee or social host, or cannot be compelled to reveal facts that would establish the liability of the licensee, permittee or social host.
 
(5) A licensee, permittee or social host shall be considered to have been given notice for the purposes of this section if:
(a) The licensee, permittee or social host is given formal notice in the manner specified in subsection (6) of this section;
(b) The licensee, permittee or social host receives actual notice as described in subsection (7) of this section;
(c) An action is commenced by or on behalf of the claimant within the period of time specified by subsections (3) and (4) of this section; or
(d) Any payment on the claim is made to the claimant by or on behalf of the licensee, permittee or social host.
 
(6) Formal notice of a claim subject to this section must be in writing, must be mailed to the licensee, permittee or social host, or personally served on the licensee, permittee or social host, and must contain all of the following:
(a) A statement that a claim for damages is made against the licensee, permittee or social host.
(b) A description of the time, place and circumstances giving rise to the claim, so far as known to the claimant.
(c) The name of the claimant and mailing address for the claimant to which correspondence regarding the claim may be mailed.
 
(7) For the purposes of this section, “actual notice” means any communication to a licensee, permittee or social host that gives the licensee, permittee or social host actual knowledge of the time, place and circumstances of the claim, if the communication is such that a reasonable person would conclude that a particular person intends to assert a claim against the licensee, permittee or social host.
Or. Rev. Stat. §471.186
(7) Any person who knowingly or negligently delivers wine or cider under the provisions of this section to a person under 21 years of age, or who knowingly or negligently delivers wine or cider under the provisions of this section to a visibly intoxicated person, violates ORS 471.410.
Or. Rev. Stat. §471.567
(1) Notwithstanding ORS 471.130 and 471.565, no licensee, permittee or social host shall be liable to third persons injured by or through persons under the age of 21 years who obtained alcoholic beverages from the licensee, permittee or social host unless it is demonstrated that a reasonable person would have determined that identification should have been requested or that the identification exhibited was altered or did not accurately describe the person to whom the alcoholic liquor was sold or served.
Or. Rev. Stat. §471.410 et seq.
(1) A person may not sell, give or otherwise make available any alcoholic liquor to any person who is visibly intoxicated.
Pennsylvania
Pa. Stat. tit. 47, §4-497
No licensee shall be liable to third persons on account of damages inflicted upon them off of the licensed premises by customers of the licensee unless the customer who inflicts the damages was sold, furnished or given liquor or malt or brewed beverages by the said licensee or his agent, servant or employee when the said customer was visibly intoxicated.
Pa. Stat. tit. 47, §4-493
It shall be unlawful--
(1) Furnishing liquor or malt or brewed beverages to certain persons. For any licensee or the board, or any employee, servant or agent of such licensee or of the board, or any other person, to sell, furnish or give any liquor or malt or brewed beverages, or to permit any liquor or malt or brewed beverages to be sold, furnished or given, to any person visibly intoxicated, or to any minor: Provided further, That notwithstanding any other provision of law, no cause of action will exist against a licensee or the board or any employee, servant or agent of such licensee or the board for selling, furnishing or giving any liquor or malt or brewed beverages or permitting any liquor or malt or brewed beverages to be sold, furnished or given to any insane person, any habitual drunkard or person of known intemperate habits unless the person sold, furnished or given alcohol is visibly intoxicated or is a minor.
Puerto Rico
Not specified in statute
Rhode Island
R.I. Gen. Laws §3-11-2
The husband, wife, parent, child, guardian, or employer of any person who has the habit of drinking intoxicating beverages to excess may give notice, in writing, signed by him or her, to any person requesting him or her not to sell or deliver intoxicating beverage to the person having that habit. If the person, so notified, at any time within 12 months sells or delivers any intoxicating beverage to the person having that habit, or permits that person to loiter on his or her premises, the person giving the notice may in a civil action recover from the person notified any sum as may be assessed as damages; provided, the employer giving the notice shall be injured in his or her person, business or property. A married person may bring the action in his or her own name, and all damages recovered by him or her shall enure to his or her separate use. In case of the death of either party, the action and right of action shall survive to or against the executor or administrator.
 
R.I. Gen. Laws §3-14-1 et seq.
(a) A defendant, as described in §3-14-5, who negligently serves liquor to a minor is liable for damages proximately caused by the minor's consumption of the liquor.
 
(b) A defendant, as defined in §3-14-5, who negligently serves liquor to a visibly intoxicated individual is liable for damages proximately caused by the individual's consumption of the liquor.
 
(c) Service of liquor to a minor or to an intoxicated individual is negligent if the defendant knows, or if a reasonable and prudent person in similar circumstances would know that the individual being served is a minor or is visibly intoxicated.
 
(d) A defendant is not chargeable with knowledge of an individual's consumption of liquor or other drugs off the defendant's premises unless the individual's appearance and behavior, or other facts known to the defendant, would put a reasonable and prudent person on notice of that consumption.
 
(e) Proof of service of alcoholic beverages to a person under 21 years of age without request for identification forms a rebuttable presumption of negligence.
R.I. Gen. Laws §3-14-7
(a) A defendant, as defined in §3-14-5, who recklessly provides liquor to a minor is liable for damages proximately caused by that minor's consumption of the liquor.
 
(b) A defendant, as defined in §3-14-5, who recklessly serves liquor to a visibly intoxicated individual is liable for damages proximately caused by that individual's consumption of the liquor.
 
(c) Service of liquor is reckless if a defendant intentionally serves liquor to an individual when the server knows that the individual being served is a minor or is visibly intoxicated, and the server consciously disregards an obvious and substantial risk that serving liquor to that individual will cause physical harm to the drinker or to others.
 
(2) For the purposes of this chapter, the disregard of the risk, when viewed in light of the nature and purpose of the server's conduct and the circumstances known to him or her, must involve a gross deviation from the standard of conduct that a reasonable and prudent person would observe in the same situation.
 
(d) Specific serving practices that are admissible as evidence of reckless conduct include, but are not limited to, the following:
(1) Active encouragement of intoxicated individuals to consume substantial amounts of liquor;
(2) Service of liquor to an individual who is under 21 years old when the server has actual or constructive knowledge of the individual's age; and
(3) Service of liquor to an individual that is so continuous and excessive that it creates a substantial risk of death by alcohol poisoning.
R.I. Gen. Laws §3-14-8
(a) Damages may be awarded for all injuries recognized under Rhode Island common or statutory law.
 
(b) Punitive damages may be awarded in all actions based on reckless conduct, as set forth in §3-14-7(c). Punitive damages may not be awarded for actions based on negligent conduct, as set forth in §3-14-6(c).
 
(c) Damages may be recovered under chapter 7 of title 10 and §10-7-8, as in other tort actions.
South Carolina
Not specified in statute
South Dakota
 S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-4-78
However, no licensee is civilly liable to any injured person or the injured person's estate for any injury suffered, including any action for wrongful death, or property damage suffered because of the intoxication of any person due to the sale or consumption of any alcoholic beverage in violation of the provisions of this section.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-4-78
No licensee may sell any alcoholic beverage to any person who is obviously intoxicated at the time. A violation of this section is a Class 1 misdemeanor.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-9-1
However, no licensee is civilly liable to any injured person or the injured person's estate for any injury suffered, including any action for wrongful death, or property damage suffered because of the sale or consumption of any alcoholic beverage in violation of the provisions of this section.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-9-1
It is a Class 1 misdemeanor to sell or give for use as a beverage any alcoholic beverage to any person under the age of 18 years unless:
(1) It is done in the immediate presence of a parent or guardian or spouse, who is at least 21 years of age, while not on the premises of an establishment licensed for the retail sale of alcoholic beverages pursuant to §35-4-2 or at a special event for which an alcoholic beverage license has been issued; or
(2) It is done by prescription or direction of a duly licensed practitioner or nurse of the healing arts for medicinal purposes.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-9-1.1
However, no licensee is civilly liable to any injured person or the injured person's estate for any injury suffered, including any action for wrongful death, or property damage suffered because of the sale or consumption of any alcoholic beverage in violation of the provisions of this section.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-9-1.1
It is a Class 2 misdemeanor to sell or give for use as a beverage any alcoholic beverage to any person who is 18 years of age or older but less than 21 years of age unless it is done in the immediate presence of a parent or guardian or spouse over 21 years of age or by prescription or direction of a duly licensed practitioner or nurse of the healing arts for medicinal purposes.
S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §35-11-1 et seq.
The Legislature finds that the consumption of alcoholic beverages, rather than the serving of alcoholic beverages, is the proximate cause of any injury inflicted upon another by an intoxicated person. Therefore, the rule in Walz v. City of Hudson, 327 N.W. 2nd 120 (S.D. 1982) is hereby abrogated.
Tennessee
Tenn. Code Ann. §57-10-101
The General Assembly hereby finds and declares that the consumption of any alcoholic beverage or beer rather than the furnishing of any alcoholic beverage or beer is the proximate cause of injuries inflicted upon another by an intoxicated person.
 
Tenn. Code Ann. §57-10-102
Notwithstanding the provisions of §57-10-101, no judge or jury may pronounce a judgment awarding damages to or on behalf of any party who has suffered personal injury or death against any person who has sold any alcoholic beverage or beer, unless such jury of 12 persons has first ascertained beyond a reasonable doubt that the sale by such person of the alcoholic beverage or beer was the proximate cause of the personal injury or death sustained and that such person:
(1) Sold the alcoholic beverage or beer to a person known to be under the age of 21 years and such person caused the personal injury or death as the direct result of the consumption of the alcoholic beverage or beer so sold; or
(2) Sold the alcoholic beverage or beer to a visibly intoxicated person and such person caused the personal injury or death as the direct result of the consumption of the alcoholic beverage or beer so sold.
Texas
Tex. Alcoholic Beverage Code Ann. §2.01 et seq.
(a) This chapter does not affect the right of any person to bring a common law cause of action against any individual whose consumption of an alcoholic beverage allegedly resulted in causing the person bringing the suit to suffer personal injury or property damage.
 
(b) Providing, selling, or serving an alcoholic beverage may be made the basis of a statutory cause of action under this chapter and may be made the basis of a revocation proceeding under §6.01(b) of this code upon proof that:
(1) at the time the provision occurred it was apparent to the provider that the individual being sold, served, or provided with an alcoholic beverage was obviously intoxicated to the extent that he presented a clear danger to himself and others;  and
(2) the intoxication of the recipient of the alcoholic beverage was a proximate cause of the damages suffered.
 
(c) An adult 21 years of age or older is liable for damages proximately caused by the intoxication of a minor under the age of 18 if:
(1) the adult is not: (A) the minor's parent, guardian, or spouse; or (B) an adult in whose custody the minor has been committed by a court; and
(2) the adult knowingly: (A) served or provided to the minor any of the alcoholic beverages that contributed to the minor's intoxication; or (B) allowed the minor to be served or provided any of the alcoholic beverages that contributed to the minor's intoxication on the premises owned or leased by the adult.
 
Tex. Alcoholic Beverage Code Ann. §2.03
(a) The liability of providers under this chapter for the actions of their employees, customers, members, or guests who are or become intoxicated is in lieu of common law or other statutory law warranties and duties of providers of alcoholic beverages.
 
(b) This chapter does not impose obligations on a provider of alcoholic beverages other than those expressly stated in this chapter.
 
(c) This chapter provides the exclusive cause of action for providing an alcoholic beverage to a person 18 years of age or older.
Tex. Alcoholic Beverage Code Ann. §6.05
A corporation with an ownership interest in a corporation holding a permit under §6.03(k) of this code and which shares space, employees, business facilities, or services is subject to liability under Chapter 2 of this code.
Utah
Utah Code Ann. §32B-15-201
(1) (a) Except as provided in §§32B-15-202(2) and (3), a person described in Subsection (1)(b) is liable for:
(i) any and all injury and damage, except punitive damages to: (A) a third person; or (B) the heir, as defined in §78B-3-105, of that third person; or
(ii) the death of a third person.
(b) A person is liable under Subsection (1)(a) if:
(i) the person directly gives, sells, or otherwise provides an alcoholic product: (A) to a person described in Subsection (1)(b)(ii); and (B) as part of the commercial sale, storage, service, manufacture, distribution, or consumption of an alcoholic product;
(ii) those actions cause the intoxication of: (A) an individual under the age of 21 years; (B) an individual who is apparently under the influence of intoxicating alcoholic products or drugs; (C) an individual whom the person furnishing the alcoholic product knew or should have known from the circumstances was under the influence of intoxicating alcoholic products or drugs; or (D) an individual who is a known interdicted person; and
(iii) the injury or death described in Subsection (1)(a) results from the intoxication of the individual who is provided the alcoholic product.
 
(2) (a) A person 21 years of age or older who is described in Subsection (2)(b) is liable for:
(i) any and all injury and damage, except punitive damages to: (A) a third person; or (B) the heir, as defined in §78B-3-105, of that third person; or (ii) the death of the third person.
(b) A person is liable under Subsection (2)(a) if:
(i) that person directly gives or otherwise provides an alcoholic product to an individual who the person knows or should have known is under the age of 21 years;
(ii) those actions caused the intoxication of the individual provided the alcoholic product;
(iii) the injury or death described in Subsection (2)(a) results from the intoxication of the individual who is provided the alcoholic product; and
(iv) the person is not liable under Subsection (1), because the person did not directly give or provide the alcoholic product as part of the commercial sale, storage, service, manufacture, distribution, or consumption of an alcoholic product.
 
(3) This section does not apply to a business licensed in accordance with Chapter 7, Off-premise Beer Retailer Act, to sell beer at retail only for off-premise consumption.
Utah Code Ann. §32B-4-404
(1) A person may not sell, offer for sale, or furnish an alcoholic product to:
(a) a person who is actually or apparently intoxicated; or
(b) a person whom the person furnishing the alcoholic product knows or should know from the circumstances is actually or apparently intoxicated.
 
(2) (a) A person who negligently or recklessly violates Subsection (1) is guilty of a class B misdemeanor.
(b) A person who knowingly violates Subsection (1) is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.
 
(3) As used in Subsection (2)(a), "negligently" means with simple negligence.
Utah Code Ann. §32B-15-202
(1) (a) Except for a violation of Subsection 32B-15-201(2), an employer is liable for the actions of its staff in violation of this chapter.
(b) This Subsection (1) does not apply to a business licensed in accordance with Chapter 7, Off-premise Beer Retailer Act, to sell beer at retail only for off-premise consumption.
Utah Code Ann. §32B-15-301
(1) (a) A person who suffers an injury under §32B-15-201 has a cause of action against the person who provided the alcoholic product in violation of §32B-15-201.
(b) If a person having rights or liabilities under this chapter dies, the rights or liabilities provided by this chapter survive to or against that person's estate.
 
(2) The total amount that may be awarded to any person pursuant to a cause of action for injury and damage under this chapter that arises after Jan. 1, 2010, is limited to $1 million and the aggregate amount which may be awarded to all persons injured as a result of one occurrence is limited to $2 million.
 
(3) An action based upon a cause of action under this chapter shall be commenced within two years after the date of the injury and damage.
 
(4) (a) Nothing in this chapter precludes any cause of action or additional recovery against the person causing the injury.
(b) A cause of action or additional recovery against the person causing the injury and damage, which action is not brought under this chapter, is exempt from the damage cap in Subsection (2).
(c) A cause of action brought under this chapter is exempt from §§78B-5-817 through 78B-5-823.
 
(5) This section does not apply to a business licensed in accordance with Chapter 7, Off-premise Beer Retailer Act, to sell beer at retail only for off-premise consumption.
Utah Code Ann. §32B-15-302
(1) (a) Except as provided in Subsections (2) and (3), a person, as defined under §32B-15-201 or §32B-15-202(1), against whom an award is made under this chapter, may bring a separate cause of action for contribution against any person causing the injury and damage.
(b) The maximum amount for which a person causing the injury and damage may be liable to a person seeking contribution is that percentage or proportion of the damages equivalent to the percentage or proportion of fault attributed to that person causing the injury and damage.
 
(2) This action for contribution under this section may not be brought against:
(a) a person entitled to recovery as described in §32B-15-201(1)(a)(i) or (ii); or
(b) a person entitled to recover as described in §32B-15-201(2)(a)(i) or (ii).
 
(3) An action for contribution under this section may not diminish the amount of recovery for injury or damages awarded and received to a person entitled to recover as described in §32B-15-201(1)(a)(i) or (ii) or 32B-15-201(2)(a)(i) or (ii):
(a) in a cause of action brought under this chapter; or
(b) in a separate cause of action for injury and damage that is not brought under this chapter.
Vermont
Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 7, §501 et seq.
(a) Action for damages. -- A spouse, child, guardian, employer or other person who is injured in person, property or means of support by an intoxicated person, or in consequence of the intoxication of any person, shall have a right of action in his or her own name, jointly or severally, against any person or persons who have caused in whole or in part such intoxication by selling or furnishing intoxicating liquor:
(1) to a minor as defined in this title;
(2) to a person apparently under the influence of intoxicating liquor;
(3) to a person after legal serving hours; or
(4) to a person whom it would be reasonable to expect would be under the influence of intoxicating liquor as a result of the amount of liquor served by the defendant to that person.
 
(b) Survival of action; joint action. -- Upon the death of either party, the action and right of action shall survive to or against the party's executor or administrator. The party injured or his or her legal representatives may bring either a joint action against the person intoxicated and the person or persons who furnished the liquor and an owner who may be liable under subsection (c) of this section, or a separate action against either or any of them.
 
(c) Landlord liability. -- If the intoxicating liquor was sold or furnished to the intoxicated person in a rented building, the owner may be joined as a defendant in the action, and judgment therein may be rendered against the owner, if the owner of the building or in the case of a corporation, its agent, knew or had reason to know that intoxicating liquor was sold or furnished by the tenant:
(1) to minors as defined in this title;
(2) to persons apparently under the influence of intoxicating liquor;
(3) to persons after legal serving hours; or
(4) to persons whom it would be reasonable to expect would be under the influence of intoxicating liquor as a result of the amount of liquor served to them by the tenant. It shall be an affirmative defense to an action against an owner that the owner took reasonable steps to prevent the sale of intoxicating liquor under the circumstances described in this subsection or to evict the tenant.
 
(d) Statute of limitations. -- An action to recover for damages under this section shall be commenced within two years after the cause of action accrues, and not after.
 
(e) Evidence. -- In an action brought under this section, evidence of responsible actions taken or not taken is admissible, if otherwise relevant. Responsible actions may include, but are not limited to, instruction of servers as to laws governing the sale of alcoholic beverages, training of servers regarding intervention techniques, admonishment to patrons or guests concerning laws regarding the consumption of intoxicating liquor, and inquiry under the methods provided by law as to the age or degree of intoxication of the persons involved.
 
(f) Right of contribution. -- A defendant in an action brought under this section has a right of contribution from any other responsible person or persons, which may be enforced in a separate action brought for that purpose.
 
Virginia
Not specified in statute
Virgin Islands Not specified in statute
Washington
  Wash. Rev. Code §66.44.200
(1) No person shall sell any liquor to any person apparently under the influence of liquor.
 
(2)(a) No person who is apparently under the influence of liquor may purchase or consume liquor on any premises licensed by the board.
(b) A violation of this subsection is an infraction punishable by a fine of not more than $500.
(c) A defendant's intoxication may not be used as a defense in an action under this subsection.
(d) Until July 1, 2000, every establishment licensed under RCW 66.24.330 or 66.24.420 shall conspicuously post in the establishment notice of the prohibition against the purchase or consumption of liquor under this subsection.
 
(3) An administrative action for violation of subsection (1) of this section and an infraction issued for violation of subsection (2) of this section arising out of the same incident are separate actions and the outcome of one shall not determine the outcome of the other.
West Virginia
W. Va. Code §55-7-9
Any person injured by the violation of any statute may recover from the offender such damages as he may sustain by reason of the violation, although a penalty or forfeiture for such violation be thereby imposed, unless the same be expressly mentioned to be in lieu of such damages.
W. Va. Code §11-16-18
(a) It shall be unlawful:
(2) For any licensee, his, her, its or their servants, agents or employees to sell, furnish or give any nonintoxicating beer as defined in this article to any person visibly or noticeably intoxicated or to any person known to be insane or known to be a habitual drunkard.
Wisconsin
Wis. Stat. §125.035
(1) In this section, “person” has the meaning given in §990.01 (26).
 
(2) A person is immune from civil liability arising out of the act of procuring alcohol beverages for or selling, dispensing or giving away alcohol beverages to another person.
 
(3) Subsection (2) does not apply if the person procuring, selling, dispensing or giving away alcohol beverages causes their consumption by force or by representing that the beverages contain no alcohol.
 
(4) (a) In this subsection, “provider” means a person, including a licensee or permittee, who procures alcohol beverages for or sells, dispenses or gives away alcohol beverages to an underage person in violation of §125.07 (1) (a).
(b) Subsection (2) does not apply if the provider knew or should have known that the underage person was under the legal drinking age and if the alcohol beverages provided to the underage person were a substantial factor in causing injury to a third party. In determining whether a provider knew or should have known that the underage person was under the legal drinking age, all relevant circumstances surrounding the procuring, selling, dispensing or giving away of the alcohol beverages may be considered, including any circumstance under subds. 1. to 4. In addition, sub. (2) does apply if all of the following occur:
1. The underage person falsely represents that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
2. The underage person supports the representation with documentation that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
3. The alcohol beverages are provided in good faith reliance on the underage person’s representation that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
4. The appearance of the underage person is such that an ordinary and prudent person would believe that he or she had attained the legal drinking age.
(5) Subsection (2) does not apply to civil forfeiture actions for violation of any provision of this chapter or any local ordinance in conformity with any provision of this chapter.
 
Wis. Stat. §125.075
(1) Any person who procures alcohol beverages for or sells, dispenses or gives away alcohol beverages to a person under 18 years of age in violation of §125.07 (1) (a) 1. or 2. may be penalized as provided in sub. (2) if:
(a) The person knew or should have known that the underage person was under the legal drinking age; and
(b) The underage person dies or suffers great bodily harm, as defined in §939.22 (14), as a result of consuming the alcohol beverages provided in violation of §125.07 (1) (a) 1. or 2.
(1m) In determining under sub. (1) (a) whether a person knew or should have known that the underage person was under the legal drinking age, all relevant circumstances surrounding the procuring, selling, dispensing or giving away of the alcohol beverages may be considered, including any circumstance under pars. (a) to (d). In addition, a person has a defense to criminal liability under sub. (1) if all of the following occur:
(a) The underage person falsely represents that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
(b) The underage person supports the representation under par. (a) with documentation that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
(c) The alcohol beverages are provided in good faith reliance on the underage person’s representation that he or she has attained the legal drinking age.
(d) The appearance of the underage person is such that an ordinary and prudent person would believe that he or she had attained the legal drinking age.
 
(2) (a) Whoever violates sub. (1) is guilty of a Class H felony if the underage person suffers great bodily harm, as defined in §939.22 (14).
(b) Whoever violates sub. (1) is guilty of a Class G felony if the underage person dies.
Wyoming
Wyo. Stat. §12-5-502
If any court, parent or guardian gives written notice to any licensee that his or her child or ward is under the age of 21 years, or any spouse or dependent gives written notice to a licensee that his or her spouse or person liable for the support of the dependent is an habitual drunkard and by reason of habitual drunkenness is neglecting to provide support for the spouse or dependent and the licensee or permittee so notified thereafter sells or gives any alcoholic liquor or malt beverage to the child, ward or habitual drunkard, the person giving the notice may bring an action in district court, against the licensee and upon proof of acts stated in the notice recover in the action the actual damages sustained, punitive damages and costs.
 
Wyo. Stat. §12-8-301
(a) No person who has legally provided alcoholic liquor or malt beverage to any other person is liable for damages caused by the intoxication of the other person.
 
(b) This section does not affect the liability of the intoxicated person for damages.
 
(c) This section does not affect the liability of the licensee or person if the alcoholic liquor or malt beverage was sold or provided in violation of title 12 of the Wyoming statutes.
 
(d) For purposes of this section "licensee" is as defined in W.S. 12-1-101(a)(viii) and includes the licensee's employee or employees.
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