Adults or Kids?

Pointer  Online Extra

April 2008

States have many ways to impose adult sanctions on juvenile offenders

State

Judicial Waiver:

Discretionary,

Presumptive or Mandatory

Concurrent Jurisdiction

Statutory

Exclusion

Reverse

Waiver

Once an Adult Always an Adult

Juvenile Blended Sentencing

Criminal Blended Sentencing

Alabama

Discretionary

 

    Yes

 

  Yes

 

 

Alaska

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

    Yes

 

 

      Yes

 

Arizona

Discretionary

         Yes

    Yes

     Yes

   Yes

 

 

Arkansas

Discretionary

         Yes

     

     Yes

 

      Yes

       Yes

Cal.

Discretionary, Presumptive

         Yes

    Yes

     Yes

   Yes 

 

       Yes

Colorado

Discretionary, Presumptive

         Yes

 

     Yes

 

      Yes

       Yes

Conn.

Mandatory

 

    

     Yes

 

      Yes

 

Delaware

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

     Yes

     Yes

    Yes

 

 

DC

Discretionary, Presumptive

         Yes

 

 

    Yes

 

 

Florida

Discretionary

         Yes

      Yes

 

     Yes

 

       Yes

Georgia

Discretionary, Mandatory

         Yes

      Yes

     Yes

 

 

 

Hawaii

Discretionary

 

 

 

     Yes

 

 

Idaho

Discretionary

 

      Yes

 

     Yes

 

       Yes

Illinois

Discretionary, Presumptive, Mandatory

 

      Yes

      Yes

     Yes

       Yes

        

Indiana

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

      Yes

 

      Yes

 

      

Iowa

Discretionary

 

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

 

        Yes

Kansas

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

 

 

      Yes

        Yes

 

KY

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

 

      Yes

 

 

        Yes

LA

Discretionary, Mandatory

         Yes

       Yes

 

 

 

 

Maine

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

 

 

      Yes

 

 

MD

Discretionary

 

       Yes

      Yes

      Yes

 

 

Mass.

 

 

       Yes

 

 

        Yes

        Yes

Michigan

Discretionary

         Yes

 

 

      Yes

        Yes

        Yes

Minn.

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

       Yes

 

      Yes

        Yes

 

Miss.

Discretionary

 

       Yes

      Yes

      Yes

 

       

Missouri

Discretionary

 

 

 

       Yes

 

       Yes

Montana

 

        Yes

      Yes

      Yes

 

       Yes

 

Nebraska

 

       Yes

 

      Yes

 

 

        Yes

Nevada

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

      Yes

      Yes

     Yes

 

 

NH

Discretionary,  Presumptive

 

 

 

     Yes

 

 

New Jersey

Discretionary, Presumptive, Mandatory

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Mexico

 

 

      Yes

 

 

       Yes

       Yes

New York

 

 

     Yes

     Yes

 

 

 

North Carolina

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

 

 

    Yes

 

 

North Dakota

Discretionary, Presumptive, Mandatory

 

 

 

    Yes

 

 

Ohio

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

 

 

    Yes

      Yes

 

OK

Discretionary

        Yes

      Yes

     Yes

    Yes

 

      Yes

Oregon

Discretionary

 

     Yes

     Yes

    Yes

 

 

Penn.

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

     Yes

     Yes

    Yes

 

 

Rhode Island

Discretionary, Presumptive, Mandatory

 

 

 

    

    Yes

      

     Yes

 

South Carolina

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

      Yes

 

 

 

 

South Dakota

Discretionary

 

      Yes

      Yes

      Yes

 

 

Tenn.

Discretionary

 

 

      Yes

      Yes

 

 

Texas

Discretionary

 

 

 

      Yes

       Yes

 

Utah

Discretionary, Presumptive

 

      Yes

 

      Yes

 

 

Vermont

Discretionary

        Yes

      Yes

       Yes

 

        Yes

 

Virginia

Discretionary, Mandatory

        Yes

 

       Yes

      Yes

 

       Yes

Wash.

Discretionary

       

       Yes

 

      Yes

 

 

West Virginia

Discretionary, Mandatory

 

 

 

 

 

        Yes

WI

Discretionary

 

       Yes

       Yes

      Yes

 

         Yes

WY

Discretionary

        Yes

 

       Yes

 

 

 

Source: Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report.