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State Gas Pipelines

Making State Gas Pipelines Safe and Reliable: An Assessment of State Policy

Outline

NCSL Staff Contact

March 2011 

By Jacquelyn Pless

Breaking It Down: Understanding the Terminology

The United States maintains about 2 million miles of natural gas distribution mains and pipelines, 321,000 miles of gas transmission and gathering pipelines, 175,000 miles hazardous liquid pipeline, and 114 active liquid natural gas plants that are connected to natural gas transmission and distribution systems.2 A breakdown of pipeline mileage by state and type of pipeline can be found below.

The pipeline system includes:

  •  Gathering lines that collect and move products from sources such as wells on land or offshore to storage or processing.
  •  Transmission lines to transport large quantities of natural gas or hazardous liquids over long distances from gathering lines or storage facilities to distribution centers, storage facilities, power plants, industrial customers and municipalities. Petroleum transmission lines deliver crude oil to refineries and refined products to market. Most transmission pipelines are located underground.
  •  Distribution lines—Main distribution lines move gas to industrial customers. Smaller distribution lines connect businesses and homes. Distribution lines usually are installed in underground utility easements along streets.
  • Gas pipeline commodities include natural gas, hydrogen gas, propane gas and synthetic gas. Almost all gas gathering lines are for natural gas. Distribution and transmission are mostly for natural gas, but include some propane and hydrogen.

 

Pipeline Mileage in the United States

Jurisdiction

Hazardous Liquid1

Gas Transmission

Gas Gathering

Gas Distribution2

Total

Total Gas Pipeline Mileage

Alabama

2,193

7,004

507

29,727

39,431

37,238

Alaska

1,168

833

73

2,929

5,003

3,835

Arizona

699

6,596

25

23,680

31,000

30,301

Arkansas

1,761

7,386

584

19,558

29,289

27,528

California

6,926

12,414

403

102,475

122,218

115,292

Colorado

2,690

8,093

621

33,754

45,158

42,468

Connecticut

85

584

0

7,591

8,260

8,175

Delaware

48

284

0

2,773

3,105

3,057

D.C.

4

20

0

1,192

1,216

1,212

Florida

471

4,843

0

25,017

30,331

29,860

Georgia

2,109

4,360

0

42,591

49,060

46,951

Hawaii

96

45

0

610

751

655

Idaho

659

1,533

0

7,737

9,929

9,270

Illinois

6,961

9,738

1

60,744

77,444

70,483

Indiana

3,470

5,101

12

39,586

48,169

44,699

Iowa

4,161

7,926

0

17,437

29,524

25,363

Kansas

9,476

14,692

194

21,933

46,295

36,819

Kentucky

903

7,089

543

16,881

25,416

24,513

Louisiana*

16,208

31,158

5,417

25,579

78,362

62,154

Maine

340

429

0

656

1,425

1,085

Maryland

369

921

0

14,179

15,469

15,100

Massachusetts

91

1,096

0

21,027

22,214

22,123

Michigan

2,879

9,303

337

55,096

67,615

64,736

Minnesota

3,876

5,468

0

29,369

38,713

34,837

Mississippi

4,235

10,866

107

15,459

30,667

26,432

Missouri

4,936

4,605

0

26,422

35,963

31,027

Montana

3,048

5,307

107

7,156

15,618

12,570

Nebraska

2,822

5,838

6

12,238

20,904

18,082

Nevada

209

1,708

0

9,548

11,465

11,256

New Hampshire

104

239

0

1,830

2,173

2,069

New Jersey

560

1,475

0

33,086

35,121

34,561

New Mexico

6,184

6,241

458

13,594

26,477

20,293

New York

1,070

4,341

534

47,331

53,276

52,206

North Carolina

1,123

3,858

0

27,906

32,887

31,764

North Dakota

1,931

2,132

2

2,898

6,963

5,032

Ohio

3,732

10,194

1,137

56,207

71,270

67,538

Oklahoma

10,610

12,772

976

24,439

48,797

38,187

Oregon

430

2,385

0

15,006

17,821

17,391

Pennsylvania

2,532

10,324

510

47,051

60,417

57,885

Rhode Island

17

95

0

3,124

3,236

3,219

South Carolina

808

2,631

0

19,884

23,323

22,515

South Dakota

521

1,655

0

4,371

6,547

6,026

Tennessee

1,135

4,832

0

36,712

42,679

41,544

Texas

56,375

66,918

6,659

92,333

222,285

165,910

Utah

1,509

3,621

5

15,968

21,103

19,594

Vermont

175

70

0

646

891

716

Virginia

1,128

2,950

10

20,127

24,215

23,087

Washington

796

1,946

0

21,464

24,206

23,410

West Virginia

171

3,941

608

10,309

15,029

14,858

Wisconsin

1,822

4,326

0

36,951

43,099

41,277

Wyoming

5,720

6,610

154

4,721

17,205

11,585

District of Columbia

4

20

0

1,192

1,216

1,212

Median

1168

4,360

1

19,884

26,477

24,513

Source: Office of Pipeline Safety, PHMSA Pipeline Safety Program (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, n.d.); http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/.

Notes:

1) Derived from the National Pipeline Mapping System by PHMSA (October 2010). Hazardous Liquids are liquids considered dangerous to human health or safety or the environment when used incorrectly. Petroleum (and petroleum products) or anhydrous ammonia are identified as hazardous liquids for pipeline safety regulations (49CFR 195.2)3.

2) Gas distribution service lines (which connect distribution lines to the end users) are not included in this mileage.



2 U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Program, Stakeholder Communications, Glossary (Washington, D.C.: U.S. DOT, n.d.); http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/glossary/index.htm?nocache=917#HazardousLiquid.

 3 U.S. Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Program, Stakeholder Communications, Glossary (Washington, D.C.: U.S. DOT, n.d.); http://primis.phmsa.dot.gov/comm/glossary/index.htm?nocache=917#HazardousLiquid.

March 2011 

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