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State Renewable Portfolio Standards

State Renewable Portfolio Standards

Updated August 2010

Overview: States have been active in adopting or increasing renewable electricity standards over the past few years. These standards require utilities, which are usually investor-owned utilities (IOUs), but can involve municipalities and electric cooperatives, to sell a specified percentage or amount of renewable electricity. Twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have adopted an RPS, while six states have set renewable energy goals.

State

Title of Standard

Year Enacted

Requirement

Solar or DG1 Set-Aside

Deadline

Arizona

Renewable Energy Standard

2006

15%

DG: 30% of annual requirement in 2012 and thereafter (4.5% of sales in 2025)

 

2025

California

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2002 (amended 2003, 2006); 2009

20% (by 2010)
33% (by 2020)

 

2010

2020

Colorado

Renewable Energy Standard

2004, 2006, 2010

IOUs: 30%
Electric co-ops and Municipal utilities: 10%

DG: 3% for IOUs only:

2020

Connecticut

Renewables Portfolio Standard

1998 (amended 2007)

27%

20% 

2020

Delaware

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2005 (amended 2007); 2006 (amended 2008)

20%

2.005%

2019

District of Columbia

Renewable Portfolio Standard
2005 (amended 2008); 2008 (amended 2009) 20% 0.4% 2020

Hawaii

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2001 (amended 2004, 2006, 2009)

40%

 

2030

Illinois

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2001 (amended 2005, 2007); 2009

25%

6% of annual requirement in 2015 and thereafter (1.5% of total sales in 2024) 

2024

Iowa

Alternative Energy Law (“AEL”)

1983 (amended 1991, 2003); 2007

IOUs: 105 MW of renewable generating capacity

 

1999

Kansas

Renewables Portfolio Standard
2009 20% (of peak demand capacity)2   2020

Maine

Renewables Portfolio Standard

1999; 2006 (amended 2007)

40%
(10% new resources)

 

2017

Maryland

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard

2004 (amended 2007, 2008, 2010)

20%

2%

2022

Massachusetts

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2002 (amended 2008); 2010

Class I: 15% by 2020 and an additional 1% thereafter
Class II: 7.1% in 2009 and thereafter (3.6% renewable and 3.5% waste-to-energy)

400 MW 

2020

Michigan

Renewable Energy Standard

2008

10%

 

2015

Minnesota

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2007 (amended 2008, 2009)

Excel Energy: 30%
Other utilities: 25%

 Excel Energy: 25% (wind or solar); max. of 1% from solar

2020

Missouri

Renewable Electricity Standard

2007 (amended 2010)

IOUs only: 15%

2% of annual requirement (0.3% of sales in 2020)

2021

Montana

Renewable Resource Standard

2005 (amended 2006)

15%

 

 2015

Nevada

Energy Portfolio Standard

1997 (amended 2001, 2009); 2005 (amended 2007)

25%

5% of annual requirement through 2015 (1.2% of sales in 2015); 6% for 2016-25 (1.5% of sales in 2025)

2015

New Hampshire

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2007 (amended 2008)

23.8%

0.3% by 2014

2025

New Jersey

Renewables Portfolio Standards

1999 (amended 2004, 2006); 2007 (amended 2010)

22.5%

5,316 GWhs by 2025 and thereafter

2020

New Mexico

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2002 (amended 2004, 2007)

IOUs: 20%
Rural electric co-ops: 10%

20% of RPS (4% of sales)

2020

New York

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2004 (amended 2010)

29%

DG: 7% of annual incremental requirement (0.478% of state sales in 2015)

2015

North Carolina

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard

2007, 2008, 2009

IOUs: 12.5% by 2021
Electric co-ops & municipal utilities: 10% by 2018

0.2% by 2018

2021
2018
 

North Dakota*

Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective

2007, 2008

10%

 

2015

Ohio**

Alternative Energy Resource Standard

2008, 2010

25%

0.5%

2024

Oklahoma

Renewable Energy Goal
2010 15%   2015

Oregon

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2007, 2009, 2010

Large utilities: 25%
Small utilities: 10%
Smallest utilities: 5%

IOUs only: 20 MW by 2020 

2025

Pennsylvania

Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard

2004, 2007

18%

.5%

2020

Rhode Island

Renewable Energy Standard

2004

16%

 

2020

South Dakota*

Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective

2008

10%

 

2015

Texas

Renewable Generation Requirement

1999 revised 2005, 2007

5,880 MW

500 MW non-wind

 

2015

Utah*

Renewables Portfolio Goal

2008

20%

 

2025

Vermont*

Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development Goals

2008

20%

 

2017

Virginia*

Voluntary Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal

2007, 2009

15%

 

2025

Washington

Renewable Energy Standard

2006

15%

 

2020

Wisconsin

Renewable Portfolio Standard

Varies by utility

1999

Revised 2006

10%

 

2015

 

Source: NCSL 2009; Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, NC State University  2009.

  1. Set-asides are for solar unless noted with a “DG.” States like Arizona have a distributed generation (DG) instead of a solar specific set-aside. Small-scale power generation technologies, such as rooftop solar panels, small wind turbines, or fuel cells are considered distributed generation.
  2. Peak demand” refers to the highest incidental demand for electricity during a specified period of time.
  3. Rhode Island’s solar energy requirement applies only to electric distribution companies, requiring them to enter into long-term contracts for 90 MW in capacity, of which 3MW must be solar, in-state generation by 2014.

* North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont and Virginia have renewable energy goal or objectives (as opposed to a mandatory requirement or standard).

** Ohio requires that 25 percent of  energy sold by electric distribution utilities to come from alternative energy sources. At least 12.5 percent must come from renewable resources while the remaining may come from renewable or advanced energy sources, including co-generation, advanced nuclear power and clean coal.

For additional information on the RPS, please reference the fact sheet located on the Renewable Policy Fact Sheets page.

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