Colorado Landlord and Tenant Duties
§ 38-12-503. Warranty of habitability
(1) In every rental agreement, the landlord is deemed to warrant that the residential premises is fit for human habitation.
(2) A landlord breaches the warranty of habitability set forth in subsection (1) of this section if:
(a) A residential premises is uninhabitable as described in section 38-12-505 or otherwise unfit for human habitation; and
(b) The residential premises is in a condition that is materially dangerous or hazardous to the tenant's life, health, or safety; and
(c) The landlord has received written notice of the condition described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this subsection (2) and failed to cure the problem within a reasonable time.
(3) When any condition described in subsection (2) of this section is caused by the misconduct of the tenant, a member of the tenant's household, a guest or invitee of the tenant, or a person under the tenant's direction or control, the condition shall not constitute a breach of the warranty of habitability. It shall not be misconduct by a victim of domestic violence or domestic abuse under this subsection (3) if the condition is the result of domestic violence or domestic abuse and the landlord has been given written notice and evidence of domestic violence or domestic abuse as described in section 38-12-402(2)(a).
(4) In response to the notice sent pursuant to paragraph (c) of subsection (2) of this section, a landlord may, in the landlord's discretion, move a tenant to a comparable unit after paying the reasonable costs, actually incurred, incident to the move.
(5) Except as set forth in this part 5, any agreement waiving or modifying the warranty of habitability shall be void as contrary to public policy.
(6) Nothing in this part 5 shall:
(a) Prevent a landlord from terminating a rental agreement as a result of a casualty or catastrophe to the dwelling unit without further liability to the landlord or tenant; or
(b) Preclude a landlord from initiating an action for nonpayment of rent, breach of the rental agreement, violation of section 38-12-504, or as provided for under article 40 of title 13, C.R.S.
§ 38-12-505. Uninhabitable residential premises
(1) A residential premises is deemed uninhabitable if it substantially lacks any of the following characteristics:
(a) Waterproofing and weather protection of roof and exterior walls maintained in good working order, including unbroken windows and doors;
(b) Plumbing or gas facilities that conformed to applicable law in effect at the time of installation and that are maintained in good working order;
(c) Running water and reasonable amounts of hot water at all times furnished to appropriate fixtures and connected to a sewage disposal system approved under applicable law;
(d) Functioning heating facilities that conformed to applicable law at the time of installation and that are maintained in good working order;
(e) Electrical lighting, with wiring and electrical equipment that conformed to applicable law at the time of installation, maintained in good working order;
(f) Common areas and areas under the control of the landlord that are kept reasonably clean, sanitary, and free from all accumulations of debris, filth, rubbish, and garbage and that have appropriate extermination in response to the infestation of rodents or vermin;
(g) Appropriate extermination in response to the infestation of rodents or vermin throughout a residential premises;
(h) An adequate number of appropriate exterior receptacles for garbage and rubbish, in good repair;
(i) Floors, stairways, and railings maintained in good repair;
(j) Locks on all exterior doors and locks or security devices on windows designed to be opened that are maintained in good working order; or
(k) Compliance with all applicable building, housing, and health codes, which, if violated, would constitute a condition that is dangerous or hazardous to a tenant's life, health, or safety.
(2) No deficiency in the common area shall render a residential premises uninhabitable as set forth in subsection (1) of this section, unless it materially and substantially limits the tenant's use of his or her dwelling unit.
(3) Unless otherwise stated in section 38-12-506, prior to being leased to a tenant, a residential premises must comply with the requirements set forth in section 38-12-503(1), (2)(a), and (2)(b).
§ 38-12-504. Tenant's maintenance of premises
(1) In addition to any duties imposed upon a tenant by a rental agreement, every tenant of a residential premises has a duty to use that portion of the premises within the tenant's control in a reasonably clean and safe manner. A tenant fails to maintain the premises in a reasonably clean and safe manner when the tenant substantially fails to:
(a) Comply with obligations imposed upon tenants by applicable provisions of building, health, and housing codes materially affecting health and safety;
(b) Keep the dwelling unit reasonably clean, safe, and sanitary as permitted by the conditions of the unit;
(c) Dispose of ashes, garbage, rubbish, and other waste from the dwelling unit in a clean, safe, sanitary, and legally compliant manner;
(d) Use in a reasonable manner all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, elevators, and other facilities and appliances in the dwelling unit;
(e) Conduct himself or herself and require other persons in the residential premises within the tenant's control to conduct themselves in a manner that does not disturb their neighbors' peaceful enjoyment of the neighbors' dwelling unit; or
(f) Promptly notify the landlord if the residential premises is uninhabitable as defined in section 38-12-505 or if there is a condition that could result in the premises becoming uninhabitable if not remedied.
(2) In addition to the duties set forth in subsection (1) of this section, a tenant shall not knowingly, intentionally, deliberately, or negligently destroy, deface, damage, impair, or remove any part of the residential premises or knowingly permit any person within his or her control to do so.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize a modification of a landlord's obligations under the warranty of habitability.
§ 38-12-212.3. Responsibilities of landlord--acts prohibited
(1) (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, a landlord shall be responsible for and pay the cost of the maintenance and repair of:
(I) Any sewer lines, utility service lines, or related connections owned and provided by the landlord to the utility pedestal or pad space for a mobile home sited in the park; and
(II) Any accessory buildings or structures, including, but not limited to, sheds and carports, owned by the landlord and provided for the use of the residents; and
(III) The premises as defined in section 38-12-201.5(5).
(b) Any landlord who fails to maintain or repair the items delineated in paragraph (a) of this subsection
(1) shall be responsible for and pay the cost of repairing any damage to a mobile home which results from such failure.
(2) No landlord shall require a resident to assume the responsibilities outlined in subsection (1) of this section as a condition of tenancy in the mobile home park.
(3) Nothing in this section shall be construed as:
(a) Limiting the liability of a resident for the cost of repairing any damage caused by such resident to the landlord's property or other property located in the park; or
(b) Restricting a landlord or his agent or a property manager from requiring a resident to comply with reasonable rules and regulations or terms of the rental agreement and any covenants binding upon the landlord or resident, including covenants running with the land which pertain to the cleanliness of such resident's lot and routine lawn and yard maintenance, exclusive of major landscaping projects.
Return to Healthy Homes