Legislators Financial Disclosures: Household Member Information

9/30/2019

Ethics laws in some states require legislators to make personal financial information public as a means of discouraging conflicts between official duties and private interests. In some cases, these requirements can extend to information on members of a state legislator’s family.

Household or family member disclosure laws generally fall into one of three categories. The first category of states do not require the disclosure of economic information relating to household members. Non-statutory ethics rules or general provisions may still require disclosure in the absence of specific exceptions.

A second category of states treat the economic interests of spouses and dependent children as no different than the interests of a public official. In these states, household member disclosure requirements mirror those of a legislator. 

A third group of states require some disclosures regarding household members but not to the extent required of a public official. Spousal disclosure provisions tend to be more robust and frequently occurring than information relating to dependents. Information relating to emancipated or adult children’s financial interests, particularly if they do not live with their parent-legislator, are even less often required.

The following table provides information on each state’s laws on public officials or candidates' personal financial disclosure requirements as they relate to household members, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. The table also includes citations to help locate the text of relevant laws.

This table is intended to provide general information and does not necessarily address all aspects of this topic. Because the facts of each situation may vary, this information may need to be supplemented by consulting legal advisors. All content is up to date through 9/30/2019.

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Household Member Information Disclosure Requirements
State Disclosure Laws

Alabama

Statement of economic interest must include: name, address, and business of living spouse and dependents; name of living adult children; name of parents and siblings; name of living parents of spouse. Reporting and disclosure requirements include the interests of spouses and dependents. Ala. Code § 36-25-14.

Must disclose any family member's representation of another person before a state agency or board. Ala. Code § 36-25-10. Must disclose spouse and dependent employment or contracts with the state or federal government. Ala. Code § 36-25-5.2.

Alaska

Statements of the financial affairs of a public official or candidate must contain the same information for each member of the person's family, to the extent ascertainable by the public official or candidate. Alaska Stat. § 39.50.030.

Arizona

Financial disclosure requirements must include the following information: whether the public officer's spouse is a member of the public officer's household; the number of minor children who are members of the public officer's household and all names and addresses under which each does business. All other disclosures required of a public officer extend to members of the public officer's household. Ariz. Rev. Stat § 18-444.

Arkansas

Spousal business associations are required to be disclosed. Ark. Code Ann. § 19-11-264 & Ark. Code Ann. § 21-8-701. Gifts valued in excess of $250 received by dependent children must be disclosed. Ark. Code Ann. § 21-8-701.

California

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Colorado

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Connecticut

Required disclosures include the filer's spouse and dependent children who reside in the filer's household, excepting the names of dependent children. Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 1-83.

Delaware

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

District of Columbia

Disclosure requirements of qualifying financial interests extend to a public official's spouse, domestic partner, and dependent children. D.C. Code Ann. § 1-1162.24. 

Florida

Assets held by a spouse or minor child are exempt from disclosure requirements regarding indirect ownership of real property. Reporting requirements for gifts don't apply if from a reporting individual or a relative. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 112.3148.

Georgia

Must disclose spouse's name, occupation, employer, and the principal activity and address of such employer, as well as any direct ownership interest in real property valued at $5,000 or more. Must also disclose significant business ownership interests of the filer's spouse or dependent children. Ga. Code Ann. § 21-5-50.

Guam

Must disclose the gross income and held assets of the candidate or official's spouse and dependent children. 4 G.C.A. § 13104.

Hawaii

Disclosures required for candidates for office shall include the financial interests of the person's spouse and dependent children. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 84-17. Gift disclosure requirements extend to a legislator's spouse or dependent child. Haw. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 84-11.5.

Idaho

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Illinois

Statements of economic interests apply to the interests of spouses or others if "constructively controlled" by the person making the statement. 5 Ill. Comp. Stat. Ann. 420/4A-102.

Indiana

Filers must state: the name of each of the filer's spouse's employers and business interests. If the spouse is retired, the filer must state that fact. Must also disclose the name of each business entity in which ownership interest having a fair market value over $5,000 is owned by the filer's spouse or unemancipated children. Ind. Code Ann. § 2-2.2-2-3.

Iowa

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Kansas

Substantial interests required to be disclosed by the legislators or candidate for legislative office includes interests of spouses. Kan. Stat. Ann. § 46-229.

Kentucky

Household disclosures include: spouse's occupation or occupations; positions held by the spouse in any business, partnership, corporation for profit or non-profit from which the filer receives compensation, and the name of that business, partnership, or corporation; names and addresses of all businesses, investments, or securities in which the filer, his spouse, or children has or had at any time during the preceding year an interest of $10,000 or 5% ownership or more; sources of gross income of the spouse, information concerning the source and form of income; sources of gifts or money or property with a retail value greater than $200 to the filer's immediate family; the name of any related person who is a legislative agent. Ky. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 6.787.

Louisiana

Each legislator and each member of his immediate family who derives anything of economic value, directly, through any transaction involving the legislator's agency or who derives anything of economic value of which he may be reasonably expected to know through a person which has bid on or entered into or is in any way financially interested in any contract, subcontract, or any transaction involving the legislator's agency shall disclose the following: (1) The amount of income or value of anything of economic value derived; (2) The nature of the business activity; (3) The name and address, and relationship to the legislator, if applicable; and (4) The name and business address of the legal entity, if applicable. La. Stat. Ann. § 42:1114.

Maine

Annual disclosure requirements for legislators also apply to members of his or her immediate family. Me. Rev. Stat. tit. 1, § 1016-G.

Maryland

Disclosure requirements regarding economic interests of an individual are considered interests if they are held by a spouse or child of the individual. M.D. Gen. Provis. § 5-608.

Massachusetts

The same information required from public officials' disclosures applies to a public official's immediate family, excluding amounts. Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 268B, § 5.

Michigan

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Minnesota

If an immediate family member holds a partial or full interest with pari-mutuel horse racing in the United States and Canada. Minn. Stat. Ann. § 10A.09.

Mississippi

Disclosures must include the names and addresses of all businesses in which the filer or a household member held a position, and the name of the position, if the person or a household member: (i) Receives more than $2,500 per year in income from the business; (ii) Owns 10% or more of the fair market value in the business; (iii) Owns an ownership interest in the business, the fair market value of which exceeds $5,000.00; or (iv) Is an employee, director or officer of the business. Miss. Code. Ann. § 25-4-27.

Missouri

Each person required to file a financial interest statement shall file the following information for himself, his spouse and dependent children at any time during the period covered by the statement. Does not include spousal information unknown to the person required to file. Mo. Ann. Stat. § 105.485.

Montana

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Nebraska

Disclosures must include the name and address of each creditor to whom the value of $1,000 or more was owed or guaranteed by the individual or a member of the individual's immediate family, subject to certain exceptions. Neb. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 49-1496.

Nevada

Must disclose the source of public officer's or candidate's income, or any household member who is 18 or older. A list of real estate, other than a personal residence, in which the public officer or candidate or a member of their family has a legal or beneficial interest, if the FMV is $2,500 or more, and if located in Nevada or an adjacent state. The name of each creditor to whom the public officer, candidate, or household member thereof owes $5,000 or more, subject to a few exceptions. Identity of each interested person providing anything of value to the public officer or candidate or household member thereof to undertake or attend a meeting, event or trip, and the aggregate value of everything provided to undertake the meeting, event or trip. A list of each business entity with which the public officer, candidate, or household member thereof, is involved as a trustee, beneficiary of a trust, director, officer in whole or in part, limited or general partner, or holder of a class stock or security representing 1% or more of the total outstanding stock or securities issued by the business entity. Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 281.571.

New Hampshire

The name, address, and type of any profession, business, or other organization in which the reporting individual or family member was an officer, director, associate, partner, proprietor, or employee, or served in any other professional or advisory capacity, and from which any income in excess of $10,000 was derived during the preceding calendar year. Sources of retirement benefits other than federal retirement and/or disability benefits shall be included. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15-A:5.

A statement of whether the person reporting or a family member has a special interest in any of the following businesses, professions, occupations, groups, or matters. A person has a reportable special interest in an item on this list if a change in law, a change in administrative rule, a decision whether or not to award a contract, grant a license or permit, discipline a licensee or permitted, or other decision by government affecting the listed business, profession, occupation, group, or matter would potentially have a greater financial effect on the person reporting the financial interest or a family member than it would on the general public: (1) Any profession, occupation, or business licensed or certified by the state of New Hampshire, listing each such profession, occupation, or category of business. (2) Health care. (3) Insurance. (4) Real estate, including brokers, agents, developers, and landlords. (5) Banking or financial services. (6) State of New Hampshire, county, or municipal employment. (7) The New Hampshire retirement system. (8) The current use land assessment program. (9) Restaurants and lodging. (10) The sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages. (11) The practice of law. (12) Any business regulated by the public utilities commission. (13) Horse or dog racing, or other legal forms of gambling. (14) Education. (15) Water resources. (16) Agriculture. (17) New Hampshire taxes, specifying if business profits tax, business enterprise tax, or interest and dividends tax. (18) The reporting official may, but is not required by this chapter to specify any other area for which he or she has a special interest. N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 15-A:5.

New Jersey

Financial disclosure requirements for legislative candidates include family members' financial interests the same as a candidate's interests. N.J. Stat. Ann. § 19:44B-4.

New Mexico

A candidate or official's spouse must disclose all the same information as the candidate or official, except for the address of the spouse. N.M. Stat. Ann. § 10-16A-3.

New York

Extensive financial disclosure requirements for a candidate or public official's family and unemancipated children. N.Y. Pub. Off. Law § 73-a.

North Carolina

Permits a filing person to use the initials instead of the name of any unemancipated child of the filing person who resides the  household of the filing person. The information legislators must disclose also applies to spouses and unemancipated children. N.C. Gen. Stat. Ann. § 163A-189.

North Dakota

Statements of interest apply to a candidate and their spouse. N.D. Cent. Code Ann. § 16.1-09-03.

Ohio

The disclosure statement shall include all of the name of the person filing the statement and each member of the person's immediate family and all names under which the person or members of the person's immediate family do business. Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 102.02.

Oklahoma

Under Ethics Commission rules, must disclose: The name of any agency providing salary or similar compensation in the amount of $5,000 or more received during the preceding calendar year by the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents indicating whether the income was realized by the filer or another named family member; A list, by category of business, profession or industry, of any other entity providing income of any kind which the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents received in the amount of $5,000 during the preceding calendar year; Any business or professional relationships with registered lobbyists that resulted in income in any amount to the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents during the preceding calendar year, stating with specificity the nature of the relationship; Contracts (other than a contract of employment) between an agency and the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents or any entity in which the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents has a material financial interest; Whether the filer, the filer's spouse or dependents or an entity in which the filer or the filer's spouse or dependents has a material financial interest is regulated or licensed by the agency identified in subsection 3 of this Rule, or if the employer of the filer or filer's spouse or dependents is regulated or licensed by the agency and, if so, the name and mailing address of the individual or entity so regulated or licensed. Okla. Stat. Ann. tit. 74 Rule 3.11.

Oregon

Household personal finance disclosures required: names of all positions as officer of a business and business directorships held during the preceding calendar year, and the principal address and a brief description of each business; all names under which the members of the household do business and the principal address and a brief description of each business; the names, principal addresses, and brief descriptions of the sources of income received during the preceding calendar year that produce 10% or more of the total annual household income; a list of all real property in which the member of the household has or had any personal interest, beneficial ownership interest during the preceding calendar year; all honoraria with a value exceeding $15, along with the provider and the date and time of the event for which the honorarium or item was received; the name, principal address and brief description of each source of income exceeding an aggregate amount of $1,000 received. Or. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 244.060.

Pennsylvania

Information relating to creditors normally required to be disclosed does not apply to members of the filer's immediate family. Otherwise, the only provision requiring familial financial disclosures is that any business transferred to an immediate family member within the preceding year must be disclosed. PA ST 65 Pa.C.S.A. § 1105.

Puerto Rico

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply. The Office of Government Ethics of Puerto Rico may also promulgate regulations requiring financial reporting relating to family members not reflected in this survey of state statutes.

Rhode Island

Financial statements must include the financial activity of his or her spouse, if not estranged, and any dependent children for the preceding year. RI ST § 36-14-17.

South Carolina

Must disclose: The source, type, and amount or value of income, excluding tax refunds, of substantial monetary value received from a governmental entity by the filer or a member of the filer's immediate family during the reporting period; The description, value, and location of all real property owned and options to purchase real property by a filer or a member of the filer's immediate family if meeting certain requirements; The identity of every business or entity in which the filer or a member of the filer's immediate family held or controlled, in the aggregate, securities or interests constituting 5% or more of the total issued and outstanding securities and interests which constitute a value of $100,000 or more; A listing by name and address of each creditor to whom the filer or member of the filer's immediate family owed a debt in excess of $500, if the creditor is subject to regulation by the filer or is seeking or has sought a business or financial arrangement with the filer's agency or department other than for a credit card or retail installment contract, subject to qualifications and exceptions; The name of any lobbyist who is an immediate family member of the filer or an individual with whom or business with which the filer or a member of the filer's immediate family is associated; A listing of the private source and type of any income received in the previous year by the filer or a member of his immediate family. S.C. Code Ann. § 8-13-1120.

Exceptions apply to the household member financial disclosure requirements in the following circumstances: (1) a spouse separated pursuant to a court order from the public official, public member, or public employee; (2) a former spouse. S.C. Code Ann. § 8-13-1120.

South Dakota

Candidates for the state legislature are required to disclose close economic interests. SDCL § 12-25-31. Close economic interests include any financial interest that contributes more than 10% or $2,000 to the gross income of the filer or his or her immediate family. SDCL § 12-25-27.

Tennessee

Spousal information required to be disclosed in equal measure to the filer's own disclosures. Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-10-128. No dependent or child information is required to be disclosed, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.

Texas

Disclosures must include the financial activity of the individual's spouse and dependent children if the individual had actual control over that activity for the preceding calendar year. Must identify any person or organization from which the filer, spouse or dependent children received a gift valued over $250. Tex. Gov't Code Ann. § 572.023.

Utah

Must disclose the names and general information of all household members, as well as a brief description of any employment and occupation of each adult. Utah Code Ann. § 20A-11-1604.

Vermont

Includes: spouse or domestic partner's income if it totals more than $5,000; any business ownership interest greater than 10%; must disclose if a spouse or domestic partner is a lobbyist; most recent tax returns from a spouse or domestic partner, although social security numbers may be redacted. Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 17, § 2414.

Virginia

Gifts accepted or received by a legislator or an immediate family member must be disclosed. VA ST § 30-110.1. Otherwise, the disclosure requirements are not specified by statute but may include information on family members' financial information if required by the Virginia Conflict of Interest and Ethics Advisory Council. VA ST § 30-111.1.

Virgin Islands

The interest of a spouse or any other party, if constructively controlled by the person reporting, shall be considered the same as the interest of the person reporting. Also, must list the name, address and type of practice of any professional organization in which the person reporting, or his spouse, is an officer, director, or partner, or serves in any advisory capacity, from which income of $1,000 or more was derived during the preceding calendar year. 3 V.I.C. § 1105.

Washington

Disclosures of financial affairs include the information of each member of a reporting individual's immediate family. Wash. Rev. Code Ann. § 42.17A.710.

West Virginia

Spousal information required to be disclosed that mirrors all of the disclosure requirements for the financial interests of the public official or candidate. Must also include the name and business address of any child who is 18 years or older and employed by state, county, or municipal government. W. Va. Code Ann. § 6B-2-7.

Wisconsin

Required disclosures relating to household members include numerous lengthy disclosure requirements for members of the filer's immediate family. Refer to Wis. Stat. Ann. § 19.44 for more information about the statutory requirements for personal financial disclosures.

Wyoming

None found, although conflict of interest disclosure provisions may apply.