Voter Identification Requirements | Voter ID Laws

Wendy Underhill 1/17/2019

Please Note:  The following information is provided for background information only. NCSL is unable to assist in or offer advice on specific individual voter ID needs. We recommend that anyone interested in obtaining specific information on state voter ID requirements contact election officials in the jurisdiction where the person wishes to register and vote. To find contact information for your local election official click here.

Introduction

voter with drivers licenseIntroduction: A total of 35 states have laws requesting or requiring voters to show some form of identification at the polls, all of which are in force in 2019. Scroll over the map below for state-by state details.

The remaining 15 states use other methods to verify the identity of voters. Most frequently, other identifying information provided at the polling place, such as a signature, is checked against information on file. See NCSL’s Voter Verification Without ID Documents.

Please note that the information contained on this page contains information on the current, in-effect laws. A chronology of voter ID legislation since 2000 can also be found on NCSL's History of Voter ID page. 

Proponents see increasing requirements for identification as a way to prevent in-person voter impersonation and increase public confidence in the election process. Opponents say there is little fraud of this kind, and the burden on voters unduly restricts the right to vote and imposes unnecessary costs and administrative burdens on elections administrators.

See State-by-State In-Effect Voter ID Requirements (Table Two, far below) for citations and details on what IDs are accepted and what happens when a voter does not have ID.

 

Voter Identification Laws in Effect in 2019

         
Strict Photo ID Strict Non-Photo ID Photo ID requested ID requested; photo not required No document required to vote

Variations in Voter Identification Laws

Voter ID laws can be categorized in two ways. First, the laws can be sorted by whether the state asks for a photo ID or whether it accepts IDs without a photo as well. Second, the laws can be divided by what actions are available for voters who do not have ID. These two categorization schemes can and do overlap.

Photo vs. non-photo identification: Some states request or require voters to show an identification document that has a photo on it, such as a driver’s license, state-issued identification card, military ID, tribal ID, and many other forms of ID. Other states accept non-photo identification such as a bank statement with name and address or other document that does not necessarily have a photo. Using this categorization for laws that are in effect in 2019, 17 states ask for a photo ID and 17 states also accept non-photo IDs. (To see this difference, look at the columns in Table One.)

Procedures for when a voter does not have identification: If a voter fails to show the ID that is asked for by law, states provide alternatives. These laws fit two categories, non-strict and strict. (To see this difference, look at the rows in Table One.)

  • Non-strict: At least some voters without acceptable identification have an option to cast a ballot that will be counted without further action on the part of the voter. For instance, a voter may sign an affidavit of identity, or poll workers may be permitted to vouch for the voter. In some of the “non-strict” states (Colorado, Florida, Montana, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Utah and Vermont), voters who do not show required identification may vote on a provisional ballot. After the close of Election Day, election officials will determine (via a signature check or other verification) whether the voter was eligible and registered, and therefore whether the provisional ballot should be counted. No action on the part of the voter is required. In New Hampshire, election officials will send a letter to anyone who signed a challenged voter affidavit because they did not show an ID, and these voters must return the mailing, confirming that they are indeed in residence as indicated on the affidavit.
  • Strict: Voters without acceptable identification must vote on a provisional ballot and also take additional steps after Election Day for it to be counted. For instance, the voter may be required to return to an election office within a few days after the election and present an acceptable ID to have the provisional ballot counted. If the voter does not come back to show ID, the provisional ballot is not counted.

See State-by-State Details on In-Effect Voter ID Requirements (Table 2, far below) for specifics.

Table 1: Voter Identification Laws In Force in 2019**

 

Photo ID

Non-Photo ID

Strict

Georgia

Indiana
Kansas
Mississippi
Tennessee

Virginia

Wisconsin [6]

Arizona

North Dakota [7]
Ohio

Non-Strict

Arkansas[1]

Alabama[2]
Florida

Hawaii
Idaho
Louisiana
Michigan
Rhode Island
South Dakota

Alaska

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware

Iowa
Kentucky
Missouri
Montana
New Hampshire

North Carolina[5]

Oklahoma[3]
South Carolina[5]

Utah

Washington

West Virginia

** This table refers to laws that are in effect in 2019; Pennsylvania also has enacted a strict photo voter ID law, but it has been struck down by state court and is not in effect. North Carolina also enacted a photo voter ID law that has been struck down by the courts. Therefore, these states are not included in this chart of in-force laws.

[1] In 2017, the Arkansas legislature passed a new voter ID law that required verification of voter registration. Voters without ID can sign an affidavit attesting to being registered in the state, thus allowing their provisional ballot to be counted. The law was struck down by a district court in April 2018, but the state supreme court allowed the law to be in effect for the May 2018 primary. In October 2018, the Arkansas Supreme Court ruled that the law will remain in effect during the 2018 midterm election.

[2] Some might call Alabama’s law a strict photo identification law, because voters who don’t show a photo ID will generally be asked to cast a provisional ballot and then must bring the required ID to an election office by 5 p.m. on Friday after Election Day. However, there is an alternative: two election officials can sign sworn statements saying they know the voter.

[3] Some prefer to call Oklahoma a photo voter ID state, because most voters will show a photo ID before voting. However, Oklahoma law also permits a non-photo voter registration card issued by the appropriate county elections board to serve as proof of identity in lieu of photo ID.

[5] South Carolina and North Carolina have a photo ID requirement, but offer an alternative for people with a "reasonable impediment" to obtaining a photo ID. See details in Table 2, below.

[6] Wisconsin enacted in 2011 a strict photo voter ID law. It has been implemented, even as legal challenges have proceeded through the courts. In July 2016 a federal court ruled that the law was unconstitutional, and that an alternative to showing an ID, such as signing an affidavit attesting to identity, must be permitted. Then in August 2016 an appeals court ruled that the law could be implemented as long as the state keeps its pledge to provide temporary free IDs to those in need, and to publicize the law. Until the state says otherwise, NCSL will leave Wisconsin in the "strict photo voter ID" category.

[7]North Dakota enacted a voter ID law in 2013 and amended this law in 2015, then once again in 2017. The 2015 law was challenged in 2016 and the federal judge issued a temporary order that some sort of “fail-safe,” like an affidavit, be an option until such time as the court makes an official ruling on the challenge. This temporary order changed North Dakota to a non-strict state in 2016. In 2017, HB 1369 was enacted allowing voters who do not present an ID at the polls to cast a ballot that is set aside until the voter presents valid identification. This moved North Dakota once again into the strict non-photo ID category. There are some alternative options for voters without identification in special categories, though. See Table 2 below for details.   

News

  • In March 2019 North Carolina passed legislation that will delay the implementation of their new voter id provisions until 2020.
  • In November 2018 voters in two states, Arkansas and North Carolina, approved ballot measures to amend the state constitution to require photo voter identification.
  • On May 5, 2017 Iowa enacted HB 516, which establishes a non-strict non-photo ID requirement. It establishes five types of ID that are accepted (see Table 2 below for details) which all include a photo, but also includes a provision that requires the Secretary of State’s Office to provide existing active registered voters that do not have one of the valid types of ID with voter identification cards. Going forward, county auditors will provide newly registered voters who do not have a valid ID with voter identification cards.
  • On April 24, 2017 North Dakota enacted HB 1369, putting it once again into the strict non-photo ID category. The law permits those who do not bring ID to the polls to cast a ballot that is “set aside” until the voter presents valid ID. Valid ID must be presented before the Canvass, six days after the election. The bill also allows voters to present alternative documents, such as utility bills or bank statements, if the ID presented does not contain all required information. And, voters in special categories such as voters who live in long-term care facilities, voters with disabilities, and military voters may provide alternative forms of identification. In September 2018, the 8th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals put the district court order on hold. And, in October on 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to intervene in a challenge to the North Dakota voter identification law. The 2017 strict non-photo ID requirement is in place for the 2018 midterm election.
  • On March 24, 2017, Arkansas enacted HB 1047, which reinstituted a non-strict, photo voter ID requirement that goes into effect 90 days after passage. A judge had blocked the implementation of the law, but in May, the Arkansas Supreme Court stayed the ruling and allowed the law to be in effect while they considered the case. In October 2018, the Supreme Court further ruled that the law will remain in effect during the 2018 midterm election.
  • On March 24, 2017, Idaho enacted a bill adding a concealed carry weapon license as a form of acceptable ID.
  • On April 1, 2016, West Virginia enacted HB 4013, which creates a non-strict, non-photo voter ID requirement that goes into effect in 2018. The legislation also included the establishment of automatic voter registration.
  • In 2013 North Carolina passed a strict ID requirement, which was amended by the legislature in 2015 to fall into the non-strict category. Even so, the law was struck down by a federal court in July 2016, and the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the case in May 2017. For now, North Carolina does not require voters to show an identification document at the polls.
  • In July 2016 a federal court ruled that Wisconsin’s strict voter ID law was unconstitutional, and that an alternative to showing an ID, such as signing an affidavit attesting to identity, must be permitted. Then in August 2016 an appeals court ruled that the law could be implemented as long as the state keeps its pledge to provide temporary free IDs to those in need, and to publicize the law. Until the state says otherwise, NCSL will leave Wisconsin in the "strict photo voter ID" category.
  • A 2011 Texas strict photo ID laws has been in the courts since its passage. On April 10, 2017, a federal judge ruled, for the second time, that the law discriminated against minority voters. On June 2, 2017 SB 5 enacted non-strict, photo voter ID requirement. in Texas
  • NCSL's History of Voter ID webpage contains a chronology of voter ID legislation from 2000 to the present.

First Time Voters

In addition to the laws governing what identification all voters must show at the polls, first time voters may face additional requirements. The federal Help America Vote Act (section 15483(b)(2)(A)) mandates that all states require identification from first-time voters who register to vote by mail and have not provided verification of their identification at the time of registration. The act lists a "current and valid photo identification" or "a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter” as acceptable forms of ID.

Exceptions to Voter Identification Requirements

Most states with strict voter identification requirements make some exceptions.  Including exceptions from laws that both are and are not in place for 2016. These exceptions may include people who:

  • Have religious objections to being photographed (Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin)
  • Are indigent (Indiana, Tennessee)
  • “Have a reasonable impediment” to getting an ID (South Carolina)
  • Do not have an ID as a result of a recent natural disaster (Texas)
  • People who are victims of domestic abuse, sexual assault or stalking and have a "confidential listing" (Wisconsin)

Additionally, voter ID requirements generally apply to in-person voting, not to absentee ballots or mailed ballots.

All voters, regardless of the type of verification required by the states, are subject to perjury charges if they vote under false pretenses.

 

PLEASE NOTE: The information provided below and throughout this webpage should be used for general informational purposes and not as a legal reference. If you have questions regarding the voter ID requirements in your state, please contact your local election administrator.

The box allows you to conduct a full text search or type the state name.

Table 2: State-by-State Details of In-Effect Voter Identification Requirements
State Acceptable Forms of ID Voters Without ID

Alabama

§17-9-30

 

  • Valid Alabama driver's license or non-driver ID card
  • Valid photo voter ID card or other valid ID card issued by any state or the federal government , as long as it contains a photo
  • Valid U.S. passport
  • Valid government employee ID card with a photo
  • Valid student or employee ID card issued by a college or university in the state, provided it includes a photo
  • Valid U.S. military ID card containing a photo
  • Valid tribal ID card containing a photo

Vote a provisional ballot or vote a regular ballot if s/he is identified by two election officials as an eligible voter on the poll list, and both election workers sign a sworn affidavit so stating.

If voting a provisional ballot, the voter has until 5:00PM on the Friday after the election to bring the required ID

Alaska

§15.15.225

  • Official voter registration card
  • Driver's license
  • Birth certificate
  • Passport
  • Hunting or fishing license
  • Current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, government check or other government document with the voter’s name and address

An election official may waive the identification requirement if the election official knows the identity of the voter. A voter who cannot exhibit a required form of identification shall be allowed to vote a questioned ballot.

Arizona

§16-579(A)

 

  • Valid Arizona driver's license
  • Valid Arizona non-driver identification
  • Tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification
  • Valid U.S. federal, state or local government issued identification
  • Utility bill dated within 90 days of the election
  • Bank or credit union statement dated within 90 days of the election
  • Valid Arizona vehicle registration
  • Indian census card
  • Property tax statement
  • Vehicle insurance card
  • Recorder’s certificate

An elector who does not provide the required identification shall receive a provisional ballot.  Provisional ballots are counted only if the elector provides identification to the county recorder by 5 pm on the fifth business day after a general election that includes an election for federal office, or by 5 pm on the third business day after any other election.

Arkansas

Arkansas Constitution, Amendment 51, § 13;  Arkansas Code § 7-1-101

§ 7-5-201

§ 7-5-305 

§ 7-5-308

§ 7-5-324

§ 7-5-409

§ 7-5-412

 

A voter shall verify registration by presenting a document or identification card that:

 

  • Shows the name of the person to whom the document or identification card was issued.
  • Shows a photograph of the person to whom the document or identification card was issued.
  • Is issued by the United States, the State of Arkansas, or an accredited postsecondary educational institution in the State of Arkansas; and
  • If displaying an expiration date, is not expired or expired no more than four (4) years before the date of the election in which the voter seeks to vote; or
  • Submitting with an absentee ballot in an election, a runoff election, or a school election a copy of a document or identification card that complies with the requirements of subdivision (b)(1)(A)(i) of this section.

Documents and identification cards that comply with the requirements include without limitation:

 

  • Driver's license.
  • Photo identification card
  • Concealed handgun carry license
  • United States passport
  • Employee badge or identification document issued by an accredited postsecondary educational institution in the State of Arkansas
  • United States military identification document
  • Public assistance identification card if the card shows a photograph of the person to whom the document or identification card was issued
  • Voter verification card under § 7-5-324.

 

A document or identification card may be presented in a digital format on an electronic device if it complies with other requirements and has been approved or issues by the U.S., the state of Arkansas or an accredited post-secondary educational institution. 

A voter who did not present a required document or identification card may cast a provisional ballot accompanied by a sworn statement that the voter is registered to vote in the state and that he or she is the person registered to vote. The provisional ballot will be counted if: the county board of election commissioners does not determine that the provisional ballot is invalid and should not be counted based on other grounds; or the voter returns to the county board of election commissioners or the county clerk by 12:00 noon on the Monday following the election and presents a document or identification card that meets the requirements.

 

A provisional ballot cast by an absentee voter who failed to submit the required documentation with an absentee ballot shall be counted if: the voter completes and returns the sworn statement portion of the absentee ballot form stating that the voter is registered to vote in this state and that he or she is the person registered to vote; or the voter returns to the county board of election commissioners or the county clerk by 12:00 noon on the Monday following the election and presents a copy of a document or identification card that complies with the requirements of subdivision (b)(1)(A)(i) of this section; and the county board of election commissioners does not determine that the provisional ballot is invalid and should not be counted based on other grounds.

 

Colorado

§1-1-104(19.5) and 1-7-110

NOTE: Since the passage of HB 1303 in 2013, most CO voters now vote by mail. However, at least one location is open on Election Day for in-person voting, and the ID requirement spelled out here applies to those voters.

  • Colorado driver's license
  • CO Dept. of Revenue ID card
  • U.S. passport
  • Employee ID card with photo issued by the -U.S. government, CO state government, or political subdivision of CO
  • Pilot’s license
  • U.S. military ID with photo
  • Copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the elector
  • Medicare or Medicaid card
  • Certified copy of birth certificate
  • Certified documentation of naturalization

An eligible elector who is unable to produce identification may cast a provisional ballot.

The designated election official shall attempt to verify that an elector who cast a provisional ballot is eligible to vote. The designated election official or designee shall complete the preliminary verification of the elector's eligibility to vote before the ballot is counted. (§1-8.5-105)

Connecticut

§9-261

  • Social Security card
  • Any other preprinted form of identification which shows the elector's name and either the elector's address, signature or photograph

Elector shall, on a form prescribed by the Secretary of the State, write the elector's residential address and date of birth, print the elector's name and sign a statement under penalty of false statement that the elector is the elector whose name appears on the official checklist.

Delaware

Tit. 15, §4937

  • Photo ID
  • Utility bill
  • Paycheck
  • Any government document with voter’s name and address

In the event the voter does not have proof of identity with them, he or she shall sign an affidavit of affirmation that he or she is the person listed on the election district record.

Florida

§101.043

One of the following current and valid picture identifications:

 

  • Florida driver's license
  • Florida ID card issued by the Dept. of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles
  • U.S. passport
  • Debit or credit card
  • Military identification
  • Student identification
  • Retirement center identification
  • Neighborhood association ID
  • Public assistance identification
  • Veteran health identification card issued by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
  • A license to carry a concealed weapon or firearm 
  • Employee identification card issued by any branch, department, agency, or entity of the Federal Government, the state, a county, or a municipality.

 

If the picture identification does not contain the signature of the elector, an additional identification that provides the elector’s signature shall be required. 

If the elector fails to furnish the required picture identification with signature as required, the elector shall be allowed to vote a provisional ballot. The canvassing board shall determine the validity of the ballot by determining whether the elector is entitled to vote at the precinct where the ballot was cast and that the elector had not already cast a ballot in the election.

Florida uses signature matching: the voter signs the provisional ballot envelope. That signature is compared to the signature in the voter registration records. If they match, the ballot is counted.

 

Georgia

§21-2-417

  • Georgia driver’s license, even if expired
  • ID card issued by the state of Georgia or the federal government
  • Free voter ID card issued by the state or county
  • U.S. passport
  • Valid employee ID card containing a photograph from any branch, department, agency, or entity of the U.S. Government, Georgia, or any county, municipality, board, authority or other entity of this state
  • Valid U.S. military identification card
  • Valid tribal photo ID

A voter without one of the acceptable forms of photo identification can vote on a provisional ballot.  He or she will have up to three days after the election to present appropriate photo identification at the county registrar's office in order for the provisional ballot to be counted.

 

Hawaii

§11-136

Acceptable types of ID are not specified by law. Hawaii's office of elections provides this information: "Forms of acceptable identification include a valid photo ID (Drivers License, State ID, etc), a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, or other government issued document that shows your name and address."

If the voter has no identification, the voter will be asked to recite his/her date of birth and residence address to corroborate the information provided in the poll book.

Idaho

§34-1106(2), 34-1113, 34-1114

  • Idaho driver's license
  • Idaho ID card
  • Passport
  • ID card, including a photo, issued by an agency of the U.S. government
  • Tribal ID card, including a photograph
  • Student ID card, including a photograph, issued by a high school or accredited institution of higher education within the state of Idaho
  • Concealed carry weapon license

A voter may complete an affidavit in lieu of the personal identification. The affidavit shall be on a form prescribed by the secretary of state and shall require the voter to provide the voter's name and address. The voter shall sign the affidavit.  Any person who knowingly provides false, erroneous or inaccurate information on such affidavit shall be guilty of a felony.

Indiana

§3-5-2-40.5, 3-10-1-7.2 and 3-11-8-25.1

  • Specific forms of ID are not listed in statute. ID must be issued by the state of Indiana or the U.S. government and must show the following:
  • Name of individual to whom it was issued, which must conform to the individual's registration record
  • Photo of the person to whom it was issued
  • Expiration date (if it is expired, it must have an expiration date after the most recent general election; military IDs are exempted from the requirement that ID bear an expiration date)
  • Must be issued by the United States or the state of Indiana

Voters who are unable or decline to produce proof of identification may vote a provisional ballot. The ballot is counted only if (1) the voter returns to the election board by noon on the Monday after the election and: (A) produces proof of identification; or (B) executes an affidavit stating that the voter cannot obtain proof of identification, because the voter: (i) is indigent; or (ii) has a religious objection to being photographed; and (2) the voter has not been challenged or required to vote a provisional ballot for any other reason.

Iowa

Iowa Code 

§49.78, §48A.7A, §48A.10A, §49.81

 

 

  • Iowa driver’s license
  • Iowa nonoperator’s identification card
  • U.S. passport
  • U.S. military card
  • Veteran’s identification card
  • A current and signed voter identification card

Note: The Secretary of State’s Office is required to provide a voter identification card to all active registered voters who do not have one of the five forms of identification at the time of passage of the bill (HB 516 in 2017). Going forward, county auditors will be required to issue voter identification cards to newly registered voters who do not possess a valid form of ID, as prescribed by the Secretary of State’s Office.

 

In 2018, voters will be asked for ID and anyone who does not have necessary ID will be asked to sign an oath verifying their identity, and will be allowed to cast a regular ballot.

 

In 2019, voters without the necessary ID will be offered a provisional ballot and can provide ID up until the time of the county canvass of votes (Monday after election day).

A person who is registered to vote but is unable to present a form of identification listed may present any of the following:

a. A current voter identification card that contains the voter identification number if the voter identification card is signed before the voter presents the card to the election official.

b. Other forms of identification sufficient to establish identity and residence dates, or describe terms of residency current to, within forty-five days prior to presentation:

(a) Residential lease.

(b) Property tax statement.

(c) Utility bill.

(d) Bank statement.

(e) Paycheck.

(f) Government check.

(g) Other government document.

 

A person who is registered to vote but is unable to present a form of identification listed above, may establish identity and residency in the precinct by written oath of a person who is also registered to vote in the precinct. The attesting registered voter’s oath shall attest to the stated identity of the person wishing to vote and that the person is a current resident of the precinct. The oath must be signed by the attesting registered voter in the presence of the appropriate precinct election official. A registered voter who has signed two oaths on election day attesting to a person’s identity and residency as provided in this subsection is prohibited from signing any further oaths as provided in this subsection on that day.

 

If a voter cannot meet any of the above options, the voter may cast a provisional ballot.

Kansas

§25-2908, 25-1122, 25-3002, and 8-1324(g)(2)

The following forms of identification are valid if they contain the name and photograph of the voter and have not expired. Expired documents are valid if the bearer is aged 65 or older.

  • Driver's license issued by Kansas or another state
  • State identification card
  • Government-issued concealed carry handgun or weapon license
  • U.S. passport
  • Employee badge or identification document issued by a government office or agency
  • Military ID
  • Student ID issued by an accredited postsecondary institution in Kansas
  • Government-issued public assistance ID card

A voter who is unable or refuses to provide current and valid identification may vote a provisional ballot.

To have his or her ballot counted, the voter must provide a valid form of identification to the county election officer in person or provide a copy by mail or electronic means before the meeting of the county board of canvassers.

Kentucky

§117.227

  • Driver’s license
  • Social Security card
  • Credit card

When the officers of an election disagree as to the qualifications of a voter or if his right to vote is disputed by a challenger, the voter shall sign a written oath as to his qualifications before he is permitted to vote.

Louisiana

§18:562

  • Louisiana driver’s license
  • Louisiana special ID card
  • Military ID with photo
  • Other generally recognized picture identification

If the applicant does not have identification, s/he shall sign an affidavit to that effect before the commissioners, and the applicant shall provide further identification by presenting his current registration certificate, giving his date of birth or providing other information stated in the precinct register that is requested by the commissioners.  However, an applicant that is allowed to vote without the picture identification required by this Paragraph is subject to challenge as provided in R.S. 18:565.

Michigan

§168.523

  • Michigan driver's license
  • Michigan personal identification card

A voter who does not possess either of the above may show any of the following, as long as they are current:

  • Driver's license or personal identification card issued by another state
  • Federal or state government-issued photo ID
  • U.S. passport
  • Military ID with photo
  • Student ID with photo—from a high school or accredited institution of higher education
  • Tribal ID with photo

 

An individual who does not possess, or did not bring to the polls, photo ID, may sign an affidavit and vote a regular ballot.

Mississippi

§23-15-563
 

  • Driver's license
  • Photo ID card issued by a branch, department, or entity of the State of Mississippi
  • United States passport
  • Government employee ID card
  • Firearms license
  • Student photo ID issued by an accredited Mississippi university, college or community/junior college
  • United States military ID
  • Tribal photo ID
  • Any other photo ID issued by any branch, department, agency or entity of the United States government or any state government
  • Mississippi Voter Identification Card

An individual without ID can cast an affidavit ballot which will be counted if the individual returns to the appropriate circuit clerk within five days after the election and shows government-issued photo ID.

Voters with a religious objection to being photographed may vote an affidavit ballot, which will be counted if the voter returns to the appropriate circuit clerk within five days after the election and executes an affidavit that the religious exemption applies.

Missouri

§115-427

  • Identification issued by the federal government, state of Missouri, an agency of the state, or a local election authority;
  • Identification issued by Missouri  institution of higher education, including a university, college, vocational and technical school;
  • Copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, government check or other government document that contains the name and address of the voter;
  • Driver's license or state identification card issued by another state.

If an individual does not possess any of these forms of identification, s/he may still cast a ballot if two supervising election judges, one from each major political party, attest they know the person.

Montana

§13-13-114

  • Driver’s license
  • School district or postsecondary education photo identification
  • Tribal photo identification
  • Current utility bill, bank statement, paycheck, notice of confirmation of voter registration, government check, or other government document that shows the elector's name and current address

If the identification presented is insufficient to verify the elector's identity and eligibility to vote or if the elector's name does not appear in the precinct register, the elector may sign the precinct register and cast a provisional ballot.

Montana uses signature verification to verify the eligibility of provisional ballots. If the voter's signature on the provisional ballot affirmation matches the signature on the voter's registration record, the ballot is counted. (§13-15-107(2))

 

New Hampshire

§659:13

 

  • Driver's license from NH or any other state, regardless of expiration date
  • Photo ID card issued by the NH director of motor vehicles
  • Voter ID card issued under R.S. 260:21
  • U.S. armed services photo ID card
  • U.S. passport, regardless of expiration date
  • Valid student ID card
  • Any other valid photo ID issued by federal, state, county or municipal government
  • Any other photo ID that is determined to be legitimate by the supervisors of the checklist, the moderator, or the town or city clerk, provided that if any person authorized to challenge a voter under RSA 659:27 objects to the use of such photo identification, the voter shall be required to execute a qualified voter affidavit as if no identification was presented.
  • Verification of the voter’s identity by a moderator or supervisor of the checklist or clerk of a town, ward or city (not a ballot clerk). If any person authorized to challenge a voter does so under this provision, the voter shall be required to fill out a challenged voter affidavit before obtaining a ballot.

 

A person’s identity may be verified by a moderator or supervisor of the checklist or the town or city clerk, but if any person authorized to challenge a voter under RSA 659:27 objects to such verification, the voter shall be required to execute a challenged voter affidavit.

 

If a voter does not have a valid photo identification, the ballot clerk shall inform the voter that he or she may execute a challenged voter affidavit. Unless the voter has a religious objection to having his or her photo taken, the moderator will take his or her photo and affix it to the affidavit.The voter may then cast a regular ballot.

 

By Jan. 10 in odd numbered years or within 90 days after any other election, the secretary of state is required to mail a non-forwardable letter to each voter who executed a challenged voter affidavit, notifying the person that a person who did not present valid photo identification voted using his or her name and address and instruct the person to return the letter within 90 days with a written confirmation that the person voted or to contact the attorney general immediately if he or she did not vote. Any such letters returned as undeliverable must be turned over to the attorney general, who shall investigate for voter fraud. Notice from any voter receiving such a letter that s/he did not vote is also forwarded to the attorney general for investigation. The secretary must also turn over to the attorney general a list of all voters who fail to respond to the letter to confirm that they voted. See the New Hampshire Secretary of State's explanation for details.

North Carolina

§ 163A‑1145.1 NOTE: Implementation is delayed until 2020.

 

Any of the following that is valid and unexpired, or has been expired for one year or less and contain a photo:

  • North Carolina drivers license or nonoperator ID
  • Passport
  • North Carolina voter photo identification card
  • Tribal ID card
  • Student ID card issued by the University of North Carolina, a community college, or eligible private postsecondary institution
  • Employee ID card issued by a state or local government entity, including a charter school
  • Drivers license or nonoperator ID issued by another state, only if the voter’s registration was within 90 days of the election

Any of the following, regardless of whether the ID contains an expiration or issuance date (with photo):

  • Military ID card
  • Veterans ID card
  • Any expired form of ID allowed in this subsection presented by a registered voter who is 65 or older, provided the ID was unexpired on the voter’s 65th birthday
If a registered voter cannot produce the required ID, a provisional ballot is required. It is counted only if the voter brings an acceptable ID to the county board of elections no later than the day before the canvass. There are exceptions for a religious objection, a reasonable impediment, or natural disaster. In this case the voter has to fill out a Reasonable Impediment Declaration Form and affidavit. These are reviewed by the county board of elections and the provisional ballot is counted unless the county board has grounds to believe the affidavit is false. Reasonable impediments include: inability to obtain photo identification due to lack of transportation, disability or illness, lack of birth certificate or other underlying documents required, work schedule or family responsibilities; lost or stolen photo identification; photo identification applied for but not yet received by the registered voter voting in person; or other reasonable impediment. If the registered voter checks the "other reasonable impediment" box, a further brief written identification of the reasonable impediment shall be required, including the option to indicate that State or federal law prohibits listing the impediment.

North Dakota

§16.1-05-07

Identification must provide:

  • Legal name
  • Current residential street address in North Dakota
  • Date of birth

A valid form of identification is:

  • Driver’s license
  • ID card issues by the North Dakota department of transportation
  • ID issued by tribal government to a tribal member residing in the state

If an individual’s valid form of ID does not include the required information or the information is not current, the identification must be supplemented by one of the following that provides the missing or outdated information:

  • Current utility bill
  • Current bank statement
  • Check issued by a federal, state or local government
  • Paycheck
  • Document issued by a federal, state or local government

If an individual is not able to show a valid form of identification but asserts qualifications as an elector in the precinct in which the individual desires to vote, the individual may mark a ballot that must be securely set aside in a sealed envelope designed by the secretary of state. After the ballot is set aside, the individual may show a valid form of identification to either a polling place election board member if the individual returns to the polling place before the polls close, or to an employee of the office of the election official responsible for the administration of the election before the meeting of the canvassing board occurring on the sixth day after the election. Each ballot set aside under this subsection must be presented to the members of the canvassing board for proper inclusion or exclusion from the tally.

 

The following forms of identification are valid for individuals living under special circumstances who do not possess a valid form of identification:

-For an individual living in a long-term care facility, a long-term care certificate prescribed by the secretary of state and issued by a long-term care facility in this state;

-For a uniformed service member or immediate family member temporarily stationed away from the individual's residence in this state, or a resident of the state temporarily living outside the country, a current military identification card or passport; and

-For an individual living with a disability that prevents the individual from traveling away from the individual's home, the signature on an absentee or mail ballot application from another qualified elector who, by signing, certifies the applicant is a qualified elector.

Ohio

§3503.16(B)(1)(a) and 3505.18(A)(1)

  • Current and valid photo identification, defined as a document that shows the individual’s name and current address, includes a photograph, includes an expiration date that has not passed, and was issued by the U.S. government or the state of Ohio
  • Current utility bill
  • Current bank statement
  • Current government check, paycheck or other government document

A voter who has but declines to provide identification may cast a provisional ballot upon providing a social security number or the last four digits of a social security number. A voter who has neither identification nor a social security number may execute an affidavit to that effect and vote a provisional ballot. A voter who declines to sign the affidavit may still vote a provisional ballot.

Voters who cast a provisional ballot because they did not provide acceptable proof of identity must appear in person at the board of elections to provide such proof within the 10 days immediately following Election Day. (see the Ohio Secretary of State's FAQ on provisional voting)

Oklahoma

26 O.S. 7-114

"Proof of identity" shall mean a document that satisfies the following:

  • Shows a name that substantially conforms to the name in the precinct registry
  • Shows a photograph
  • Includes an expiration date that is after the date of the election
  • Was issued by the United States, state of Oklahoma, or a federally recognized Indian tribe or nation

A voter registration card issued by the appropriate county elections board may serve as proof of identity without meeting all of the above requirements.

A provisional ballot cast by a voter who declines or is unable to produce proof of identity shall only be considered verified and approved for counting if the voter's name, residence address, date of birth, and driver's license number or last four digits of social security number as provided on the affidavit match what is in the registration database.

Rhode Island

§17-19-24.2

A valid (unexpired or expired within the last 6 months) document showing a photo of the person to whom it was issued, including:

  • RI driver's license
  • RI voter identification card
  • U.S. passport
  • Identification card issued by a U.S. educational institution
  • U.S. military identification card
  • Identification card issued by the U.S. government or state of RI
  • Government-issued medical card

If the person claiming to be a registered and eligible voter is unable to provide proof of identity as required, the person shall be allowed to vote a provisional ballot pursuant to section 17-19-24.2. The local board shall determine the validity of the provisional ballot pursuant to section 17-19-24.3.

Summary of section 17-19-24.3: The local board shall examine each provisional ballot application to determine if the signature matches the signature on the voter's registration.  If the signatures match, the provisional ballot shall count.  If the signatures do not match, the ballot shall not count and shall be rejected as illegal.

South Carolina

§7-13-710

  • South Carolina driver's license
  • Photo ID card issued by the SC Dept. of Motor Vehicles
  • Passport
  • Military ID bearing a photo issued by the federal government
  • South Carolina voter registration card with a photo

Voters who have a reasonable impediment to obtaining photo ID may show a non-photo voter registration card in lieu of photo ID, sign an affidavit attesting to the impediment, and cast a provisional ballot.

From the State Election Commission's web site:

If you have a reasonable impediment to obtaining Photo ID, you may vote a provisional ballot after showing your non-photo voter registration card. A reasonable impediment is any valid reason, beyond your control, which created an obstacle to obtaining Photo ID. Some examples include:

  • Religious objection to being photographed
  • Disability or illness
  • Work schedule
  • Lack of transportation
  • Lack of birth certificate
  • Family responsibilities
  • Election within short time frame of implementation of Photo ID law (January 1, 2013)
  • Any other obstacle you find reasonable

To vote under the reasonable impediment exception:

  1. Present your current, non-photo registration card at the polling place
  2. Sign an affidavit stating why you could not obtain a Photo ID
  3. Cast a provisional ballot that will be counted unless the county election commission has reason to believe your affidavit is false.

If you do NOT have Photo ID and do NOT have a reasonable impediment to obtaining one, or you simply forgot to bring it with you to the polls, you may still vote a provisional ballot. However, for your vote to be counted, you must provide one of the Photo IDs to the county election commission prior to certification of the election (usually Thursday or Friday after the election).

South Dakota

§12-18-6.1 and 6.2

  • South Dakota driver’s license or nondriver identification card
  • U.S. passport
  • Photo ID issued by an agency of the U.S. government
  • Tribal ID card, including a photo
  • Student ID card, including a photo, issued by an accredited South Dakota school

If a voter is not able to present a form of personal identification as required, the voter may complete an affidavit in lieu of the personal identification.  The affidavit shall require the voter to provide his or her name and address. The voter shall sign the affidavit under penalty of perjury.

Tennessee

§2-7-112 (c)

 

 

  • TN driver’s license
  • Photo ID issued by the federal or Tennessee state government
  • Photo ID issued issued by TN Dept. of Safety
  • U.S. passport
  • U.S. military ID with photo
  • TN handgun carry permit with photo

If a voter is unable to present the proper evidence of identification, then the voter will be entitled to vote by provisional ballot in the manner detailed in the bill. The provisional ballot will only be counted if the voter provides the proper evidence of identification to the administrator of elections or the administrator's designee by the close of business on the second business day after the election.

However, "A voter who is indigent and unable to obtain proof of identification without payment of a fee or who has a religious objection to being photographed shall be required to execute an affidavit of identity on a form provided by the county election commission and then shall be allowed to vote." §2-7-112(f)

Texas

Election Code §63.001 et seq.

 

NOTE: The Texas voter ID law has been struck down in federal court. The information provided here is from the Texas Secretary of State’s Office, May 2017.

  • TX driver license or personal identification card issues by the Department of Public Safety (DPS)
  • TX Election Identification Certificate issued by DPS
  • TX license to carry a handgun issued by DPS
  • U.S. military identification card containing the person’s photograph
  • U.S. citizenship certificate containing the person’s photograph
  • U.S. passport

With the exception of the U.S. citizenship certificate, the identification must be current or have expired no more than four years before being presented for voter qualification at the polling place.

Voters who do not possess an acceptable form of photo ID and cannot obtain one of the forms of acceptable photo ID listed due to a reasonable impediment, may present a supporting form of ID and execute a Reasonable Impediment Declaration, noting the voter’s reasonable impediment to obtaining an acceptable form of ID.  

 

Supporting forms of ID that can be presented if the voter does not possess one of the forms of acceptable photo ID and cannot obtain one due to a reasonable impediment:

  • Valid voter registration certificate
  • Certified birth certificate (must be an original)
  • Copy of or original current utility bill
  • Copy of or original bank statement
  • Copy of or original government check
  • Copy of or original paycheck
  • Copy of or original government document with your name and an address (original required if it contains a photograph)

 

After presenting a supporting form of ID, the voter must execute a Reasonable Impediment Declaration.

 

If a voter possesses an acceptable form of photo ID but does not have it at the polling place, the voter will still be permitted to vote provisionally. The voter will have six (6) days to present an acceptable form of photo identification to the county voter registrar or the voter’s ballot will be rejected.

 

Voters with a disability who do not have an acceptable form of photo ID may also apply with the county voter registrar for a permanent exemption.

 

Voters who have a consistent religious objection to being photographed and voters who do not present any form of acceptable photo identification as a result of certain natural disasters as declared by the President of the United States or the Texas Governor, may vote a provisional ballot, appear at the voter registrar’s office within six (6) calendar days after election day, and sign an affidavit swearing to the religious objection or natural disaster, in order for your ballot to be counted.

Utah

§20A-1-102(83), 20A-3-104

 


 

  • Current valid UT driver's license
  • Current valid identification card issued by the state or federal government
  • UT concealed weapon permit
  • U.S. passport
  • Current valid U.S. military ID card
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs card
  • Tribal treaty card
  • Tribal ID card

OR

  • Two forms of ID that bear the name of the voter and provide evidence that the voter resides in the precinct

The voter may cast a provisional ballot as provided by §20A-3-105.5

§20A-4-107 states that a county clerk may verify the identity and residence of a voter who fails to provide valid voter identification "through some other means."

 

Virginia

§24.2-643(B)

 

 

  • Valid United States passport
  • Valid Virginia driver's license or ID card
  • Valid Virginia DMV issued Veteran’s ID card
  • Valid tribal enrollment or other tribal ID issued by one of 11 tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia
  • Valid student ID card from within Virginia if it includes a photo
  • Any other identification card issued by a government agency of the Commonwealth, one of its political subdivisions, or the United States
  • Employee identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by an employer of the voter in the ordinary course of the employer’s business

Any voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be offered a provisional ballot marked ID-ONLY that requires no follow-up action by the registrar or electoral board other than matching submitted identification documents from the voter for the electoral board to make a determination on whether to count the ballot. In order to have his or her ballot counted, the voter must submit a copy of one of the forms of identification to the electoral board by facsimile, electronic mail, in-person submission, or timely United States Postal Service or commercial mail delivery, to be received by the electoral board no later than noon on the third day after the election.

Washington

§29A.40.160(7)(a)

NOTE:  Most WA voters now vote by mail. However, county auditors are required to open at least one vote center where voters can cast a ballot in person, and the ID requirement spelled out here applies to those voters.

The identification must be valid photo identification, such as:

 

  • Driver's license
  • State identification card
  • Student identification card
  • Tribal identification card (not required to include a residential address or an expiration date)
  • Employer identification card

Any individual who desires to vote in person but cannot provide identification shall be issued a provisional ballot, which shall be accepted if the signature on the declaration matches the signature on the voter's registration record.

West Virginia

§3-1-34

 

 

  • West Virginia driver's license or ID car
  • Valid driver's license issued by another state
  • U.S. Passport
  • Valid employee identification card with photo issued by the U.S. Government or State of West Virginia
  • Valid student identification card issued by an institution of higher education in West Virginia or high school in West Virginia
  • Valid military identification card with photo issued by the United States
  • Valid concealed carry permit with a photograph
  • Valid Medicare or Social Security card
  • Valid birth certificate
  • Valid voter registration card issued by a county clerk in the State of West Virginia
  • Valid hunting or fishing license issued by the State of West Virginia
  • Valid identification card issued by the West Virginia Supplemental Nutrition Assistance program (SNAP)
  • Valid identification card issued by the West Virginia Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program (TANF)
  • Valid West Virginia Medicaid card
  • Valid bank or debit card
  • Valid utility bill issued within six months of the date of the election
  • Valid bank statement issued within six months of the date of the election
  • Valid health insurance card

OR

 

  • In lieu of providing a valid identifying document, a registered voter may be accompanied at the polling place by an adult known to the registered voter for at least six months. That adult may sign an affidavit on a form provided to clerks and poll workers by the Secretary of State, which states under oath or affirmation that the adult has known the registered voter for at least six months, and that in fact the registered voter is the same person who is present for the purpose of voting. For the affidavit to be considered valid, the adult shall present a valid identifying document with his or her name, address, and photograph.
  • A poll worker may allow a voter, whom the poll worker has known for at least six months, to vote without presenting a valid identifying document.

 

If the person desiring to vote is unable to furnish a valid identifying document, or if the poll clerk determines that the proof of identification presented by the voter does not qualify as a valid identifying document, the person desiring to vote shall be permitted to cast a provisional ballot after executing an affidavit affirming his or her identity.

 

The provisional ballot is entitled to be counted once the election authority verifies the identity of the individual by comparing that individual’s signature to the current signature on file with the election authority and determines that the individual was otherwise eligible to cast a ballot at the polling place where the ballot was cast.

Wisconsin

§5.02(6m) and 6.79(2)(a)

 

  • Wisconsin driver's license>
  • ID card issued by a U.S. uniformed service
  • Wisconsin non-driver ID
  • U.S. Passport
  • Certificate of naturalization issued not more than 2 years before the election
  • ID card issued by a federally recognized -Indian tribe in WI
  • Student ID card with a signature, an issue date, and an expiration date no later than 2 years after the election
  • Photo ID card provided by the Veteran's Health Administration

 

All of the above must include a photo and a name that conforms to the poll list.

 

If the ID presented is not proof of residence, the elector shall also present proof of residence.

An elector who appears to vote at a polling place and does not have statutory ID shall be offered the opportunity to vote a provisional ballot.

An elector who votes a provisional ballot may furnish statutory ID to the election inspectors before the polls close or to the municipal clerk no later than 4pm on the Friday following Election Day.

Additional Resources