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Renewable Portfolio Standards

State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Goals

Jocelyn Durkay 1/16/2014

 

States have been active in adopting or increasing renewable portfolio standards, and 29 states now have them. These standards require utilities to sell a specified percentage or amount of renewable electricity. The requirement can apply only to investor-owned utilities (IOUs) but many states also include municipalities and electric cooperatives (Munis and Co-ops), though their requirements are equivalent or lower.

Solar panels and windmillsIn many states, standards are measured by percentages of kilowatt hours of retail electric sales. Two states, however, require specific  amounts of renewable energy capacity rather than percentages. According to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 20 states and Washington, D.C., have percentage-based cost caps in their RPS bills to limit increases in ratepayers’ bills. One state caps RPS gross procurement costs.

Renewable energy policies help drive the nation’s $36 billion market for wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. These policies can be integral to many state efforts to diversify their energy mix, promote economic development and reduce emissions. Twenty-nine states, Washington, D.C., and two territories have adopted an RPS, while eight states and two territories have set renewable energy goals.

 

States and territories with Renewable Portfolio Standards States and territories with a voluntary renewable energy standard or target States and territories with no standard or target
 

 

Table: Renewable Portfolio Standards or Voluntary Targets

Note: States and territories listed in italics have voluntary renewable energy goals.

Requirements are listed for all utilities unless otherwise noted.

The box allows you to conduct a full text search or use the dropdown menu option to select a state.

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State

Title

Established

Requirement

Cost Cap

Details

Enabling Statute, Code or Order

Arizona

Renewable Energy Standard

2006

15% by 2025

None

Distributed Generation: 30% of annual requirement in 2012 and thereafter.

Ariz. Admin. Code §14-2-1801 et seq.

California

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2002

25% by 2015

33% by 2020

Determined by the California Public Utilities Commission

2013 amendment allows the California Public Utilities Commission to adopt additional requirements.

Cal. Public Utilities Code §399.11 et seq.;

Cal. Public Resources Code §25740 et seq.;

CA A 327 (2013)

Colorado

Renewable Energy Standard

2004

30% by 2020 (IOUs)

10% or 20% for municipalities and electric cooperatives, depending on size

2.0%

Distributed Generation: 3% of IOU retail sales by 2020, 1% of cooperative retail sales by 2020 (for those providing service to 10,000 or more meters) or 0.75% of cooperative retail sales by 2020 (for those providing service to less than 10,000 meters).

Colo. Rev. Stat. §40-2-124;

CO S 252 (2013)

Connecticut

Renewables Portfolio Standard

1998

27% by 2020

7.1%

Class I renewable energy sources (including distributed generation): 20% by 2020

Class I or II (biomass, waste-to-energy and certain hydropower projects): 3% by 2010

Class III (combined heat and power, waste heat recovery and conservation): 4% by 2010

Conn. Gen. Stat. §16-245a et seq.;

Conn. Gen. Stat. §16-1

Delaware

Renewables Energy Portfolio Standard

2005

25% by 2025-2026

3%; 1% (PV)

Photovoltaics: 3.5% requirement by 2025-2026.

Del. Code Ann. 26 §351 et seq.

Hawaii

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2001

25% by 2020

40% by 2030

None

 

Hawaii Rev. Stat. §269-91 et seq.

Illinois

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2001 (voluntary target);

2007 (standard)

25% by 2025-2016

1.3%

Distributed Generation: 1% of annual requirement beginning in 2015 for IOUs.

Wind: 75% of annual requirement for IOUs, 60% of annual requirement for alternative retail electric suppliers.
Photovoltaics: 6% of annual requirement beginning in 2015-2016.

Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 §688 (2001);

Ill. Rev. Stat. ch. 20 §3855/1-75 (2007)

Indiana

Clean Energy Portfolio Goal

2011

10% by 2025

 

30% of the goal may be met with clean coal technology, nuclear energy, combined heat and power systems, natural gas that displaces electricity from coal and other alternative fuels.

Ind. Code §8-1-37

Iowa

Alternative Energy Law

1983

105 MW of generating capacity for IOUs

No

 

Iowa Code §476.41 et seq.

Kansas

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard

2009

15% by 2015-2019

20% by 2020

Caps gross RPS procurement costs.

20% requirement for peak demand capacity

Kan Stat. Ann. §66-1256 et seq.

Maine

Renewables Portfolio Standard

1999

40% by 2017

6.1%

Includes a 10% requirement by 2017 for Class I (new) sources.

The state also has separate goals for wind energy:

2,000 MW of installed capacity by 2015; 3,000 MW of installed capacity by 2020, including offshore or coastal; and

8,000 MW of installed capacity by 2030, including 5,000 MW from offshore and coastal.

Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 35-A §3210 et seq.;

Me. Rev. Stat. Ann. 35-A §3401 et seq. (wind energy)

Maryland

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard

2004

20% by 2022

6.5%

Solar: 2% by 2020.

Offshore wind: 2.5% maximum by 2017 (Maryland Public Service Commission rule pending)

Md. Public Utilities Code Ann. §7-701 et seq.

Massachusetts

Renewable Portfolio Standard

1997

Class I: 15% by 2020 and an additional 1% each year after
Class II: 7.1% by 2009

8%

Photovoltaic: 400 MW required.

Class I resources are new sources.

Class II (resources in operation by 1997) requirement includes 3.6% renewable energy and 3.5% waste-to-energy.

Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. ch. 25A §11F

Michigan

Renewable Energy Standard

2008

10% by 2015

3.1%

The state’s largest two utilities have additional requirements beyond the 10% statewide requirement.

Mich. Comp. Laws §460.1001 et seq.

Minnesota

Renewables Energy Standard

2007

26.5% by 2025 (IOUs)

25% by 2025 (other utilities)

None

Xcel Energy has a separate requirement of 31.5% by 2020.

Solar: 1.5% by 2020 (other IOUs); Statewide goal of 10% by 2030.

Minn. Stat. §216B.1691

Missouri

Renewable Electricity Standard

2007

15% by 2021 (IOUs)

1%

Solar-Electric: 2% carve-out.

Mo. Rev. Stat. §393.1020

Montana

Renewable Resource Standard

2005

15% by 2015

0.1%

 

Mont. Code Ann. §69-3-2001 et seq.

Nevada

Energy Portfolio Standard

1997

25% by 2025

None

Solar: 5% of annual requirement through 2015, 6% for 2016-2025.

Nev. Rev. Stat. §704.7801 et seq.

New Hampshire

Electric Renewable Portfolio Standard

2007

24.8% by 2025

7.3%

Solar: 0.3% by 2014.

Requires at least 15% of requirement to be met with new renewables.

N.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. §362-F

New Jersey

Renewables Portfolio Standard

1999

24.5% by 2020

12.6%

20.38% Class I or Class II (resource recovery or hydropower) renewables by 2020-2021.

4.1% solar-electric by 2027-2028.

Offshore wind: 1,100 MW.

N.J. Rev. Stat. §48:3-49 et seq.

New Mexico

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2002

20% by 2020 (IOUs)

10% by 2020 (co-ops)

3.5%

Solar: 20% by 2020 (IOUs).
Wind: 30% by 2020 (IOUs).
Other renewables including geothermal, biomass and certain hydro facilities: 5% by 2020 (IOUs).
Distributed Generation: 3% by 2020 (IOUs).

N.M. Stat. Ann. §62-15;

N.M. Stat. Ann. §62-16

New York

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2004

29% by 2015

1.7%

Distributed Generation: 8.4% of annual incremental requirement.

NY PSC Order Case 03-E-0188

North Carolina

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standard

2007

12.5% by 2021 (IOUs)

10% by 2018 (munis and coops)

1.4%

Solar: 0.2% by 2018.
Swine Waste: 0.2% by 2018.
Poultry Waste: 900,000 MWh by 2015.

N.C. Gen. Stat. §62-133.8

North Dakota

Renewable and Recycled Energy Objective

2007

10% by 2015

 

 

N.D. Cent. Code §49-02-24 et seq.

Ohio

Alternative Energy Resource Standard

2008

25% by 2024

 

Senate Bill 310 (2014) creates a two-year freeze on the state's standard while a panel studies the costs and benefits of the requirement.

1.8%

12.5% Renewable Energy Resources by 2024.
12.5% Advanced Energy Resources by 2025 (advanced energy resources includes co-generation, advanced nuclear power and clean coal).

Solar: 0.5% by 2024 included in the renewable requirement.

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. §4928.64 et seq.

Oklahoma

Renewable Energy Goal

 

2010

15% by 2015

 

 

Okla. Stat. tit. 17 §801.1 et seq.

Oregon

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2007

25% by 2025 (utilities with 3% or more of the state’s load)

10% by 2025 (utilities with 1.5% - 3% of the state's load)

5% by 2025 (utilities with less than 1.5% of the state’s load)

4%

Photovoltaics: 20 MW by 2020 (IOUs).

Or. Rev. Stat. §469a

Pennsylvania

Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard

2004

18% by 2020-2021

None

Tier I: 8% by 2020-2021 (includes photovoltaic).
Tier II (includes waste coal, distributed generation, large-scale hydropower and municipal solid waste, among other technologies): 10% by 2020-2021.
Photovoltaic: 0.5% by 2020-2021.

Pa. Cons. Stat. tit. 73 §1648.1 et seq.;

Pa. Cons. Stat. tit. 66 §2814

Rhode Island

Renewable Energy Standard

2004

16% by 2019

9.5%

The state has a separate long-term contracting standard for renewable energy, which requires electric distribution companies to establish long-term contracts with new renewable energy facilities.

R.I. Gen. Laws §39-26-1 et seq.;

R.I. Gen. Laws §39-26.1 et seq. (contracting standard)

South Dakota

Renewable, Recycled and Conserved Energy Objective

2008

10% by 2015

 

 

S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §49-34A-94;

S.D. Codified Laws Ann. §49-34A-101 et seq.

Texas

Renewable Generation Requirement

1999

5,880 MW by 2015

10,000 MW by 2025 (goal)

3.1%

Non-wind: 500 MW (goal).

 

Tex. Utilities Code Ann. §39.904

Utah

Renewables Portfolio Goal

2008

20% by 2025

 

 

Utah Code Ann. §54-17-101 et seq.;

Utah Code Ann. §10-19-101 et seq.

Vermont

Sustainably Priced Energy Enterprise Development (SPEED) Goals

2005

20% by 2017

 

 

Vt. Stat. Ann. tit. 30 §8001 et seq.

Virginia

Voluntary Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal

2007

12% by 2022 (IOUs)

15% by 2025 (IOUs)

 

 

Va. Code §56-585.2

Washington

Renewable Energy Standard

2006

9% by 2016

15% by 2020

4%

Standard is applicable to all utilities that serve more than 25,000 customers.

Requirement also includes all cost-effective conservation.

Wash. Rev. Code §19.285;

Wash. Admin. Code §480-109;

Wash Admin. Code §194-37

West Virginia

Alternative and Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard

2009

10% from 2015-2019

15% from 2020-2024

25% by 2025

 

Goal is applicable to IOUs that serve more than 30,000 residential customers.

Goal includes alternative energy sources, including coal technology, coal bed methane, natural gas, combined cycle technologies, waste coal and pumped storage hydroelectric projects.

W. Va. Code §24-2F

Wisconsin

Renewable Portfolio Standard

1998

10% by 2015

None

Standard varies by utility:

2011-2014: utilities may not decrease its renewable energy percentage below 2010 percentages.

2015: utilities must increase renewable energy percentages by at least 6% above their 2001-2003 average.

Utilities may not decrease their renewable energy percentage after 2015.

Wisc. Stat. §196.378

Washington, D.C.

Renewable Portfolio Standard

2005

20% by 2020

7.6%

Solar: 2.5% by 2023.

D.C. Code §34-1431 et seq.

Guam

Renewable Energy Portfolio Goal

2008

25% by 2035

 

Goal applies to net electricity sales.

Guam Public Law §29-62

Northern Mariana Islands

Renewables Portfolio Standard

2007

80% by 2015

Data unavailable

Requirement applies to net electricity sales. Requirement allows for non-compliance if it is not cost-effective.

N. M. I. Public Law §15-23

Puerto Rico

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard

2010

20% by 2035

Data unavailable

Requirement does not take effect until 2015.

PR S 1519 (2010);

PR H 2610 (2010)

U.S. Virgin Islands

Renewables Portfolio Targets

2009

20% by 2015 25% by 2020 30% by 2025

 

Goal applies to peak demand generating capacity.

Goal will increase until a majority of capacity is from renewable or alternative energy.

VI B 9 (2009)

Sources:

Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency, Renewable Portfolio Standards. (Raleigh, N.C. State University, 2013).
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
National Conference of State Legislatures, 2013.

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