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Climate Change State Policy Update 2012 2014

Climate Change: State Policy Update 2012-2014

5/1/2014

The topic of climate change remains contentious in many states, and legislative trends for 2012 through 2014 demonstrate that states are taking a range of approaches with climate policy. Similar to previous years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) efforts to regulate greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Air Act have been a prominent legislative issue in a number of statehouses during this time. While a number of states have passed legislation and resolutions opposing EPA’s actions to regulate greenhouse gas emissions, other states are looking to reduce emissions with programs of their own.

In 2012, 14 states enacted 23 bills and resolutions relating to climate change adaptation, climate action groups, cap and trade, carbon capture and sequestration, and EPA’s regulations. In 2013, 17 states and Washington, D.C., enacted 28 bills and resolutions on climate change related topics. Although legislatures in a number of states are still in session, 18 states have already enacted 26 bills in 2014 related to climate change.

Climate Action Plans

State climate action plans are comprehensive strategies for reducing a state’s greenhouse gas emissions. State plans typically specify emission reduction goals and set energy use targets. They can also include adaptation or mitigation strategies, energy efficiency standards, tax incentives to promote renewable energy use, cap and trade programs, monitoring and reporting requirements, and other approaches to mitigate or reduce greenhouse gases. In addition to adopting a comprehensive climate action plan, states can also establish commissions or authorize studies to better understand potential threats and policy responses to climate change in the state.

Since 2012, several states have adopted legislation that called for new climate plans or made amendments to existing plans. Colorado (HB 1293, 2013) and Nebraska (LB 583, 2013) passed laws that would require regular reporting of climate change impacts to the state. Hawaii (SB 2745, 2012) enacted several changes to the state’s existing climate action plan, which was adopted in 1998. The bill establishes climate change adaptation guidelines that will focus resources on major areas of concern. Maine (HB 651, 2013) required drafting of new climate action and energy plans. Washington (SB 5802, 2013) created a working group to recommend a state program and policies to reduce emissions and achieve emission targets. A nonbinding Vermont resolution (HR 6, 2012) called for integrating climate and energy solutions into a comprehensive statewide plan.

EPA Regulations and Resolutions

Since a 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases can be regulated under the Clean Air Act, the EPA has moved to curb carbon pollution from a number of sources. The agency has proposed or adopted rules aimed at mobile sources, such as cars and trucks, and stationary sources, such as coal-fired power plants. The agency has also established standards for air pollution from oil and natural gas facilities, requirements for storing or sequestering carbon dioxide emissions underground, a greenhouse gas reporting system and a mercury and air toxics program. 

Several states have adopted nonbinding resolutions targeting this heightened federal regulatory activity. Alabama (SJR 91, 2012) and Michigan (HR 19, 2012; SR 10, 2012; and SCR 6, 2012) have adopted resolutions calling for Congress to prohibit EPA from regulating greenhouse gases.  Resolutions in Georgia (HR 1158, 2014 and HR 1159, 2014) Oklahoma (SCR 39, 2014) and Wyoming (SJR 1, 2014) urge the EPA to give states maximum flexibility to implement carbon dioxide performance standards. Iowa (HR 52, 2012) calls for curtailment and assessment of EPA’s air quality regulations. Alabama (SJR 1, 2014), Florida (SB 1174, 2014), Indiana (HR 11, 2014), South Dakota (HCR 1022, 2014), and West Virginia (HR 13, 2014) specifically call for EPA to maintain states’ ability under the Clean Air Act to set less stringent performance standards or longer compliance schedules for power plants in certain circumstances. Other state resolutions aimed at EPA air quality regulations include Missouri (HCR 49, 2012), which calls for Congress to disapprove of EPA’s Mercury and Air Toxics Program; and Arizona (SCR 1012, 2013), which opposes EPA’s implementation plan to reduce regional haze.

For more information on legislative action regarding EPA’s proposed regulations on power plant emissions, please view our report, “States Reactions to Proposed EPA Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.”

Cap and Trade

The nation’s first mandatory carbon cap-and-trade program was the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), which brought together a group of 10 states to participate in a regional program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The initiative, which requires large greenhouse gas emitters to purchase emissions allowances for each ton of CO2 that they emit, has been operating since 2008. RGGI currently includes nine states since New Jersey withdrew in 2011 under direction of the governor. California began its own cap-and-trade program in 2013, which applies to all major industrial sources and electric utilities and will expand to include fuel distributors in 2015.   

Although there have been no major bills enacted this topic recently, a number of bills being considered this year. New Jersey’s ACR 140 would bring the state back into RGGI and a New York bill (SB 6168) seeks to reduce the competitive advantage that out of state electricity producers not located in a RGGI states may receive since they don’t have to purchase carbon allowances or track emissions.  

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

U.S. EPA greenhouse gas regulations are driving some states to seek technologies that can affordably reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants.  A number of states, such as Wyoming, have created regulatory standards for capture and sequestration in order to provide a clear legal framework under which industry can safely operate. Other states have looked to incentives and tax breaks. While just a few bills passed since 2013, it is likely that interest in this issue will be grow as states consider ways to meet new Clean Air Act requirements.

Adaptation

As extreme weather events—such as Hurricane Irene in 2011 and Superstorm Sandy in 2012—increase, states are looking to protect citizens, homes, critical infrastructure and natural resources from destruction and damage. Connecticut (SB 1013, 2013) requires the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection and the University of Connecticut to establish a Connecticut Center for Coasts. The center will perform research and analysis on the impacts of rising sea levels and help develop statewide, planning and management alternatives to sea level rise. Hawaii (SB 2745, 2012) amended the state planning act to include climate change adaptation priority guidelines for the state, including adaptation research and strategies, interagency collaboration and public education. Hawaii also adopted nonbinding resolutions (HR 77, 2014 and HR 34, 2014) supporting the “Aloha+ Challenge,” which establishes goals in energy, food production, sustainability, waste, natural resources and employment as measures to increase climate change resilience.

For more information on legislative action regarding natural disasters and critical infrastructure protection, please view our 2013 report, “Protecting the Nation’s Energy Infrastructure: States Address Energy Security.

In addition to the legislation included in this update, a number of states have also adopted resolutions supporting relationships with Taiwan and Taiwan’s participation in international events, including participation as an observer in the United Nations framework convention on climate change. In 2012, three states adopted resolutions on this topic and in 2014, eight states adopted resolutions relating to Taiwan.

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Climate Change Legislation: Enacted 2014

State Bill Summary

Alabama

SJR 57

Urged the EPA, in developing guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, to maintain Alabama's and other states' authority as provided by the Clean Air Act. Urged the EPA to issue standards based on adequately demonstrated carbon dioxide-specific controls at fossil-fueled power plants.

Arizona

SCR 1022

Opposes the implementation of rules for new electric generating units that require technology that is not commercially available or technologically feasible. Urges to the EPA to honor state's primary authority to develop standards and using maximum flexibility to implement state-established carbon dioxide performance guidelines. Supports congressional oversight of the EPA to ensure state’s authority to develop guidelines is respected.

Florida

SB 1174

Urges the EPA to respect the primacy of states and to rely on state regulators in developing performance standards, compliance schedules, and guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants.

Georgia

HR 1158

Encouraged the administration and Congress to establish a national energy policy. Encouraged EPA to establish separate guidelines for coal-fueled electric generating units that are based on highly efficient units such as ultrasupercritical and supercritical technologies without carbon capture and sequestration. Supported further efforts to research and develop carbon capture and sequestration technologies. Identical to House Resolution 1159.

HR 1159

Encouraged the administration and Congress to establish a national energy policy. Encouraged EPA to establish separate guidelines for coal-fueled electric generating units that are based on highly efficient units such as ultrasupercritical and supercritical technologies without carbon capture and sequestration. Supported further efforts to research and develop carbon capture and sequestration technologies. Identical to House Resolution 1158.

Hawaii

HR 77; SR 34

Endorses and supports the “Aloha+ Challenge” for 2030, which includes specific goals for renewable energy and energy efficiency; local food production; natural resource management; waste reduction; sustainable communities; and local green energy jobs. Requires the State Sustainability Coordinator to submit a report to the Legislature on the progress of achieving these goals.

Indiana

HB 1005

Among other government reduction measures, terminated participation in the Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord. Termination is complete on the date on which the elected official who signed the accord ceases to hold office.

HR 11

Urged the EPA, in developing guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, to respect the primacy of Indiana and other states and to rely on state regulators to develop performance standards for carbon dioxide emissions. Urges to the EPA to honor state's authority to have maximum flexibility in implementing carbon dioxide performance guidelines.

HR 70

Encouraged the administration and Congress to establish a national energy policy. Encouraged EPA to establish separate guidelines for coal-fueled electric generating units that are based on highly efficient units such as ultrasupercritical and supercritical technologies without carbon capture and sequestration. Supported further efforts to research and develop carbon capture and sequestration technologies.

Iowa

SB 2197

Eliminated the ability of the Department of Natural Resources to issue certain conditional permits related to air and water quality to electric power generating facilities.

Kansas

HB 2636

Would authorize the Secretary of Health and Environment to establish separate standards of performance for carbon dioxide emissions for units that have been constructed or have received a prevention of significant deterioration permit by July 1, 2014. Allows for flexibility in meeting federal greenhouse gas standards through alternative standards, compliance schedules or flexible regulatory mechanisms.

Kentucky

HB 388

Authorized the Energy and Environment Cabinet to establish performance standards for the regulation of carbon dioxide emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired electric generating units. Allowed for flexibility in meeting federal greenhouse gas standards through alternative standards or compliance schedules.

Michigan

HB 5254

Expanded pipeline definition of “pipeline” to include pipelines carrying carbon dioxide substances.

HB 5255

Authorized the right to condemn property by eminent domain to acquire necessary rights-of-way for the transport of crude oil, petroleum or carbon dioxide substances and to locate, lay, construct, maintain and operate pipelines for the purposes of such transport.

Nebraska

LB 1008

Changes the date for a report on cyclical climate change in the state by eliminating a preliminary deadline and including other reports and recommendations by the Climate Assessment Response Committee in the final deadline.

LR 482

Urges the EPA, in developing guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, to respect the primacy of Nebraska and other states and to rely on state regulators to develop performance standards for carbon dioxide emissions. Urges to the EPA to honor state's authority to have maximum flexibility in implementing state-established carbon dioxide performance guidelines.

Oklahoma

SCR 39

Urges the EPA, in developing guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, to respect the primacy of Oklahoma and other states. States that Oklahoma and other states should be given maximum flexibility by EPA to implement carbon dioxide performance standards for fossil-fueled electric generation facilities within their jurisdiction.

South Dakota

HCR 1022

Urged the administration and Congress to establish a national energy policy that encourages access to and removal of impediments to all available domestic sources of energy. Stated that the policy should not infringe upon states' authority provided by the Clean Air Act. Urged the administration and Congress to recognize state and regional variations in the provision of affordable and reliable electricity.

Utah

SCR 9

Called upon the EPA to issue greenhouse gas New Source Performance Standards for fossil-fueled electric generating units and provide standards for generating units that can be achieved with commercially demonstrated technologies and that will permit the economic utilization of coal.

Virginia

HB 1261

Required the Virginia Energy Plan to include an analysis of the costs and benefits resulting from EPA regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fueled electric generating units. Required the Division of Energy of the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy to establish energy policy positions relevant to any potential regulations of the State Air Pollution Control Board to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electric generating units under Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. Companion bill to Senate Bill 615.

SB 615

Required the Virginia Energy Plan to include an analysis of the costs and benefits resulting from EPA regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fueled electric generating units. Required the Division of Energy of the Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy to establish energy policy positions relevant to any potential regulations of the State Air Pollution Control Board to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electric generating units under Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act.  Amended bill is companion bill to House Bill 1261.

Washington

HB 2569

Created the Diesel Idle Reduction Account. Required the Department of Ecology to use account funds to provide loans with low or no interest to state, local or other governments to reduce exposure to diesel emissions and improve public health through diesel idle emission reduction technology and infrastructure.

West Virginia

HB 4346

Authorized the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Environmental Protection Advisory Council to establish performance standards for carbon dioxide emissions from electric generating units. Allowed for flexibility in meeting federal greenhouse gas standards through alternative standards, compliance schedules or regulatory mechanisms.

HR 13

Urged the EPA, in developing guidelines for regulating carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants, to respect the primacy of West Virginia and other states and to rely on state regulators to develop performance standards for carbon dioxide emissions. Urged to the EPA to honor state's authority to have maximum flexibility in implementing carbon dioxide performance guidelines.

Wyoming

SJR 1

Urged the EPA to respect the primacy of Wyoming and to take into account the unique policies, energy needs, resource mix and economic priorities of states. Urged the EPA to issue guidelines that are practical and achievable. Urged to the EPA to honor state's authority to have maximum flexibility in implementing carbon dioxide performance guidelines.

Source: NCSL, 2013; NCSL, 2014.

Climate Change Legislation: Enacted 2013

State Bill Summary

Arizona

SCM 1001

Memorialized the U.S. Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to further clarify that the states, not the EPA, have the primary role in developing plans for regulating air pollutants and to fully consider the impact of new regulations on the state and national economy before approval or implementation of new regulations.

SCR 1012

Declared the Legislature's opposition to the Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Implementation Plan and support for Arizona's State Implementation Plan to reduce regional haze.

California

SB 726

Beginning in 2014, requires the State Air Resources Board to include information on all proposed expenditures and allocations of moneys to the Western Climate Initiative in the Governor's Budget. Required the state board to report to the Joint Legislative Budget Committee on specified procurements proposed by the Western Climate Initiative. Required the California membership of the Western Climate Initiative to participate on the board of directors.

Colorado

HB 1293

Directed the governor to establish a position for climate change issues. Requires the person appointed to that position to develop climate action plans and to report annually to the General Assembly regarding how climate change affects the state.

Connecticut

SB 1013

Required a report to the General Assembly concerning the establishment of a Connecticut Center for Coasts, which would perform data collection and analysis to develop tools in response to rising sea levels and shore protection.

Kentucky

HCR 109

Urged Congress to persuade the Environmental Protection Agency to withdraw its proposed Greenhouse Gas New Source Performance Standard for Electric Generating Units and requests separate standards for coal energy and gas energy.

Maine

HB 651

This bill required a new comprehensive state energy plan to be drafted by the Governor's Energy Office and a new climate action plan to be drafted by the Department of Environmental Protection.

HB 1128

Allocated Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative proceeds to residential fuel switching programs; electric savings and thermal savings for commercial and industrial facilities; and the Public Utilities Commission. Additionally amended the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Act of 2007 to be consistent with regional targets and directed the Department of Environmental Protection and the Public Utilities Commission to work together to modify a current Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative offset category to allow for fuel switching. Includes other energy efficiency and renewable energy provisions.

Massachusetts

HB 3561

Disbursed Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative auction proceeds to municipalities for property tax receipts from an electric generating station, funding of the green communities program and zero interest loans to municipalities which are not green communities, as well as other expenses. The bill was a new draft of House Bill 3538, section 36.

Mississippi

HB 841

Established that the sale of electricity, current, power, steam, coal, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas or other fuel to a producer of oil and gas for use directly in enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide or the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide in a geological formation shall be taxed at a rate of 1.5 percent.

Montana

SB 141

Clarified that pipelines that transport carbon dioxide from plants or facilities that produce or capture carbon dioxide are common carrier pipelines; established rates for products from such plants.

Nebraska

LB 583

Added a member of the High Plains Regional Climate Center to the Climate Assessment Response Committee. Required the Climate Assessment Response Committee to report to the governor the impacts of climate change on Nebraska and facilitate communication between stakeholders to address climate change impacts and response strategies. Requires a long term strategic report by September 2014 to the governor and legislature on how Nebraska should prepare for climate change.

LB 583 A

Appropriated general funds to the Department of Agriculture related to Legislative Bill 583.

New Hampshire

HB 306

Modified New Hampshire's Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) by establishing criteria to quantify and grant allowances, including the accreditation of third-party verifiers. Authorized the Department of Environmental Services to incorporate national or regional forestry protocols referenced in the RGGI model rule.

SB 123

Dedicated certain proceeds from the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative program to municipal and local government energy efficiency projects. Required rebates of allowance sale proceeds to be made to all electric ratepayers.

Oregon

SB 242

Stated that after the enactment of a federal law, state law, regulation or rule regulating the emission of greenhouse gases from generating facilities, an electric company, electricity service supplier or the customer may petition the Public Utility Commission to study the greenhouse gas emissions standards. The commission shall report the results of the study, and shall include recommendations for legislation, to the Legislative Assembly within one year. Established emissions standards for generating facilities use natural gas as the primary fuel source, and previously used coal.

SB 844

Directed the Public Utility Commission to establish a voluntary emission reduction program to incentivize natural gas public utilities to invest in projects that reduce emissions and provide benefits to customers. Authorized a public utility to recover certain costs from these projects.

Rhode Island

HB 5812;

SB 642

Provided for the payment of costs incurred by the Department of Environmental Management and Office of Energy Resources up to $300,000 or 5% of the proceeds of any sale or auction of Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative allowances.

HB 6296;

SB 671

Amended the qualifications of the number of members on the Climate Change Advisory Committee to include an additional member.

Texas

HB 788

Amended the permitting authority of the Commission on Environmental Quality, with regard to greenhouse gas emissions. Authorized the commission to impose a reasonable fee covering the commission’s necessary direct costs.

Vermont

HB 520

Among other provisions, clarified that the Agency of Natural Resources is enabled to implement a revised carbon emissions cap agreed upon by the states in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. Required the agency to make a written determination on whether Vermont should adopt emission standards for pellet stoves eligible that are more stringent than the standards under the federal Clean Air Act.

Washington

HB 1154

Allowed generation facilities that capture and destroy methane on-site through a digester system, landfill gas collection system or other mechanism to separate the non-power attributes into renewable energy credits and other types of carbon reduction credits, offsets or similar tradable commodities.

SB 5802

Created the Climate Legislative and Executive Work Group to recommend a state program and policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to achieve the state's emissions targets. Required the office of financial management to contract with independent and objective consultants, as selected by the work group, to prepare a credible evaluation of approaches to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

SR 8629

Honored the Seattle Raging Grannies for protecting future generations through addressing climate change, and encouraged support for pursuing policies that support a sustainable economy.

Wyoming

HB 63

Authorized the Department of Environmental Quality to submit an amended greenhouse gas regulation state implementation plan to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Authorized the Department of Environmental Quality to promulgate new source performance standards for greenhouse gases that are no more stringent that the federal performance standards.

Washington, D.C.

PR 121

Recognized and supported Earth Hour by declaring March 23, 2013, as “World Wildlife Fund Earth Hour City Challenge Day” in the District of Columbia and encouraged participation of others by going dark for one hour, starting at 8:30 p.m.

Source: NCSL, 2013; NCSL, 2014.

Climate Change Legislation: Enacted 2012

State Bill Summary

Alabama

SJR 91

Urged Congress to adopt legislation prohibiting the Environmental Protection Agency from regulating greenhouse gas emissions without congressional approval.

Alaska

HCR 23

Established the Alaska Arctic Policy Commission; tasked the Commission to develop an Arctic policy for the state and produce a strategy for the implementation of an Arctic policy, including considerations of warming Arctic sea ice and how climate changes effect in the Arctic habitat.

California

AB 693

Extended the sunset date of existing law that created the Sonoma County Regional Climate Protection Authority; extended the authority to assist certain agencies in meeting their greenhouse gas emission reduction goals by developing, coordinating and implementing programs and policies to comply with the State Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 and other related federal or state mandates and programs.

AB 1532

Authorized the State Air Resources Board to include use of a market-based compliance mechanisms for achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Prohibited certain written findings by the governor from being subject to judicial review. Required the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund to be used for specified purposes. Require the Department of Finance, in consultation with the state board and any other relevant state entity, to develop a three-year investment plan to be submitted to the Legislature. A portion of the legislation is contingent on the passage of Senate Bill 535.

AJR 35

Urged the president and Congress to enact legislation to restrict the waterborne exportation of coal for electric generation to any nation that fails to adopt rules and regulations on the emissions of greenhouse gases and airborne hazardous air emissions that are at least as restrictive as those adopted by the United States. Urged the governor to inform the governors of Oregon and Washington states of the significant health risks to the people of the Pacific Coast states.

SB 535

Required the State Environmental Protection Agency to identify disadvantaged communities for investment opportunities. Required the Department of Finance to allocate a specified percentage of available moneys in the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund to projects that provide benefits to and are located within disadvantaged areas. Required the department to develop funding guidelines that include how administering agencies should maximize benefits for disadvantaged communities.

SB 1066

Authorized the State Coastal Conservancy to assess the impacts and potential impacts of climate change on resources within its jurisdiction, giving priority to projects that maximize public benefits.

Florida

HB 4001

Repealed provisions for a cap-and-trade regulatory program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from electric utilities established through the Florida Climate Protection Act.

Hawaii

SB 2745

Amended the State Planning Act to include climate change adaptation priority guidelines, provided a framework for climate change considerations by planning for the effects of climate change through involving stakeholders, research, monitoring, preservation of natural resources, education and collaboration regarding climate change adaptation.

Illinois

HB 4573

Amended the Public Utilities Act by removing a provision concerning the inspection of all carbon dioxide pipelines in the State by the Illinois Commerce Commission. Amended the Carbon Dioxide Transportation and Sequestration Act by establishing that the construction, maintenance, and operation of pipelines transporting carbon dioxide, whether interstate or intrastate, falls within the jurisdiction of the Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration of the federal Department of Transportation. Established requirements for clean coal substitute natural gas facilities.

HR 120

Resolved that each public university in the state shall have a target goal of reducing its expense footprint for power, gas and water consumption by at least 15 percent within two years, or show how it has previously met this goal.

SB 2867

Amended the Administrative Procedure Act and the Public Utilities Act to require carbon dioxide emission credits equivalent to 50% of the amount of credits associated with the required sequestration from a facility to be permanently retired. Established compliance with sequestration requirements and offset purchase requirements to be assessed annually and authorizes the Commerce Commission to approve a sequestration method if the owner has a certain permit. Altered Environmental Protection Agency inspection requirements.

Iowa

HR 52

Called for curtailment and assessment of air quality regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Michigan

HR 19

Urged the U.S. Congress to take immediate steps to impose a moratorium on greenhouse gas, air quality and other regulatory actions by the Environmental Protection Agency.

SR 10

Urged the U.S. Congress to take immediate steps to impose a moratorium on greenhouse gas, air quality and other regulatory actions by the Environmental Protection Agency.

SCR 6

Urged the U.S. Congress to take immediate steps to impose a moratorium on greenhouse gas, air quality and other regulatory actions by the Environmental Protection Agency.

Missouri

HCR 49

Called on Congress to disapprove the EPA's Mercury and Air Toxics Standards regulation and ensure that the EPA replaces it with an alternate regulation.

New Hampshire

HB 1490

Replaced the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Fund with the Energy Efficiency Fund. Lowered the rebate threshold for auction proceeds to $1 and allocated the remaining proceeds received by the state from the sale of allowances to core energy efficiency programs funded by system benefits charges. Established a repeal of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative cap and trade program under specified circumstances.

Vermont

HR 6

Urged action on climate change-related policies through a state-coordinated, comprehensive plan that integrates climate and energy solutions into an implementation strategy with targets and objectives.

West Virginia

SB 253

Authorized legislative rules promulgated by the Department of Environmental Protection relating air quality standards, emission sources and standards, greenhouse gas emissions, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program and other matters.

SB 496

Allowed the reporting of greenhouse gases, by the Department of Environmental Protection, under the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to satisfy greenhouse gas reporting requirements in the State.

Wisconsin

AB 467

Established that federal guidelines should be used for determining the applicable requirements for greenhouse gas emissions from stationary sources.

Wyoming

SB 86

Allowed the promulgation and adoption of greenhouse gas regulations by the Department of Environmental Quality and the Environmental Quality Council, and established an effective date. Established the conditions for state primacy over greenhouse gas regulation and conditions under which the department may submit an amended state implementation plan for United States Environmental Protection Agency approval.

Source: NCSL, 2012; NCSL, 2013; NCSL, 2014.

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