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Voters in 46 states chose over 6,000 state legislators on Nov. 6, 2018. Click on the legislative control or state control tabs below to see election results. Analysis follows. 

Post-Election Legislative Control AK WA MT ND NH VT NY MI MN WI OH PA CT NJ RI MA NV OR ID WY SD IA IL IN MO NE HI CO TN AR KS UT CA DE MD WV KY FL SC TX DC AL MS LA OK AZ NC ME VA NM GA PR GU VI AS MP
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

State Map

Click on a state to see the partisan breakdown by chamber.

LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Alabama

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 77
D: 8 D: 28
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Alaska

SENATE HOUSE
R: 13 R: 23
D: 7 D: 16
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

American Samoa

SENATE
Nonpartisan: 18
HOUSE
Nonpartisan: 21
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Arizona

SENATE HOUSE
R: 17 R: 31
D: 13 D: 29
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Arkansas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 26 R: 75
D: 9 D: 25
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

California

SENATE HOUSE
R: 12 R: 23
D: 28 D: 57
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Colorado

SENATE HOUSE
R: 16 R: 24
D: 19 D: 41
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Connecticut

SENATE HOUSE
R: 12 R: 59
D: 24 D: 92
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Delaware

SENATE HOUSE
R: 9 R: 15
D: 12 D: 26
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Florida

SENATE HOUSE
R: 23 R: 73
D: 17 D: 47
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Georgia

SENATE HOUSE
R: 35 R: 106
D: 21 D: 74
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Guam

Unicameral
D:  10
R: 5
 
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Hawaii

SENATE HOUSE
R: 1 R: 5
D: 24 D: 46
I: 0 I: 0
V:  0 V:0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Idaho

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 56
D: 7 D: 14
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Illinois

SENATE HOUSE
R: 19 R: 44
D: 40 D: 74
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Indiana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 40 R: 67
D: 10 D: 33
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Iowa

SENATE HOUSE
R: 32 R: 54
D: 18 D: 46
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Kansas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 31 R: 85
D: 9 D: 40
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Kentucky

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 61
D: 10 D: 39
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Louisiana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 25 R: 62
D: 14 D: 39
I: 0 I: 3
V: 0 V: 1
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Maine

SENATE HOUSE
R: 14 R: 57
D: 21 D: 89
I: 0 I: 5
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Maryland

SENATE HOUSE
R: 15 R: 43
D: 32 D: 98
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Massachusetts

SENATE HOUSE
R: 6 R: 32
D: 34 D: 127
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Michigan

SENATE HOUSE
R: 22 R: 58
D: 16 D: 52
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Minnesota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 34 R: 59
D: 33 D: 75
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Mississippi

SENATE HOUSE
R: 33 R: 74
D: 19 D: 46
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 2
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Missouri

SENATE HOUSE
R: 24 R: 116
D: 10 D: 74
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Montana

SENATE HOUSE
R: 31 R: 58
D: 19 D: 42
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Northern Mariana Islands

SENATE
D: 0 R: 9
Other: 0
HOUSE
D: 0 R: 15
Other: 5
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Nebraska

Unicameral
49
 
 
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Nevada

SENATE HOUSE
R: 8 R: 13
D: 13 D: 29
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

New Hampshire

SENATE HOUSE
R: 10 R: 167
D: 14 D: 233
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

New York

SENATE HOUSE
R: 23 R: 43
D: 40 D: 107
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

New Jersey

SENATE HOUSE
R: 15 R 26
D: 25 D: 54
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

New Mexico

SENATE HOUSE
R: 16 R: 24
D: 26 D: 46
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

North Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 29 R: 65
D: 21 D: 55
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

North Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 37 R: 79
D: 10 D: 15
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Ohio

SENATE HOUSE
R: 25 R: 62
D: 8 D: 37
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Oklahoma

SENATE HOUSE
R: 39 R: 76
D: 9 D: 25
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Oregon

SENATE HOUSE
R: 12 R: 22
D: 18 D: 38
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Puerto Rico

SENATE HOUSE
NPP: 21 NPP: 34
PDP: 7 PDP: 16
Other: 2 Other: 1
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Rhode Island

SENATE HOUSE
R: 5 R: 9
D: 33 D: 66
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

South Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 80
D: 19 D: 44
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Pennsylvania

SENATE HOUSE
R: 29 R: 110
D: 21 D: 93
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

South Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R: 30 R: 59
D: 5 D: 11
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Tennessee

SENATE HOUSE
R: 28 R: 73
D: 5 D: 26
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Texas

SENATE HOUSE
R: 19 R: 83
D: 12 D: 67
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Utah

SENATE HOUSE
R: 23 R: 58
D: 6 D: 17
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Vermont

SENATE HOUSE
R: 6 R: 42
D: 24 D: 95
I: 0 I: 13
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Virginia

SENATE HOUSE
R: 21 R: 51
D: 19 D: 49
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Virgin Island

Unicameral
R: 0
D: 11
Other: 4
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

District of Columbia

Unicameral
D: 12
R: 0
Other: 1
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Washington

SENATE HOUSE
R: 21 R: 42
D: 28 D: 56
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

West Virgina

SENATE HOUSE
R: 20 R: 59
D: 14 D: 41
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Wisconsin

SENATE HOUSE
R: 19 R: 64
D: 14 D: 35
I: 0 I: 0
V: 0 V: 0
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Wyoming

SENATE HOUSE
R: 27 R: 50
D: 3 D: 9
I: 0 I: 1
V: 0 V: 0
 

 

2018 Legislative Election Results

When compared to past midterms, the changes for legislative partisan control in the 2018 midterms were modest, with fewer chamber flips than usual. Democrats made gains and yet Republicans continue to maintain a robust position in state legislatures. 

Six legislative chambers flipped from Republican to Democratic, including the Connecticut Senate that was tied before the election and is now Democratic. Some might say seven chambers flipped from Republican to Democratic, in that Democrats also took functional control of the New York Senate after years of Republican control under a coalition that included some Democrats. 

One state could be said to have flipped from D to R: the Alaska House. It has been controlled by a coalition of Democrats that includes some Republicans and now is controlled by the majority GOP. 

These changes are minor compared to the 2010 election, when Democrats lost 24 chambers. Notably, the shift of only six chambers (or eight, including the move away from the New York and Alaska coalitions) is well below the average chamber changes. On average, 12 chambers change party hands in every two-year election cycle back to 1900. 

  Republicans Democrats  
  Pre/post Election Pre/post Election Pre/post Election
Chambers (98 total) 65 / 61 31 / 37  tied: 2 / 0
Legislatures (49 total) 31 / 30  14 / 18 

divided:

4 / 1

State Control

(49 total, 1 undecided)

25 / 21  8 / 14 

divided: 

16 / 13

 

The big news is that Minnesota is now the only state in the nation where the legislature is divided—the Senate remains in Republican control, and the House flipped to the Democrats. The last time there was only one divided state legislature was over 100 years ago in 1914.

For questions about legislative control and state control, contact Tim Storey, John Mahoney or Wendy Underhill.

Post-Election State Control AK WA MT ND NH VT NY MI MN WI OH PA CT NJ RI MA NV OR ID WY SD IA IL IN MO NE HI CO TN AR KS UT CA DE MD WV KY FL SC TX DC AL MS LA OK AZ NC ME VA NM GA PR GU VI AS MP
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

State Map

Click on a state to see chamber and gubernatorial control.
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Alabama

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor: 
Kay Ivey (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Alaska

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Mike Dunleavy (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

American Samoa

UNICAMERAL  
Nonpartisan  
Governor: 
Lolo Moliga (I)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Arizona

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Doug Ducey (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Arkansas

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Asa Hutchinson (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

California

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Gavin Newsom (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Colorado

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Jared Polis (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Connecticut

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Ned Lamont (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

District of Columbia

Unicameral
D
 
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Delaware

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
John Carney (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Florida

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Ron DeSantis (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Georgia

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
 
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Guam

UNICAMERAL  
D  
Governor:
Leon Guerrero-Tenorio (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Hawaii

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
David Ige (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Idaho

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Brad Little (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Illinois

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
J.B. Pritzker (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Indiana

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Eric Holcomb (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Iowa

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Kim Reynolds (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Kansas

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Laura Kelly (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Kentucky

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Mark Bevin (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Louisiana

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
John Bel Edwards (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Maine

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Janet Mills (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Maryland

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Larry Hogan (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Massachusetts

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Charlie Baker (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Michigan

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Gretchen Whitmer (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Minnesota

SENATE HOUSE
R D
Governor:
Tim Walz (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Mississippi

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Phil Bryant (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Missouri

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Eric Greitens (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Montana

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Steve Bullock (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Nebraska

Unicameral
Non Partisan
Governor:
Pete Ricketts (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Nevada

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Steve Sisolak (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

New Hampshire

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
| Chris Sununu (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

New York

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Andrew Cuomo (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

New Jersey

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Phill Murphy (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

New Mexico

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Michelle Lujan Grisham (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

North Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Roy Cooper (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

North Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Doug Burgum (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Ohio

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Mike DeWine (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Oklahoma

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Kevin Stitt (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Oregon

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Kate Brown (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Pennsylvania

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Tom Wolf (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Puerto Rico

SENATE HOUSE
NPP NPP
Governor:
Richard Rossello (NPP)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Rhode Island

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Gina Raimondo (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

South Carolina

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Henry McMaster (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

South Dakota

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Kristi Noem (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Tennessee

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Bill Lee (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Texas

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Greg Abbott (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Utah

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Gary Herbert (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Vermont

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Phil Scott (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Virginia

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Ralph Northam (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Washington

SENATE HOUSE
D D
Governor:
Jay Inslee (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Virgin Islands

UNICAMERAL
D
Governor:
Kenneth Mapp (I)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Northern Marianas

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Ralph Torres (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

West Virgina

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Jim Justice (R)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan

Wisconsin

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Tony Evers (D)
LEGEND:
  Republican
  Democrat
  Split
  Nonpartisan
  Not decided

Wyoming

SENATE HOUSE
R R
Governor:
Mark Gordon (R)
 

State Control

By picking up seven governors' mansions, Democrats made major gains in state control. Now, Republicans hold all three power bases—House, Senate, governor—in 22 states; Democrats hold 14; 13 are divided. 

Prior to the election, state control was 26R, 7D, and 17 divided.

For questions about state control, contact Tim StoreyJohn Mahoney or Wendy Underhill.

StateVote Ballot Measures

 

For full details on the current crop of 2018 measures and for years previous, please keep checking back to our Statewide Ballot Measure Database.

Ballot Measure Database
Voters in 36 states will also decide on 155 statewide ballot measures (with 13 measures already decided on in earlier elections). Keep an eye on NCSL’s Statewide Ballot Measure Database for results and see analysis on ballot measures as they are decided on NCSL’s blog. Pre-election analysis is below.

 

As of early September 2018, voters have already weighed in on 11 statewide ballot measures, with nine passing and two failing. If those measures foretell November’s results, marijuana will be legalized in more states, redistricting reform will spread, Medicaid will be expanded, infrastructure will be supported and bond measures will stroll into enactment.

Given recent history, however, a citizen initiative has about a 50-50 chance of passage, while legislative referendums hold better odds, at 3-1. But it’s too early to tell just how many measures will end up on ballots this year, how likely any are to pass and what this year’s crop as a whole will mean for state policymaking.

Measures get on the ballot in one of two ways: through a citizen initiative—where citizens have an idea for a statutory or constitutional change, and they gather signatures to get it on the ballot—or through a referral to the ballot from the legislature.

Twenty-six states allow citizens to gather signatures and place measures onto the ballot, while about half of the state legislatures may place statutory laws before voters. In the case of constitutional amendments, almost every legislature must place them before voters, with Delaware the lone exception. For details on the initiative process, visit NCSL’s Initiative, Referendum and Recall webpage.

For the topics below, “LR” refers to legislatively referred measures, “CI” to citizen initiatives, “BI” to bond initiatives and “PR” to popular referendums. Indirect citizen initiatives are listed as “CI.”

So far, many of the usual topics have landed on the ballot somewhere:

  • Bond issues in California (five BIs), Colorado (two BIs), Maine (four BIs), New Jersey (one BI), New Mexico (four BIs), Rhode Island (three BIs), and various tax measures in California (two LRs and two CIs), Colorado (two CIs), Florida (two LRs), Georgia (four LRs), Missouri (LR), Montana (LR and CI), Nevada (one LR and one CI), North Carolina (LR), Oklahoma (two LRs), Oregon (two CIs and 1 PR), South Dakota (CI),  Utah (three LRs), Virginia (two LRs) and Washington (CI).
  • Infrastructure, transportation and energy issues (not counting bonds above) in Arizona (CI), California (two LRs and one CI), Colorado (four CIs), Connecticut (LR), Florida (commission referral), Georgia (two LRs), Louisiana (one LR), Massachusetts (CI), Nevada (two CIs), Oklahoma (LR), Utah (LR) and Washington (CI).
  • Gambling in Florida (CI), Idaho (CI), Maryland (LR) and Missouri (LR).
  • Public school funding in Arizona (PR), California (CI), Colorado (CI), Georgia (LR), Maryland (LR), Maryland (LR), New Jersey (BI), New Mexico (three BIs), Oklahoma (LR) and Rhode Island (BI).
  • Marijuana legalization in Michigan (CI), Oklahoma (CI), North Dakota (CI) and Utah (CI).
  • Crime victims bill of rights, also known as Marsy’s law, is at issue in Georgia (LR), Kentucky (LR), Nevada (LR), North Carolina (LR) and Oklahoma (LR), and a measure that revises a previously passed Marsy’s law amendment will appear in South Dakota (LR).
  • Expanded full Medicaid in Nebraska (CI), Idaho (CI) and Utah (CI) and expanding funding or removing a planned end date for Medicaid in Oregon (PR) and Montana (CI).
  • Minimum wage increases Arkansas (CI), District of Columbia (CI) and Missouri (CI).

Some rarer topics have made it onto statewide ballots:

  • Redistricting reform of congressional districts in Colorado (two LRs), Michigan (CI), Missouri (CI), Ohio (LR) and Utah (CI).
  • Election-related measures on the re-enfranchisement of convicted felons in Florida (CI).
  • Ranked-choice voting in Maine (PR).
  • Voter photo ID in Arkansas (LR) and North Carolina (LR).
  • Automatic voter registration in Nevada (CI).
  • Rules on collecting mail ballots that have been voted in Montana (LR).
  • Exemption from sales tax of feminine hygiene products in Nevada (LR).
  • Ethics and lobbying issues in Arizona (LR), Florida (commission referral), Missouri (CI), New Mexico (LR), North Carolina (LR), North Dakota (CI) and South Dakota (CI).
  • Making it more difficult to raise revenues in Arizona (CI), California (CI), Florida (LR), Oregon (CI) and North Carolina (LR), without including measures on grocery taxes.

And a few of the more hot-button issues are at hand, as well:

  • Amendments on restricting abortion rights in Alabama (LR), Oregon (CI) and West Virginia (LR).  
  • An amendment on placing the Ten Commandments on public property in Alabama (LR).
  • A referendum to overturn right-to-work legislation in Missouri (PR).
  • A school voucher referendum in Arizona (PR).
  • A referendum to repeal a law prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity in Massachusetts (PR).  
  • Payday lending regulation in Colorado (CI).
  • Two semi-competing measures on hydraulic fracturing mining in Colorado (two CIs).
  • Gun control or gun safety in Washington (CI).
  • Rules for police for use of force in Washington (CI).
  • Enforcement of federal immigration laws by local law enforcement in Oregon (CI).